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Early Quenya Phonetics

Phonemes

  p-series t-series ty-series k-series q-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [tʲ] ‹ty› [k] [kʷ]
voiced-stops [b] [d] [dʲ] ‹dy› [g] [gʷ]
voiceless-spirants [f] [s] [j̊] ‹hy› [h] [w̥] ‹hw›
voiced-spirants [v] [j] [w]
nasals [m] [n] [nʲ] ‹ny› [ŋ] ‹ng› [ŋʷ] ‹ngw›
liquids [l] [r]

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [u]
long-vowels [ī] [ē] [ā] [ō] [ū]
diphthongs [ai] [oi] [ui] [au] [eu] [iu]
others [ð] [ɣ] [x] [xʷ] [z] [ø]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

between vowels and consonants [ɣ] vanished with compensatory lengthening [VɣC] > [V̄øC]
[ð] became [d] after [r], [l] [{lr}ð] > [{lr}d]
[f] became [v] except before stressed vowel [VfV|VfVˈ] > [VvV|VfVˈ]
final [ð] became [z] [-ð] > [-z]
final [ɣ] vanished [-Vʒ] > [-V̄ø]
final [j], [w] became [i], [u] [-{jw}] > [-{iu}]
final voiceless spirants were weakened and voiced [-{xʷxθθʲs}] > [-{wɣðjz}]
final [z] became [r] [-z] > [-r]
final [ɸ] became [xʷ] [-ɸ] > [-xʷ]
initial and intervocalic [xʷ] became [f], or [hʷ] before [u] [xʷ-|xʷu-|VxʷV|Vxʷu] > [f-|hu-|VfV|Vhu]
initial [ð] became [s] [ð-] > [s-]
initial [sw] and [sβ] became [f], [sj] became [hj] [s{wβ}-|sj-] > [f-|hj-]
initial [θʲ] became [hj], or [h] before [i] [θj-|θji-] > [hj-|hi-]
initial [x] became [h] [x-] > [h-]
intervocalic [f] became [v] [VfV] > [VvV]
intervocalic [h] vanished [VhV] > [VøV]
intervocalic [ɣ] vanished [VɣV] > [VøV]
intervocalic [θʲ] became [j] [θj-|θji-] > [hj-|hi-]
intervocalic [x] became [ɣ] [VxV] > [VɣV]
[nθ] became [nt] [nθ] > [nt]
[sθʲ] became [sy] [sθʲ] > [sy]
[sx] became [ss] [sx] > [ss]
[sxʷ] became [sw] [sxʷ] > [sw]
syllabic [l], [r], [n] developed vowels [ṛ] > [ar]
syllabic [s] developed a vowel [ṣ] > [is]
[θ] became [ð] after [r], [l] [{lr}θ] > [{lr}ð]
[θ] became [s] [θ] > [s]
unstressed long vowels usually shortened [ˌV̄] > [V̆]
voiceless spirants become [x] before [x], [xʷ] [{ɸxʷxθʲθ}{xxʷ}] > [x{xxʷ}]
voiceless spirants combined with [θʲ] became [hy] [{ɸxʷxθʲθ}θʲ] > [hy]
voiceless spirants combined with [ɸ] became [f] [{ɸxʷxθʲθs}θʲ] > [f]
[xx] became [h] [xx] > [h]
[xxʷ] became [f] [xxʷ] > [f]
[ɸ] became [f] [ɸ] > [f]
[ɸx] became [f] [ɸx] > [f]
long final vowels shortened [-{āēīōū}] > [-{aeiou}] 00100
final consonant clusters simplified [] > [] 00200

Other

phonetics