S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]

S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]
GS/§4.190 @@@, such as N. oe(a)r “sea” becoming S. gae(a)r

Order (01900)

After 01800 [ɣ] otherwise vanished magiti- > S. maed VT41/10

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [ae] ✧ PE19/91 (aı̯ > ae); VT48/7 (ai > ae)
[oi] > [oe]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aikanauro > aekanauro ai > ae Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
aθaia > aθaea ai > ae aþayā > S. athae ✧ PE17/49
daila > daela ai > ae NDAY > S. dael ✧ PE17/151
daira > daera ai > ae daira > S. daer ✧ VT42/11
daira > daera ai > ae NDAY > S. daer ✧ PE17/151
faila > faela ai > ae PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352
gaiar > gaear ai > ae Gayar- > S. gaear ✧ PM/363
gair > gaer ai > ae gaı̯ră > S. gaer ✧ PE17/27
gaira > gaera ai > ae gairā > S. #gaer ✧ WJ/400
kaire > kaere ai > ae KAYA > S. caer ✧ PE17/101
laika > laeka ai > ae laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282
laipa > laepa ai > ae laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153
mai > mae ai > ae mai > S. mae ✧ PE17/17
maika > maeka ai > ae maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337
maila > maela ai > ae MAGA > S. mael ✧ PE17/162
maina > maena ai > ae MAY > S. maen ✧ PE17/163
maira > maera ai > ae MAY > S. maer ✧ PE17/162
maira > maera ai > ae MAG > S. maer ✧ PE17/172
mairondo > maerondo ai > ae MAY > S. maeron ✧ PE17/163
maiti > maeti ai > ae magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae MAG > S. maetha- ✧ PE17/161
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/6
maiθe > maeθe ai > ae MAG > S. maeth ✧ PE17/161
n̥aiðe > n̥aeðe ai > ae snagdē > S. naeð ✧ PE19/91
naira > naera ai > ae NAY > S. naer ✧ PE17/151
nimfiraite > nimfiraete ai > ae ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
paiθa > paeθa ai > ae PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126
r̥aia > r̥aea ai > ae SRA/SRAYA > S. rhae ✧ PE17/172
r̥aite > r̥aete ai > ae raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185
taira > taera ai > ae tagra > S. taer ✧ PE17/186
xaiða > xaeða ai > ae khagdā > S. haeð ✧ PE19/91
goia > goea oi > oe gāyā > S. goe ✧ PM/363
l̥oima > l̥oema oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoew ✧ PE17/185
loina > loena oi > oe logna > S. loen ✧ VT42/10
l̥oire > l̥oere oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoer ✧ PE17/185
oima > oema oi > oe okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170

N. [ai] became [oe] or [ae]; [ai] > [oe|ae]

In the Etymologies, the Noldorin development of the primitive diphthong ᴹ✶ai is unclear. In some cases, it became ae: N. gwaew “wind” < ᴹ√WAIWA (Ety/WĀ). In others, it became oe: N. moed “handy, skilled” < ON. maite (Ety/MAƷ). Tolkien seems to have vacillated between the two results, for example gaer (EtyAC/GAIRĀ) >> goer (Ety/GAY) and lhaeb (EtyAC/LÁYAK) >> lhoeb (Ety/LÁYAK).

Possible Phonetic Rules: In the contemporaneous Comparative Tables (PE19/18-28), the phonetic development was primitive ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > ei > N. ae (PE19/25, column 9). There is one example in the Etymologies that seems to follow a similar development: ᴹ✶gaisrā > gǣsra > ON. gērrha > N. gaer “dreadful” (Ety/GÁYAS). It seems likely that entry in the table represents Tolkien’s original idea for the Noldorin development of this diphthong.

Examples in the Etymologies seem to indicate that, where it appeared, the diphthong oe was a further development from ae, for example: ᴹ√GAY > N. gaer, goer (Ety/GAY) and ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae (hoe) (EtyAC/KHAYA). There are several cases in which the diphthong ae is consistently preserved, however:

It is possible that at this stage, Tolkien considered the normal development to be ai > ae > oe, except that ae was preserved in words with the combination aew or its antecedents: ᴹ✶[ai{wbm}]. Furthermore, the shift of ae > oe occurred before the vocalizations of primitive g, p, k, so that:

There are quite a few ae-forms in the Etymologies that cannot be explained by this rule, however:

It seems that Tolkien’s ideas on the Noldorin development of primitive ᴹ✶ai were in flux as he wrote the Etymologies, making it very difficult to discern his intentions.

