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Ancient Quenya Phonetics

Phonemes

  p-series t-series k-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [k]
voiced-stops [b] [d] [g]
voiced-spirants [β] [ð] [z] [ɣ] ‹ʒ›
voiceless-spirants [ɸ] [s] [θ] ‹þ› [h] [x] ‹χ›
nasals [m] [m̥] ‹hm› [n] [n̥] ‹hn› [ŋ] ‹ñ›
voiced-continuants [w] [l] [r] [ɾ] ‹ř› [j]
voiceless-continuants [w̥] ‹hw› [l̥] ‹hl› [r̥] ‹hr› [j̊] ‹hy›

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [u]
others [ø]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

aspirates became voiceless spirants [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]
aspirates before [n], [m] merged with voiceless stops [{ptk}ʰ{nm}] > [{ptk}{nm}]
aspirates in contact with [s] merged with voiceless stops [s{ptk}ʰ|{ptk}ʰs] > [s{ptk}|{ptk}s]
aspirates in contact with voiceless stops merged with voiceless stops [{ptk}{ptk}ʰ] > [{ptk}{ptk}]
combinations of voiced stops were unvoiced [{bdg}{bdg}|zd] > [{ptk}{ptk}|st]
[ɣ], [x] assimilated to following [j], [w] [ɣj|ɣw|xj|xw] > [ij|uw|j̊|w̥]
initial [d] assimilated to following [n] [dVXn-] > [nVXn-]
initial [d-] became [l-] [d-] > [l-]
initial [dr-], [dl-] became [r-], [l-] [dr-|dl-] > [r-|l-]
initial [ɣ] before [l], [r] sometimes became a vowel [ɣ{rl}V₁-] > [V₁{rl}V₁-]
initial nasals plus voiced stops reduced to nasals [mb-|nd-|ŋg-] > [m-|n-|ŋ-]
initial [s] plus continuant became voiceless continuant [sm-|sn-|sr-|sl-|sj-|sw-] > [m̥-|n̥-|r̥-|l̥-|j̊-|w̥-]
initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants [sp-|st-|sk-] > [ɸ-|θ-|x-]
initial voiced stops became spirants [{bdg}-] > [{βðɣ}-]
intervocalic [ð] became [ɾ] [Vð{Vw}] > [Vɾ{Vw}]
[j], [w] often became [i], [u] [{jw}C|-C{jw}|CC{jw}|C{td}j|C{kg}w] > [{iu}C|-C{iu}|CC{iu}|C{td}j|C{kg}w]
[ln] became [ld] [ln] > [ld]
long dynamic voiceless stops became unvoiced [bb|dd|gg] > [pp|tt|kk]
long final vowels were shortened [-SV̄] > [-SV̆]
[m] assimilated to following stop, aspirate or [s] [m{ttʰds}|m{kkʰg}] > [n{ttʰds}|ŋ{kkʰg}]
medial [dj] became [lj] [-dj-] > [-lj-]
medial voiced stops became spirants except after nasals [-{bdg}-|{mnŋ}{bdg}] > [-{βðɣ}-|{mnŋ}{bdg}]
[mw] became [nw] [mw] > [nw]
nasals before aspirates became voiceless stops [mpʰ|ntʰ|ŋkʰ] > [ppʰ|ttʰ|kkʰ]
[nl], [nr] became [ll], [rr] [nl|nr] > [ll|rr]
[n], [m] after voiceless stops became [t], [w̥] [{ptk}{nm}] > [{ptk}{tw̥}]
[nm] became [mm] [nm] > [mm]
[ns] became [ss] [ns] > [ss]
[r] after consonant cluster developed a preceding [a] [CCør] > [CCar]
[r] after voiceless stop or aspirate became [s] [{ptkpʰtʰkʰ}r] > [{ptkpʰtʰkʰ}s]
[rl] and [lr] became [ll] [rl|lr] > [ll|ll]
[s] medially between vowels and before voiced consonants became [z] [Vs{Vmnrljw}] > [Vz{Vmnrljw}]
spirants after [r], [l] became stops [{rl}{ɸθxð}] > [{rl}{ptkd}]
[sr] became [ss] [sr] > [ss]
syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality [ṃb-|ṇd-|ŋ̣g-|ŋ̣gw-|ŋ̣gj-] > [umb-|and-|iŋg-|uŋgw-|iŋgj-]
velars were dentalized before [j] [{kgŋ}j|ŋkj|ŋgj] > [{tdn}j|ntj|ndj]
voiced stops before nasals became nasals [{bdg}{mnŋ}] > [{mnŋ}{mnŋ}]
[w] initially and between vowels became [β] [w-|VwV] > [β-|VβV]
[z] and [ð] assimilated to following [r], [l] [{zð}r|{zð}l] > [rr|ll]
[z] became [ɾ] [z] > [ɾ]
[z] plus voiced stop became unvoiced [z{bdg}] > [s{ptk}]
[β] became [u] before voiced continuants [β{rlwj}] > [u{rlwj}]

Other

medial-groups
metathesis
phonetics
[pm], [pn] and [kn] often became [mp] and [ŋk]