Q. man cenuva lumbor ahosta?, “Who shall see the clouds gather?”

[< Previous Phrase] Markirya [Next Phrase >]


The twenty-third line of the Markirya poem (MC/222). The first word is man “who” followed the future tense of cen- “to see”. The object of the phrase is the subordinate clause lumbor ahosta “clouds gather”, with the plural of the noun lumbo “[dark] cloud” followed by the infinitive of the verb hosta- “to gather”. The prefix a- in ahosta marks the infinitive as an object of the primary verb “see” rather than its subject.

Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:

man cen-uva lumbo-r a-hosta = “*who see-(future) cloud-(plural) (object)-gather”

Conceptual Development: In the first draft, Tolkien used na- for the object-prefix, which he retained initially in the second draft before changing it to a- (MC/222).

References ✧ MC/222

Glosses

Variations

Changes

Elements

man “who” ✧ MC/222.2001; MC/222.2001
cen- “to see, behold, look” future ✧ MC/222.2002 (kenuva); MC/222.2002 (kenuva)
lumbo “[dark] cloud; gloom, dark, shade” plural ✧ MC/222.2003 (lumbor); MC/222.2003 (lumbor)
a- “infinitive prefix”
hosta- “to gather (hastily together), collect, assemble, pile up” infinitive ✧ MC/222.2004 (na-hosta); MC/222.3906 (ahosta)

Element In


ᴱQ. man kiluva lómi sangane? “Who shall see the clouds gather?”

[< Previous Phrase] Oilima Markirya [Next Phrase >]


The twenty second line of the Oilima Markirya poem (MC/214). The first word is man “who” followed by the future tense of the verb kili- “to see”. The last two words serve as the object of the phrase: the plural of the noun lóme “cloud” with the “bare stem” infinitive form of the verb sanga-² “to gather”, as suggested by Gilson, Welden, and Hostetter (PE16/84, notes on line #10 and #11), apparently functioning as either an active-participle or a verbal object.

Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:

man kil-uva lóm-i sanga-ne = “*who see-(future) cloud-(plural) gather-ing”

Reference ✧ MC/214 ✧ man kiluva lómi sangane “Who shall see the clouds gather?”

Elements

man “who” ✧ MC/214.0501
kili- “to see, head” future ✧ MC/214.0502 (kiluva)
lóme “dusk, gloom, darkness; shadow, cloud” plural ✧ MC/214.0503 (lómi)
sanga-² “to pack tight, compress, press; to gather” infinitive ✧ MC/214.0504 (sangane)

Element In