Conceptual Development: The Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s generally had ae-forms: N. Belegaer (LR/19) and N. Aelin-uial (LR/262) versus the oe-forms in the Etymologies: N. Belegoer (Ety/AY) and N. Oelinuial (Ety/AY). As noted above, the development in the Comparative Tables from the (?early) 1930s was ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > N. ae (PE19/25). It seems likely that Tolkien introduced the oe-forms as he was composing the Etymologies.

The variations between ae and oe continued in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, for example N. Taragaer “Ruddyhorn” (RS/419) versus earlier goer “ruddy” (Ety/GAY) but N. loer “summer” (PM/135) versus later S. laer¹ (LotR/1107). In the published versions of The Lord of the Rings and in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s, the oe-forms had largely disappeared, making it likely that Tolkien abandoned this particular phonetic rule.

Alternate Theories: I am not sure who first pointed out the ae/oe variation in the Etymologies, but it is well established in the literature. Helge Fauskanger discussed the variation in his article: “AE or OE?” (AL). David Salo also noted the variation in his discussion of Noldorin phonology (GS/68, §4.230). My analysis agrees with the broad outlines of both these treatments, but given the ambiguity of the underlying evidence, the details are open to interpretation.

References ✧ PE22/31, 39

Variations

Order (01600)

After 01100 [ɣ], [ŋ] vocalized before [l], [r], [m], [n] ON. magna > N. maen Ety/MAƷ|MAG
Before 02300 final [j] intruded into preceding syllable ᴹ✶galyā > N. gail
ᴹ✶(a)ranı̯ā > rhain > N. rhein
Ety/KAL
EtyAC/RAN
Before 06700 initial [θl] sometimes became [fl] ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew Ety/SLIW

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [oe]
[ai] > [ae]

