Q. [k] ‹c›

Q. [c] ‹c›

References ✧ LotR/1113; PE17/166; PE18/92, 94; PE19/69, 80, 83-84, 95, 101

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Development

Q. [no change] k < k ✧ PE19/69 (k > k)
[tk] became [kk] or [kt] kt < tk ✧ PE17/166 (tk > kt; frequently in Quenya)
Q. initial voiceless nasalized stops became stops k- < ŋk- ✧ PE18/92 (tk > c-)
Q. [sp], [sk] metathesized to [ps], [sk] ks < sk ✧ PE18/94 (sk > ks); PE19/83 (sk > ks); PE19/84 (sk > ks; metathesized); PE19/95 (sk > ks); PE19/101 (sk > ks)

ᴹQ. [k]

Reference ✧ PE22/65 ✧ k

Element In


ᴱQ. [k]

References ✧ PE12/16, 18, 21-23, 26; PE14/41, 60

Variations

Element In

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ✶nasal + x͡w + ū̯̆ > ncu [ŋxʷu] > [ŋxu] > [ŋku] ✧ PE12/18

Phonetic Development

ᴱQ. [no change] k < k ✧ PE12/16 (k > k)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops before stops, [s] or [z] ks < xs ✧ PE12/18 (χs > ks)
ᴱQ. [x] assimilated to preceding stop kk < kʷx ✧ PE12/18 ( > cc)
ᴱQ. [x] assimilated to preceding stop kk < kx ✧ PE12/18 ( > kk)
ᴱQ. voiceless spirants became stops after nasals ŋk < ŋx ✧ PE12/18 (nasal + χ > nc)
ᴱ✶[kʷu] became [ku] ku < kʷu ✧ PE12/21 (qū̆ > cu)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] kt < kʷt ✧ PE12/21 (q + t > ct)
ᴱQ. [tʲ], [kʷ] became [t], [k] before [t], [s] ks < kʷs ✧ PE12/21 (q + s > x)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < kʷk ✧ PE12/21 (q + k > cc)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < tk ✧ PE12/22 (tk > cc); PE12/22 (tk > cc); PE12/23 ([t] + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. [kw] became [kʷ] < kw ✧ PE12/22 (kw̑ > q); PE12/22 (ku̯ > q)
ᴱQ. voiceless stop assimilated to following voiceless stop except [t] kk < tʲk ✧ PE12/22 (c̑ + k > cc (ct))
ᴱQ. final [ss], [st], [ps], [ts], [ks] became [s] -ks > -s ✧ PE12/26 (ks > -s)