Q. [k] ‹c› (tengwa #3)

References ✧ LotR/1113; PE17/166; PE19/69, 80, 83-84, 95, 101

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kt < tk ✧ PE17/166.2001 (tk > kt; frequently in Quenya)
Q. [sp], [sk] metathesized to [ps], [sk] ks < sk ✧ PE19/083.3515 (sk > ks); PE19/084.0508 (sk > ks; metathesized); PE19/095.1212 (sk > ks); PE19/101.0513 (sk > ks)

Q. [k-]

Reference ✧ PE18/92 ✧ c-


Q. [ks-]

References ✧ PE18/93-94; PE19/80

Variations

Element In


ᴹQ. [k]

Reference ✧ PE22/65 ✧ k

Element In


ᴱQ. [k]

References ✧ PE12/16, 18, 21-23, 26; PE14/41, 60

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ✶nasal + x͡w + ū̯̆ > ncu [ŋxʷu] > [ŋxu] > [ŋku] ✧ PE12/018.0104

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [no change] k < k ✧ PE12/016.1905 (k > k)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z] ks < xs ✧ PE12/018.0910 (χs > ks)
ᴱQ. [x] assimilated to preceding stop kk < kʷx ✧ PE12/018.1809 ( > cc)
ᴱQ. [x] assimilated to preceding stop kk < kx ✧ PE12/018.1811 ( > kk)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops after nasals ŋk < ŋx ✧ PE12/018.1902 (nasal + χ > nc)
ᴱ✶[kʷu] became [ku] ku < kʷu ✧ PE12/021.1905 (qū̆ > cu)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kt < kʷt ✧ PE12/021.2110 (q + t > ct)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] ks < kʷs ✧ PE12/021.2111 (q + s > x)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < kʷk ✧ PE12/021.2112 (q + k > cc)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < tk ✧ PE12/022.0905 (tk > cc); PE12/022.3305 (tk > cc); PE12/023.1118 ([t] + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. [kw] became [kʷ] < kw ✧ PE12/022.1403 (kw̑ > q); PE12/022.1405 (ku̯ > q)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < tʲk ✧ PE12/022.2412 (c̑ + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. final [ss], [st], [ps], [ts], [ks] became [s] -ks > -s ✧ PE12/026.1109-2 (ks > -s)