Old Sindarin Phonetics

My analysis of the Sindarin phonology is based mainly on David Salo’s work on it and the Old Noldorin language in A Gateway to Sindarin (GS/31-72). I have only partly analyzed the phonology of the existing Sindarin corpus, and I have not yet compared it to the phonology of earlier Old Noldorin or Gnomish, nor to its real-world counterpart Old Welsh. The results here should only be considered a very rough draft.

Phonemes

  p-series t-series k-series
voiceless-stops [p] [t] [k]
voiceless-spirants [ɸ] ‹ph› [s] [θ] ‹th› [h] [x] ‹kh›
voiced-stops [b] [d] [g]
nasals [m] [m̥] [n] [n̥] [ŋ]
voiceless-continuants [w̥] [l̥] [r̥] [j̊]
voiced-continuants [w] [l] [r] [j] ‹y›

vowels [i] [e] [a] [o] [u]
long-vowels [ę̄] [ī] [ǭ] [ū]
diphthongs [ai] [ui] [iu]
others [ø]

Phonetic Groups

Phonetic Rules

initial [ŋ] became [ŋg] [ŋ-] > [ŋg-]
long final vowels were shortened [-SV̄] > [-SV̆] 00100
stressed [wŏ] became [wa] [wŏ́] > [wa] 00200
[ŋs], [hs] became [ns], [ss] [ŋs|ɣs] > [ns|ss] 00300
[ŋ] vanished except before stop [ŋ-|VŋV] > [ø-|VøV] 00400
first in pair of voiced stops vocalized [Vb{bdg}|Vd{bdg}|Vg{bdg}] > [Vu{bdg}|V̄ø{bdg}|Vi{bdg}] 00500
[z] vanished before [d] lengthening preceding vowel [Vzd] > [V̄d] 00600
[ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū] [ē|ō] > [ī|ū] 00700
[ɣ] became [g] before nasals and [r] [ɣ{mnr}] > [g{mnr}] 00800
[ɣ] vanished [ɣ|Vɣ|oɣ] > [ø|V̄|ǭ] 00900
[eu] became [iu] [{eu|iu}] > [ū] 01000
[j] was lost after initial velars [{kkʰg}j-|skj|ŋgj-] > [{kkʰg}-|sk-|ŋg-] 01100
medial [m] became [n] before [j], [w] [m{jw}] > [n{jw}] 01200
initial [ml], [mr] became [bl], [br] [m{lr}-] > [b{lr}-] 01300
initial syllabic [m], [n], [ŋ] became [am], [an], [aŋ] [{ṃṇŋ̣}-] > [a{mnŋ}-] 01400
voiceless stops were voiced before nasals [{ptk}{mn}] > [{bdg}{mnŋ}] 01500
[tʰm], [tʰn] became [tʰw], [ttʰ] ? [tʰm|tʰn] > [tʰw|ttʰ] 01600
final voiceless stops and [s] vanished [-{ptks}] > [-ø] 01700
final [tʰ] became [t] [-tʰ] > [-t] 01800
[ā] became [ǭ] [ā] > [ǭ] 01900
initial [s] unvoiced following consonant [s{jwmnrl}-] > [{j̊w̥m̥n̥l̥r̥}-] 02000
[j] became [i] after vowel [Vj] > [Vi] 02100
[ei], [ou] became [ī], [ū] [ei|ou] > [ī|ū] 02200
[oi], [ǭi] became [ui], [oi] [oi|ǭi] > [ui|oi] 02300
[j] vanished before [i], [ui] [ji-] > [øi-] 02400
voiceless stops aspirated after initial [s] [s{ptk}-] > [s{ptk}ʰ-] 02500
voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s] [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}] > [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}ʰ] 02600
final [e] became [a] after single [s] and [st] [-se|-ste|-sse] > [-sa|-sta|-sse] 02700
medial [s] assimilated to following nasal [-{sm|sn}-] > [-{mm|nn}-] 02800
medial [s] became [x] before [j] [-s{jw}-] > [-x{jw}-] 02900
intervocalic [s] became [h] [VsV] > [VhV] 03000
aspirates became voiceless spirants [{ptk}ʰ|{ptk}{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}|{ɸθx}{ɸθx}] 03100
[w] assimilated to adjacent [u] ? [{uw|wu}] > [u] 03200
[p], [t], [k] became spirants before [s] [ps|ts|ks] > [ɸs|θθ|xs] 03300
syllabic initial [s] became [es] [ṣ-] > [es-] 03400