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Early Quenya Phonetics

Phonemes

  p-series t-series ty-series k-series q-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [tʲ] ‹ty› [k] [kʷ] ‹q›
voiced-stops [b] [d] [dʲ] ‹dy› [g] [gʷ] ‹gw›
voiceless-spirants [f] [s] [j̊] ‹hy› [h] [w̥] ‹hw›
voiced-spirants [v] [j] ‹y› [w]
nasals [m] [n] [nʲ] ‹ny› [ŋ] ‹ng› [ŋʷ] ‹ngw›
liquids [l] [r]

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [u]
long-vowels [ī] [ē] [ā] [ō] [ū]
diphthongs [ai] [oi] [ui] [au] [eu] [iu]
others [ð] [ðʲ] [ɣ] [ɣʷ] [x] [xʷ] [z] [ø] [ɸ] [β]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

after liquids [xʷ] became [w], or [g] before [u] [{lr}xʷ|{lr}xʷu] > [{lr}w|{lr}gu]
[ð] became [z] [ð] > [z]
[ðθ] became [θθ] [ðθ] > [θθ]
[ðʲ] became [j] [ðʲ] > [j]
[ðʲi] became [ī] and [ɣʷu] became [ū] [ðʲi|ɣʷu] > [ī|ū]
[dʲ] became [j] [dʲ] > [j]
[ei] became [ai] [ei] > [ai]
[f] became [v] except before stressed vowel [VfV|VfVˈ] > [VvV|VfVˈ]
final [k] became [t] [-k] > [-t]
final nasal + [ḷ] became [ndḷ] [-{mnŋ}ḷ] > [-ndl]
final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced [-xw|-θj|-{xθs}] > [-w|-j|-{ɣðz}]
final [ɸ] became [xʷ] [-ɸ] > [-xʷ]
geminate voiceless spirants reduced [ff|xʷxʷ|xx|θʲθʲ] > [f|f|h|θʲ]
[ɣʷ] became [w] [ɣʷ] > [w]
initial [ð] became [d] [ð-] > [d-]
initial [ð] became [s] [ð-] > [s-]
initial [gʷ] became [w] [gʷ-] > [w-]
initial nasalized stops became nasals [{mb|nd|ndʲ|ŋg|ŋgʷ}-] > [{mnnʲŋŋʷ}-]
initial [ŋ] became [n] [ŋ-] > [n-]
initial [ŋʷ] became [m] [ŋʷ-] > [m-]
initial [s] plus voiceless stops became voiceless spirants [s{pɸ}-|s{tθ}-|s{kx}-] > [ɸ-|θ-|x-]
initial [s] vanished before liquids and nasals [s{lrmnŋ}-] > [{lrmnŋ}-]
initial [sw] and [sβ] became [f], [sj] became [j̊] [s{wβ}-|sj-] > [f-|j̊-]
initial voiced stops became voiceless [{bdggʷ}-] > [{ptkkʷ}-]
initial [x] became [h] [x-] > [h-]
intervocalic [ĭ] became [j] [VĭV] > [VjV]
intervocalic [ŋ], [ŋʷ] became [ŋg], [ŋgʷ] [V{ŋ|ŋʷ}V] > [V{ŋg|ŋgʷ}V]
[kt] became [xt] [kt] > [xt]
[kw] became [kʷ] [kw] > [kʷ]
[kʷkʷ] became [kʷ] [kʷkʷ] > [kʷ]
later [j], [w] became [i], [u] finally or between a vowel and a consonant [VjC|VwC|-j|-w] > [ViC|VuC|-i|-u]
long vowels shortened before consonant clusters [V̄CC] > [V̆CC]
medial nasal plus [w] became [ŋgw] [{nʲmnŋ}w] > [ŋgw]
medial [sj] became [j̊] [sj] > [j̊]
metathesis [tr] > [rt]
middle consonant lost in three-consonant cluster [CCC] > [CC]
[mn] became [nm] [nm] > [mn]
[mw] became [nw] [mw] > [nw]
nasals assimilated to preceding [z] [z{ŋʷ|ŋ|nʲ}] > [z{nu|n|ni}]
nasals became [n] before [j] [{mŋnʲ}j] > [nj]
[ndj] became [nj] in Inwelin [ndʲ] > [nʲ]
[ou] became [au] [ou] > [au]
palatals became dentals before [i] [{tdnθ}ʲi] > [{tdnθ}i]
[pj], [kj] became [tj] [{pk}j] > [tj]
