Q. rómen n. “east, uprising, sunrise”
The Quenya word for “east”, cognate of S. rhûn (LotR/1123). In inflected or compounds forms, the final n was usually dropped as was generally the case with Quenya direction words, for example in the ablative from Rómello “from the East” (LotR/377). It was ultimately derived from the root √RŌ/ORO “rise” (PE17/63, Ety/RŌ). It originally meant “rising direction”, that is ro- + men, and was thus connected to the rising sun.
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales the word for “East” was ᴱQ. oronto (LT1/85), a word that also appeared in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s, with the gloss “rising (of the sun)” (QL/70). On the same page Tolkien gave the word ᴱQ. óre “the dawn, Sunrise, East” (QL/70), so the connection between “East” and “sunrise” was a very early idea.
The word ᴹQ. rómen “east” appeared in Etymologies from the 1930s along with N. rhûn, both derived from ᴹ√RŌ (Ety/RŌ). At the time, there were no problems with this equivalence, since initial [r] was unvoiced in Noldorin. Tolkien went on to use both these forms in The Lord of the Rings.
Unfortunately, Tolkien later abandoned the unvoicing of initial r in Sindarin, making these two forms problematic. Tolkien considered modifying the Sindarin form to rûn (PE17/88) or the Quenya form to hrómen (PE17/18). The latter was probably derived from an s-strengthened form of the root ᴹ√SRŌ (PE22/127), where the initial sr- would become voiceless [r] in both Quenya and Sindarin. Ultimately, though, he left both forms alone. Perhaps he decided the s-strengthening of the root was a Sindarin-only variant.
References ✧ LotR/377, 1044, 1123; PE17/18, 59, 63, 74, 88, 125, 135; PM/385; RGEO/58-59; SA/men, rómen
|Róme-llo||ablative||“from the East”||✧ PE17/135|
|Rómello||ablative||“(to those) from the East”||✧ LotR/377|
|Rómello||ablative||“from the East”||✧ PE17/63; PE17/74|
|Rōmello||ablative||“(to those) from the East”||✧ RGEO/58|
|Rōmello||ablative||“(to one) from the East”||✧ RGEO/59|
|ro-||“uprising, sunrise, east”||✧ PE17/18 (hrō-)|
|men||“way; place, spot”||✧ SA/men|
|√RŌ/ORO||“up; rise (up), mount”||✧ PE17/63 (RŌ)|
ᴹQ. rómen n. “east”
References ✧ Ety/MEN, RŌ; LR/47, 56; PE22/23, 50; SD/310; SMI/Rómen
|rōmenna||allative||“eastward”||✧ LR/47; SD/310|
|ᴹ√MEN||“go, proceed”||✧ Ety/MEN; Ety/RŌ|
|ᴹ√RŌ/ORO||“rise, up, high”||✧ Ety/RŌ (RŌ)|
ᴱQ. oronto n. “East, rising (of the sun)”
References ✧ LT1/85; LT1A/Oromë, Oronto; QL/70-71
|ᴱ√OŘO > oronto||[ōðontō] > [ōðonto] > [ōzonto] > [ōronto]||✧ QL/70|