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Middle Quenya Semantic Categories

1. Physical World

1.1 World

Ambar n. “Earth, World”

1.21 Earth, Land

kemna adj. “of earth, earthen”
kén n. “soil, earth”

1.213 Dust, Powder

asto n. “dust”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

aikale n. “peak”
aikasse n. “mountain peak”
aiqa adj. “steep”
am(ba)penda adj. “uphill”
ambo n. “hill”
ambon n. “upward slope, hill-side”
ampenda adj.
ampende n. “upward slope”
kumbe n. “mound, heap”

1.24 Dale, Valley

aksa n. “ravine, narrow path; edge”
kilya n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”

1.32 Sea

aire(n) n. “sea”
ear n. “sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin n. “pool, lake”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

etsir n. “mouth of a river”
kelma n. “channel”
kelume n. “stream, flow”

1.37 Spring, Well

ehtele n. “spring, issue of water”

1.52 Sun

ala n. “day”
Anar n. “Sun”
are n. “day”

1.54 Star

él n. “star”
elen n. “star”

1.61 Light

alka n. “ray of light”
kala n. “light”

1.99 Physical World (other)

karakse n. “jagged hedge of spikes”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Atan n. “Man”

2.35 Father

atar n. “father”
atto n. “father (hypocoristic)”

2.36 Mother

amil n. “mother”
amme n. “mother”

2.41 Son

yondo n. “son”

3. Animals

3.64 Bird

aiwe n. “(small) bird”
ambale n. “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’”
ammale n. “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’”
korko n. “crow”
kukua n. “dove”
oio n. “bird”

3.77 Elephant

andamunda n. “elephant”

3.85 Snake

ango n. “snake”

3.86 Swan

alqa n. “swan”

3.99 Animals (other)

angulóke n. “dragon”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.16 Bone

#as n. “bone”

4.19 Back

ekko n. “spine, point, thorn”

4.20 Head

kár n. “head”
kas¹ n. “head”

4.204 Face

anta n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

anka n. “jaw, row of teeth”

4.22 Ear

lár n. “ear”

4.27 Tooth

karka n. “tooth”
karkane n. “row of teeth”

4.332 Hand (other)

kambe n. “hollow (of hand)”

4.39 Nail, Claw

atsa n. “claw, catch, hook; tassel, fryse, fringe”

4.63 to Wake

kuivea adj. “wakening”
kuiv(i)e n. “awakening”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

kuile n. “life, being alive”
kuina adj. “alive”

4.83 Well; Health

al- v. “to thrive”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

engwa adj. “sickly”
kaila adj. and n. “lying in bed, bedridden; sickness”
kaimasse n. “lying in bed, sickness”
kaimassea adj. “bedridden, sick”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

asea n. “*healing herb”
asea aranaite n.

4.999 Body Parts and Functions (other)

erka n. “prickle, spine”

5. Food and Drink

5.26 Pot

kalpa n. “water-vessel, bucket”

5.61 Meat

apsa n. “meat, cooked food; juice”

5.71 Fruit

kuluma n. “orange (fruit)”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.73 Finger Ring

colma n. “ring (?on finger)”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.12 House

kar¹ n. “building, house”

7.21 Room

kaimasan n. “bedchamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando n. “gate, door”

7.28 Roof

koromindo n. “cupola, dome”

7.29 House (other)

ampano n. “building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice”
ataqe n. “construction, building”

7.42 Bed

kaima n. “bed”

7.45 Lamp

kalma n. “light, lamp”
kalumet n. “lamp”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.31 to Sow; Seed

alta- v. “to (make) grow”
erde¹ n. “seed, germ”
ola- v. “to grow”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

kirka n. “sickle”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alalme n. “elm-tree”
alda n. “tree”
aldarwa adj. “having trees, tree-grown”
lalme n. “elm-tree”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

earuile n. “seaweed”
erkasse n. “holly”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

kar- v. “to make, do, build”
kar² n. “deed”

9.22 to Cut

kirisse n. “slash, gash”

9.35 to Pour

kalpa- v. “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”

9.41 Craft, Trade

kurwe n. “craft”

9.46 to Bore

erka- v. “to prick”

9.54 Brick

ambal n. “shaped stone, flag”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”
angaina adj. “of iron”

9.71 Potter

kemnaro n. “potter”
kentano n. “potter”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.23 to Fall

atalta- v. “to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”

10.48 to Come

attul- v. “to come back, return”
#ettul- v. “*to come forth”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

vanya- v. “to go, depart, disappear”

10.81 Ship

kirya n. “ship, boat”

11. Possession and Trade

11.12 to Own, Possess

arwa adj. “possessing, having, in control of”

11.21 to Give

anna n. “gift”
anta- v. “to give”
ante n. “giver (f.)”
anto n. “giver (m.)”

11.41 Property

arma n. “piece of good”

11.48 Heir

aryon n. “heir, prince”

12. Spatial Relations

12.14 to Lie, Recline

kaita- v. “to lie”

12.37 Middle

enya adj. “middle”

12.38 Center

ende n. “centre, middle, core”

12.392 Out, Outside

ava adv. and adj. “outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
et prep. “out of”
et- pref. “forth, out”
etse n. “outside, exterior”
ette¹ n. “outside”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

am- pref. “up”
ama adv. “up”
amba adv. “up(wards)”

12.397 Beyond

enta pron. “that yonder, then (fut.)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to, towards”
ana- pref. “to, towards”
na prep. “to, towards”

12.44 Far (adj)

avahaira adj. “*far beyond, very remote”
ekkaira adj. “?out-far”
en adv. “there, yonder, far away; look yon(der); that; in that (future) case”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

kanta- v. “to shape”
kanta² n. and adj. “shape, frame; shaped”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

alat- pref. “large, great in size”
alta adj. “large, great in size”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long”
andavë adv.