[pp] became [pt] [pp] > [pt]
[pw] became [tw] [pw] > [tw]
[r] dissimilated to [l] [rVr|rCVr] > [lVr|rCVl]
[rg] became [rk] [rg] > [rk]
[rl] became [ll] [rl] > [ll]
[s] became [z] before nasals and voiced spirants [s{lrmnβðʲðɣɣʷ}] > [z{lrmnβðʲðɣɣʷ}]
second short vowel of same quality lost [V₁CV₁CV] > [V₁CCV]
[sf] became [ff] [sf] > [ff]
[sp] became [ps], [sk] sometimes [ks] [sp] > [ps]
stops unvoiced before liquids [dr] > [tr]
[sx] became [ss] [sx] > [ss]
[sxʷ] became [sw] [sxʷ] > [sw]
[ti] became [tsi] [ti] > [tsi]
[ts] became [s] after diphthong [VVts] > [VVs]
[θ] became [ð] after voiced spirants and stops [{βɣɣʷbdg}θ] > [{βɣɣʷbdg}ð]
[tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] [{tʲkʷ}{ts}] > [{tk}]
unstressed long vowels usually shortened [ˌV̄] > [V̆]
voiced spirants becames stops after liquids, nasals and [z] [{lrmnŋz}{βððʲɣɣʷ}] > [{lrmnŋz}{bddʲggʷ}]
voiced stops became spirants after vowels [V{bddʲggʷ}] > [V{βððʲɣɣʷ}]
voiceless and voiced [w] became [f], [v] in Inwelin [w̥|w] > [f|v]
voiceless spirant combinations assimilated except to [θ] [{ɸθθʲxxʷ}₁{ɸθʲxxʷ}₂] > [{ɸθʲxxʷ}₂{ɸθʲxxʷ}₂]
voiceless spirants became stops after nasals [mɸ|nθ|nθʲ|ŋx|ŋxʷ] > [mp|nt|ntʲ|ŋk|ŋkʷ]
voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z] [{ɸxxʷθʲ}{ptkbdgsz}] > [{pkkk}{ptkbdgsz}]
voiceless spirants voiced after liquids [{lr}{ɸθθʲx}] > [{lr}{βððʲɣ}]
voiceless spirants voiced before voiced continuants [{ɸx}{βɣmnŋrljw}] > [{βɣ}{βɣmnŋrljw}]
voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] [{ttʲkkʷ}p|{ttʲkʷ}k|{ttʲk}kʷ] > [pp|kk|kʷkʷ]
voiceless stops plus [xʷ] became [kʷ] [{tʲptk}xʷ] > [kʷ]
[w] became [v] in Cortirion [VwV] > [VvV]
[x] assimilated to preceding stop [px|tx|tʲx|kx|kʷx] > [pp|tt|tt|kk|kk]
[xs] became [xx] [xs] > [xx]
[xʷ] became [x] before consonants, or [w] before voiced spirants and [j], [w] [xʷC|xʷ{βðɣɣʷjw}] > [xC|w{βðɣɣʷjw}]
[xʷ] became [x] before [u] [xʷu] > [xu]
[z] became [r] [z] > [r]
[z] became [s] before [s], [t] [z{st}] > [s{st}]
[z] vanished between a vowel and [m] after a preceding [z], [r] [zVzm] > [zVm]
[ɸx] became [f] [ɸx] > [f]
[β] became [u] before consonants and finally [-β|VβC] > [-u|VuC]
[β] became [v] [β] > [v]
[β] vanished before [u] [βu] > [øu]
long final vowels were shortened [-SV̄] > [-SV̆] 00100
long syllabic [ḹ], [ṝ] became [al], [ar] [ḹ|ṝ] > [al|ar] 00200
long syllabic [ṇ̄] became [a] + homorganic nasal [ṇ̄] > [an] 00300
short syllabic [ḷ] became [il], or [ul] before labials [ḷ|ḷ{pbfmw}|ḷCʷ] > [il|ul{pbfmw}|ulCʷ] 00400
short syllabic [ṇ] became [a] + homorganic nasal, [i] before palatals or [u] before labials [ṇ|ṇCj|ṇ{kg}|ṇp|ṇCw] > [an|inCj|aŋ{kg}|ump|uŋCw] 00500
short syllabic [ṛ] became [ar], [ir] before palatized consonants or [ur] after [w] [ṛ|ṛCj|wṛ] > [ar|irCj|ur] 00600
