Q. ar ámen apsenë úcaremmar, “and forgive us our trespasses”

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The seventh line of Átaremma, Tolkien’s Quenya translation of the Lord’s Prayer. The first word is ar “and”, followed by a combination of the imperative particle á and the (dative) second person plural pronoun men “[for] us”. Next follows apsene, the aorist form of the verb apsen- “forgive”. The final word úcaremmar “our trespasses” is the first person plural exclusive possessive form of úcarë, with the usual plural suffix -r indicating the possessed noun was also plural (“trespasses” as opposed to “trespass”).

Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:

ar á-me-n apsenë úcare-mma-r = “*and (imperative)-us-for forgive trespass-our-(plural)”

Conceptual Development: Earlier versions of the prayer used a different verb avatyar- for “forgive”, in what was probably a suffixed-imperative form avatyara (I-IIa) or ávatyara (IIb-IV). In version I-IV, this was followed by the ablative form mello “[from] us” of the pronoun me.

Earlier versions of the prayer used a variety of words for “trespass”: lucassë (I), lucië (IIa-IIb), luhta (III-IV deleted) and rohta (III-IV). Most instances used the same possessive suffix -mma² “our” as the final verion of the prayer, but version III used an independent pronoun menya, in its plural form menye to agree with the plural noun “trespasses”.

  I   IIa IIb III IV V VI
ar
avatyara ávatyara ámen
mello apsene
lucassemmar i luciemmar menye {luhtar >>} rohtar {luhtammar >>} rohtammar úcaremmar

References ✧ VT43/8-12

Variations

Elements

ar “and” ✧ VT43/18.2901
á “imperative particle” ✧ VT43/19.0510-1
me “us (exclusive)” dative ✧ VT43/19.0501 (mello); VT43/19.0510-2 (men)
#apsen- “to remit, release, forgive” aorist ✧ VT43/18.3801 (apsene)
#úcarë “*debt, trespass” 1st-pl-exclusive-poss plural ✧ VT43/19.4101 (úcaremmar)
#lucassë “*debt, trespass” 1st-pl-exclusive-poss plural ✧ VT43/19.0701 (lucassemmar)
#avatyar- “*to forgive, (lit.) do away with” imperative ✧ VT43/18.3001 (avatyara); VT43/18.3603 (ávatyara)
“the” ✧ VT43/19.2508
#lucië “*debt, trespass” 1st-pl-exclusive-poss plural ✧ VT43/19.2509 (luciemmar)
menya “*our (possessive pronoun)” plural ✧ VT43/19.3503 (menye)
#luhta “*debt, trespass” plural ✧ VT43/19.2713 (luhtar); VT43/19.2805 (luhtammar)
#rohta “*debt, trespass” plural ✧ VT43/19.3201 (rohtar); VT43/19.3205 (rohtammar)

Element In