12.62 Narrow

arka adj. “narrow”

12.75 Hook, Crook

ampa n. “hook, crook”

12.81 Round (adj)

korna adj. “round, globed”

12.82 Circle

korin n. “circular enclosure”

12.83 Sphere

koron n. “globe, ball”

12.85 Hole

assa n. “hole, perforation, opening, mouth”

13. Quantity and Number

13.22 Empty

kúma n. “void”
kumna adj. “empty”

13.31 Numerals

atta num. card. “two”
enqe num. card. “six”
kanta¹ num. card. “four”
tanta adj. “double”

13.33 Alone, Only

er adj. “one, alone”
eresse n. “solitude”
eressea adj. “lonely”
erya adj. “single, sole”

13.34 First

enna² adj. “first”
essea¹ adj. “?primary”

14. Time

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

alako n. “rush, rushing flight, wild wind”

14.35 Again

at(a)- pref. “back, again, re-”
ata adv. “again”

14.41 Day

alan n. “daytime”
arie n. “daytime”

14.43 Dawn

ambaróne n. “uprising, sunrise, Orient”
anaróre n. “sunrise”
artuile n. “dayspring, early morn”

14.44 Morning

arin n. “morning”
arinya adj. “morning, early”

14.462 Dusk

andúne n. “sunset”

14.49 Yesterday

enyáre adv. “in that day”

14.61 Week

lemnar n. “(Valarin five-day) week”

14.62 Sunday

Anarya n. “Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Aldarya n.

14.68 Saturday

Elenya n. “Saturday, Star-day*”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cermie n. “July”
Nólairë n. “July, *After-summer”

14.75 Spring

koire n. “Stirring”

15. Sense Perception

15.44 Sound (n)

eske n. “rustle, noise of leaves”

15.442 Phonetic

kalmatéma n. “k-series”

15.51 to See

#ken- v. “to see”
kénima adj. “able to be seen, visible”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

éle n. “star-ray, beam, flashing of [?starry] light”
kalta- v. “to (cause to) shine, light up, kindle (lamp etc.)”

15.57 Bright

kalima adj. “bright”
kalina adj. “light”
kalya- v. “to illuminate”

15.66 Red

aira² adj. “red, copper-coloured, ruddy”
karne adj. “red”
kulda adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red”
kulina adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red”
kullo n. “red gold”
kulo n. “flame”
kuluina adj. “orange (coloured); of gold, golden”

15.78 Sharp

aika adj. “sharp”

15.84 Dry, Arid

erume n. “desert”

16. Emotion

16.18 Good Fortune

alma n. “good fortune, weal, wealth”
almare n. “blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss”
almárea adj. “blessed”
almie n. “blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss”
alya adj. “rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed”

16.22 Joy

alasse n. “joy, merriment”

16.43 Rage, Fury

aha n. “rage”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alkar(e) n. “radiance, brilliance”
alkarinqa adj. “radiant, glorious”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

kanya adj. “bold; wise”

16.53 Fear, Fright

aista- v. “to dread”

16.99 Emotion (other)

faika adj. “contemptible, mean”

17. Mind and Thought

17.20 Imagination

aule n. “invention”
auta-² v. “to invent, originate, devise”

18. Language and Music

18.14 Various Cries

alla interj. “hail!”
é interj. “indeed”
nai interj. “alas”

18.24 Language

Eldarin adj. and n. “of the Elves, Elvish”

18.28 Name

esse¹ n. “name”

18.37 to Refuse

lala- v. “to deny”

18.42 to Call, Name

esta-¹ v. “to name”

18.51 to Write

amatikse n. “dot or point placed above the line of writing”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andatehta n. “long mark”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

araníe n. “kingship”

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “realm, region”
harda n.

19.32 King

aran¹ n. “*king”
haran n. “king, chieftain, lord or king of a specified region”

19.35 Prince

kundu n. “prince”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

kallo n. “noble man, hero”

19.44 Free (adj)

(a)ranya adj. “free”
mirima adj. “free”
ranya adj. “free”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

kotumo n. “enemy”
kotya adj. “hostile”
untamo n. “enemy”

19.55 Stranger

ettele n. “outer lands, foreign parts”
ettelea adj. “foreign”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

kosta- v. “to quarrel”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.20 Captain

káno n. “chief”

20.26 Spear

ehte n. “spear”
ehtyar n. “spearman”

20.33 Helmet

kassa n. “helmet”

20.35 Fortress

arta n. “fort, fortress”

21. Law and Judgment

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Eru n. “The One God”

22.13 Temple

yána n. “holy place, fane, sanctuary”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy”

22.33 Angel

Aini n. “holy one, angelic spirit (f.)”
Ainu n. “holy one, angelic spirit”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Elda n. “Elf”
Eldalie n. “People of the Elves, Elf-folk”

23. Grammar

23.3 Preposition

ara prep. “outside, beside”
au- pref. “without”
ava- pref. “without”

23.4 Pronoun

ette² pron. “he (emphatic)”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

an- pref. “intensive prefix”
un-/um- pref. “intensive prefix with evil sense”

23.8 Conjunction

ananta conj. “and yet, but yet”
ar conj. “and; but”

23.9 Affix

ar- pref. “outside, beside”