syllabic [s] developed a vowel [ṣ|ṣCʷ|ṣ̄|ẓ] > [is|usCʷ|as|iz] 00700
[θʲ] became [x] before [i] [θʲi] > [xi] 00800
initial [θʲ] became [j̊] [θʲ-] > [j̊-] 00900
[θʲ] became [ðʲ] before voiced spirants and [j], [w] [θʲ{βðɣɣʷjw}] > [ðʲ{βðɣɣʷjw}] 00900
[θʲ] became [θ] before stops [θʲ{ptk}] > [θ{ptk}] 00900
[θ] became [s] [θ] > [s] 01200
initial and intervocalic [xʷ] became [f], or [x] before [u] [xʷ-|xʷu-|VxʷV|Vxʷu] > [f-|xu-|VfV|Vxu] 01300
[ɸ] usually became [f] [ɸ|ɸɣʷ|ɸðʲ|ɸu] > [f|f|j̊|βu] 01400
final [kt] became [tt] [-kt] > [-tt] 01500
final [s] became [r] [-Vs] > [-Vr] 01600
final [sk] became [ss] [-sk] > [-ss] 01700
final [ss], [st], [ps], [ts], [ks] became [s] [-s{st}|-{ptk}s] > [-s|-s] 01800
final consonant clusters simplified [-CC] > [-C] 01900
final [nt] became [n] in polysyllables [-SSnt] > [-SSn] 02000
intervocalic voiceless spirants became voiced [V{fθθʲx}V] > [V{vððʲɣ}V] 02100
between vowels and consonants [ɣ] vanished with compensatory lengthening [VɣC] > [V̄øC] 02200
final [ɣ] vanished with compensatory lengthening [-Vɣ] > [-V̄ø] 02300
initial [ɣ] vanished or became [h] [ɣ-|ɣ-] > [ø-|h-] 02400
[ɣ] otherwise vanished [ɣ] > [ø] 02500
[ij], [uw] became [i], [u] [ij|uw] > [i|u] 02600
[ji], [wu] became [i], [u] after a vowel [Vji|Vwu] > [Vi|Vu] 02700
[jǝ], [wǝ] became [je], [wo] after a vowel [Vjǝ|Vwǝ] > [Vje|Vwo] 02800
short [i], [u] became [j], [w] between a consonant and vowel [V{ĭŭ}C] > [V{jw}C] 02900
[j], [w] became [i], [u] after a vowel [V{jw}] > [V{iu}] 03000
[aie] became [aije] [aie] > [aije] 03100
[ai] became [e] before unstressed [a], [o] or [u], but [aj] before stressed [a], [o] or [u] [ai{auo}|ai{áóú}] > [eø{auo}|aj{áóú}] 03200
[ei] became [e] before [a], [o] or [u], but [i] before [e] [ei{auo}] > [eø{auo}] 03300
[au] became [o] before unstressed vowel, but [aw] before stressed vowel [au{ieao}|au{íéáó}] > [oø{ieao}|aw{íéáó}] 03400
[ou] became [u] before [e] and [o], but [o] before [i] and [a] [ou{eo}|ou{ia}] > [uø{eo}|oø{ia}] 03500
[oi], [ui] became [oij], [uij] before unstressed vowel, [oj], [uj] before stressed vowel [{ou}iV|{ou}iV́] > [{ou}ijV|{ou}jV́] 03600
[eu], [iu] became [euw], [iuw] before unstressed vowel, [ew], [iw] before stressed vowel [{ei}uV|{ei}uV́] > [{ei}uwV|{ei}wV́] 03700
intervocalic [ū], [ī] became [uw], [ij] [VūV|VīV] > [VuwV|VijV] 03800
[ae] became [ā] [ae] > [ā] 03900
[ao] became [ō] [ao] > [ō] 04000
[oe] became [oa] [oe] > [oa] 04100
[ǝ] assimilated to preceding vowel [Vǝ] > [V̄] 04200
vowels in hiatus reduced [V̄̆V̄̆] > [V̆V̆] 04300
diphthongs usually reduced before consonant clusters [{ei|ai|oi|ui|au|eu|ou|iu}CC] > [{i|e|e|wi|o|o|u|ju}CC] 04400
[w] became [v] after [u] and [o] and before [o] [{uo}w|wo] > [v{uo}|ov] 04500

Other

phonetics