Phonetic Rule Examples

airosse > aerosse ai > ae ᴹ√GOS > N. Aeros ✧ EtyAC/GOS
aisa > aesa ai > ae ᴹ√AP > N. aes ✧ Ety/AP
aiwe > aewe ai > ae ᴹ✶AIWĒ > N. aew ✧ Ety/AIWĒ
dai > dae ai > ae ᴹ√DAƷ > N. dae ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ
daia > daea ai > ae ᴹ✶daiā > N. Dae ✧ EtyAC/DAY
daino > daeno ai > ae ON. ndagno > N. daen ✧ Ety/NDAK
dair > daer ai > ae ᴹ√NDERE > ON. daer ✧ Ety/DER
gaia > gaea ai > ae ON. gaia > gae > N. goe/gae ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
gail > gael ai > ae ᴹ√GIL > N. gael ✧ Ety/GIL
gaira > gaera ai > ae ᴹ√GAIRĀ > N. gaer ✧ EtyAC/GAIRĀ
glaire > glaere ai > ae ᴹ√GLIR > N. glaer ✧ Ety/GLIR
glaive > glaeve ai > ae ᴹ✶laibē > N. g-laew ✧ Ety/LIB²
glaive > glaeve ai > ae ON. glaibe > N. glaiw ✧ PE22/32
gwaiðe > gwaeðe ai > ae ON. waide > N. gwaeð ✧ Ety/WED
gwaita- > gwaeta- ai > ae ᴹ√WAY > N. gwaedo ✧ EtyAC/WAY
gwaiwa > gwaewa ai > ae ᴹ√WAWA/WAIWA > N. gwaew ✧ Ety/WĀ
haia > haea ai > ae ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae ✧ EtyAC/KHAYA
jaiθa > jaeθa ai > ae ᴹ✶yakta- > N. iaeth ✧ Ety/YAK
jaiwe > jaewe ai > ae ON. yaiwe > N. iaew ✧ Ety/YAY
kaila > kaela ai > ae ᴹ√KAY > N. cael ✧ Ety/KAY
kaira > kaera ai > ae ᴹ√KAYAN/KAYAR > N. caer ✧ Ety/KAYAN
laia > laea ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhae ✧ EtyAC/LI
laika > laeka ai > ae ᴹ√LAIK > N. lhaeg ✧ Ety/LAIK
laipa > laepa ai > ae ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhaeb ✧ EtyAC/LÁYAK
laire > laere ai > ae ᴹ✶laire > N. lhaer ✧ EtyAC/LIR¹
laisa > laesa ai > ae ᴹ√LAP > N. lhaes ✧ Ety/LAP
laiwa > laewa ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LI
laiwa > laewa ai > ae ᴹ√LIW > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LIW
maila > maela ai > ae ᴹ✶magla > N. mael ✧ Ety/SMAG
m̥aila > m̥aela ai > ae ᴹ√SMAG > N. hmael ✧ Ety/SMAG
maila > maela ai > ae ᴹ✶maglā/ē > N. mael ✧ EtyAC/MAG²
maile > maele ai > ae ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. mael ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
maileka > maeleka ai > ae ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
maina > maena ai > ae ON. magna > N. maen ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
maira > maera ai > ae ᴹ✶magrā > N. maer ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
maiθa > maeθa ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maeth ✧ Ety/MAK
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maetha ✧ Ety/MAK
maiwe > maewe ai > ae ᴹ√MIW > N. maew ✧ Ety/MIW
nai > nae ai > ae ᴹ√NAY > N. nae, nae ✧ Ety/NAY
naike > naeke ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. naeg ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naikra- > naekra- ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. negro ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naima > naema ai > ae ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK
naisa > naesa ai > ae ᴹ✶nakse > N. naes ✧ EtyAC/NAK
naiθa > naeθa ai > ae ᴹ√NAK > N. naeth ✧ Ety/NAK
pelθaisa > pelθaesa ai > ae ON. pelthaksa > N. pelthaes ✧ Ety/PEL
raime > raeme ai > ae ON. ragme > N. rhaew ✧ Ety/RAK
raina > raena ai > ae ᴹ√RAG > N. rhaen ✧ EtyAC/REG
raina > raena ai > ae ON. ragna > N. rhaen ✧ Ety/RAG
saima > saema ai > ae ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG
saima > saema ai > ae ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/32
saira > saera ai > ae ᴹ✶sagrā > N. saer ✧ Ety/SAG
taima > taema ai > ae ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK
taina > taena ai > ae ᴹ✶taʒna > N. taen ✧ Ety/TĀ
taina > taena ai > ae ᴹ√TAY > N. taen ✧ Ety/TAY
tair > taer ai > ae ᴹ✶teñrā > tær > N. taer ✧ Ety/TEÑ
taisa > taesa ai > ae ᴹ✶taksē > N. taes ✧ Ety/TAK
taiθa- > taeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√TAK > N. taetho ✧ Ety/TAK
θlaiwa > θlaewa ai > ae ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew ✧ Ety/SLIW
xaime > xaeme ai > ae ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
ɸaianour > ɸaeanour ai > ae ON. Phayanṓr > Feanoúr > N. Féanor ✧ Ety/PHAY
dair > doer ai > oe ON. ndair > N. doer ✧ Ety/NDER
faika > foeka ai > oe ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY
faina > foena ai > oe ᴹ√PHAY > N. foen ✧ Ety/PHAY
gaira > goera ai > oe ᴹ√GAY > gaer > N. goer ✧ Ety/GAY
kai > koe ai > oe ᴹ√KEM > N. coe ✧ Ety/KEM
kainel > koenel ai > oe ᴹ√KEN > N. coenel ✧ EtyAC/KEN
laika > loeka ai > oe ON. laika > N. lhoeg ✧ EtyAC/LAIK
laipa > loepa ai > oe ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhoeb ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
maiɣa > moeɣa ai > oe ON. maiga > N. moe ✧ Ety/MASAG
maile > moele ai > oe ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. moel ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
maileka > moeleka ai > oe ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
maite > moete ai > oe ON. maite > N. moed ✧ Ety/MAƷ
naira > noera ai > oe ᴹ√NAY > N. noer ✧ Ety/NAY
aiar > oear ai > oe ᴹ√ÁYAR > N. oear ✧ Ety/AY
aika > oeka ai > oe ᴹ√AYAK > N. oeg ✧ Ety/AYAK
aili > oeli ai > oe ᴹ✶ai-lin- > N. oel ✧ Ety/AY
air > oer ai > oe ᴹ√AI̯R > N. oer ✧ Ety/AY
airosse > oerosse ai > oe ᴹ√GOS > N. Oeros ✧ Ety/GOS
paine > poene ai > oe ON. †paine > N. †poen ✧ EtyAC/KWǢ
raika > roeka ai > oe ᴹ√RÁYAK > N. rhoeg ✧ Ety/RÁYAK

N. [ę̄] became [ae]; [ę̄] > [ae]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ę̄] > [ae] ✧ PE19/25 (ę̄ > ei > ae); PE19/25 (ę̄ > ei > ae)

Phonetic Rule Examples

gę̄rra > gaerra ę̄ > ae ON. gērrha > N. gaer ✧ Ety/GÁYAS

G. [ae] became [ai]; [ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Examples

gʷaed > gʷaid ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43
gʷaes > gʷais ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43