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Q. man cenuva lumbor ahosta?, “Who shall see the clouds gather?”
The twenty-third line of the Markirya poem (MC/222). The first word is man “who” followed the future tense of cen- “to see”. The object of the phrase is the subordinate clause lumbor ahosta “clouds gather”, with the plural of the noun lumbo “[dark] cloud” followed by the infinitive of the verb hosta- “to gather”. The prefix a- in ahosta marks the infinitive as an object of the primary verb “see” rather than its subject.
Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:man cen-uva lumbo-r a-hosta = “*who see-(future) cloud-(plural) (object)-gather”
Conceptual Development: In the first draft, Tolkien used na- for the object-prefix, which he retained initially in the second draft before changing it to a- (MC/222).
References ✧ MC/222
|man||“who”||✧ MC/222.2001; MC/222.2001|
|cen-||“to see, behold, look”||future||✧ MC/222.2002 (kenuva); MC/222.2002 (kenuva)|
|lumbo||“[dark] cloud; gloom, dark, shade”||plural||✧ MC/222.2003 (lumbor); MC/222.2003 (lumbor)|
|hosta-||“to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up”||infinitive||✧ MC/222.2004 (na-hosta); MC/222.3906 (ahosta)|
ᴱQ. man kiluva lómi sangane? “Who shall see the clouds gather?”
The twenty second line of the Oilima Markirya poem (MC/214). The first word is man “who” followed by the future tense of the verb kili- “to see”. The last two words serve as the object of the phrase: the plural of the noun lóme “cloud” with the “bare stem” infinitive form of the verb sanga-² “to gather”, as suggested by Gilson, Welden, and Hostetter (PE16/84, notes on line #10 and #11), apparently functioning as either an active-participle or a verbal object.
Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:man kil-uva lóm-i sanga-ne = “*who see-(future) cloud-(plural) gather-ing”
Reference ✧ MC/214 ✧ man kiluva lómi sangane “Who shall see the clouds gather?”
|kili-||“to see, head”||future||✧ MC/214.0502 (kiluva)|
|lóme||“dusk, gloom, darkness; shadow, cloud”||plural||✧ MC/214.0503 (lómi)|
|sanga-²||“to pack tight, compress, press; to gather”||infinitive||✧ MC/214.0504 (sangane)|