Q. ulca, adj. “dark, gloomy, sinister; evil”

This is one of two later words Tolkien consider for “evil”; the other is Q. olca < √OKO. Of the two, ulca has the longer conceptual history, dating back to early Quenya (QL/97). Both words have the same Sindarin cognate, S. ogol.

Ulca has two attested late derivations. One is from the root √UK (PE17/149), listed as a possible replacement of √OKO, but Tolkien marked this derivation as uncertain. Another derivation is ✶ū “not” + KAL “light” = ✶uk’la “gloom, gloomy” (PE18/88), an example of abnormal vocalization. If this second derivation is accepted, ulca could have later developed the senses “sinister, evil” either due to the “bad” connotations of Q. ú- or perhaps by influence of Q. olca. If so, it may have even supplanted olca as the general word for “evil” as it appears to have done in Tolkien’s later writings.

References ✧ PE17/149.2104; PE18/088.0108; VT43/23.4208; VT43/24.0407; VT48/32.2710; VT49/14.2601; VT49/19.1607

Glosses

Variations

Related

Inflections

ulcallo ablative “*from evil” ✧ VT43/23.4208

Element In

Cognates

Derivations


ᴱQ. ulka adj. “evil; bad, wicked, wrong”

References ✧ PE14/048.2701; PE14/048.2703; PE14/081.1701; PE14/081.1703; PE14/081.1705; PE15/32.0402; PE15/70.0706; PE15/72.0104; PE15/72.0204; PE15/72.0402; QL/097.5501

Glosses

Variations

Inflections

ulda augmentative   ✧ PE14/081.1705; PE15/72.0204
ulqalda augmentative   ✧ PE14/048.2703; PE14/081.1703
ulqalda augmentative   ✧ PE15/72.0402
ulqe plural “*evil” ✧ PE15/32.0402

Element In

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ√ULU² > ulca [ulkā] > [ulka] ✧ QL/097.5501