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Gnomish Phonetics

Phonemes

  p-series t-series k-series kw-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [k] [kʷ] ‹cw›
voiced-stops [b] [d] [g] [gʷ] ‹gw›
voiceless-spirants [f] [s] [θ] ‹th› [h] [x] ‹ch›
voiced-spirants [v] [ð] ‹dh› [ɣ] ‹gh›
nasals [m] [n] [ŋ]
voiceless-nasals [m̥] ‹mh› [n̥] ‹nh› [ŋ̥] ‹ngh›
voiced-continuants [w] [l] [r]
voiceless-continuants [l̥] ‹l(c)h› [r̥] ‹r(c)h›

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [y] [u]
long-vowels [ī] [ē] [ā] [ō] [ȳ] [ū]
diphthongs [ai] [au] [ei] [io] [ui]
others [iu] [ø]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

palatal consonants became velars [{tdθzn}ʲ] > [{kgxðŋ}] 00100
[xʷ] became [f] [xʷ] > [f] 00200
initial voiced spirants became stops [{βðɣ}-] > [{bdg}-] 00300
[ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] [β|ɸ] > [v|f] 00400
non-initial [kw] become [p] [Xkw] > [Xp] 00500
initial [ŋ] became [ŋg] [ŋ-] > [ŋg-] 00600
initial [ŋgw] became [gw] [ŋgw-] > [gw-] 00700
initial [w] became [gw] [w-] > [gw-] 00800
intervocalic [w] became [v] [VwV] > [VvV] 00900
unstressed vowel vanished if it produced favored initial consonant combinations [{bn}ˌV₁{rl}V₁-] > [{bn}{rl}V₁-] 01000
[ī], [ū] became [ai], [au] [ī|ū|ū{pbfvm}] > [ai|au|ū{pbfvm}] 01100
[ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū] [ē|ō] > [ī|ū] 01200
[ā] became [ō] [ā] > [ō] 01300
unstressed [au], [ai] became [ō], [ē] [ˌau|ˌai] > [ō|ē] 01400
[eu], [iu] became [io] [{eu|iu}] > [io] 01500
[eu] became [iu] [eu] > [iu] 01600
[ei], [ou] became [ē], [ō] [ei|ou] > [ē|ō] 01700
[ǣ] became [ē] [ǣ] > [ē] 01800
[oi] became [ui] [oi] > [ui] 01900
[ao] became [o] [ao] > [o] 02000
[e] becomes [i] before stressed [i] [eCí] > [iCi] 02100
[wo] and unstressed [wa] became [o] [{wˌa|wo}] > [o] 02200
unstressed [ui] became [wi] [ˌui] > [wi] 02300
syllabic consonants developed vowels [ḷ|ṛ|ṇ] > [Vl|Vr|Vn] 02400
short final vowels vanished [-S{ĭĕăŏŭ}] > [-Sø] 02500
final [n] sometimes became syllabic [-C{n}] > [-Co{n}] 02600
long final vowels were shortened [-S{īēǣāōū}] > [-S{ĭĭăăăŭ}] 02700
unstressed long vowels shortened [ˌV̄] > [V̆] 02800
initial [j] usually became [g] [j-|ji-] > [g-|i-] 02900
initial [sj] became [x] [sj-] > [x-] 03000
initial [x] became [h] [x-] > [h-] 03100
initial [n], [m] became [d], [b] before [l], [r] [{mn}{lr}-] > [{bd}{lr}-] 03200
[θ], [ð] became [s] before [p], [t], [k], [b] and [s] [{θð}{ptkbs}] > [s{ptkbs}] 03300
voiced stop plus [h] became voiceless spirant [{bdg}h] > [{fθx}ø] 03400
voiceless stops spirantalized after many consonants [{lrmnŋ}{ptk}|{ptk}{fθx}|ɣt] > [{lrmnŋ]}{fθx}|{fθx}{fθx}|ɣð] 03500
[ts] became [s] after long vowel [VVts] > [VVs] 03600
[p], [t], [k] usually spirantalized with following [s] [{ptk}s] > [{fθx}ø] 03700
[x], [ɣ] sometimes became [i] [{xɣ}] > [i] 03800
[f], [v] sometimes became [u] [{fv}] > [u] 03900
final voiceless spirants restopped after consonants [-C{fθx}] > [-C{ptk}] 04000
[nð] became [nd] [nð] > [nd] 04100
[nx] became [nθ] [nx] > [nθ] 04200
[mβ] became [mb] [mβ] > [mb] 04300
[nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally [n{dð}|-mb] > [nn|m] 04400
[ld] became [ll] [ld] > [ll] 04500
[ll] became [l] lengthening preceding stressed vowel [ll|V́ll] > [l|V̄l] 04600
final [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables [-SS{nn|ss}] > [-SS{n|s}] 04700
[a], [u] became [o] in final unstressed closed syllable [-ˌ{au}C] > [-oC] 04800
[lð] became [ld] medially, [l] finally [lð|-lð] > [ld|-l] 04900
[tl], [dl], [ðl] became [kl], [gl] [tl|{dð}l] > [kl|gl] 05000
voiced stops became spirants after vowels [V{bdg}] > [V{vðɣ}] 05100
voiceless stops mostly voiced after vowels [V{ptk}|{pk}θ] > [V{bdg}|{pk}θ] 05200
intervocalic [x], [ɣ] vanished [V{xɣ}V] > [VøV] 05300
long voiceless spirants shortened [ff|θθ|xx] > [f|θ|x] 05400
[s] became [θ] before [l], [r], [w] [s{rlw}] > [θ{rlw}] 05500
initial [θ] sometimes became [f] before [l], [r], [w] [θ{rlw}-] > [f{rlw}-] 05600
[sβ] became [θw] [sβ] > [θw] 05700
[sm], [sf] became [f] [sm|sf] > [f] 05800
final [θ] sometimes became [s] [-θ] > [-s] 05900
[ð] became [θ] finally or before a consonant [-ð|ðC] > [-θ|θC] 06000
initial nasals vanished before stops [{mb|nd|ŋg}-] > [{bdg}-] 06100
initial [l], [r] sometimes strengthened to [gl], [gr] [{lr}-] > [g{lr}-] 06200
final [nw], [lw], [tw] became [m], [lb], [du] [-lw] > [-lb] 06300
final [nw] became [m] [-nw] > [-m] 06400
final [w] usually became [u] [-Cw] > [-Cu] 06500
[ae] became [ai] [ae] > [ai] 06600

Other

phonetics
stop-mutation