S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]

GS/§4.190 @@@, such as N. oe(a)r “sea” becoming S. gae(a)r

Order (01800)

After 01700 [ɣ] otherwise vanished magiti- > S. maed VT41/10

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [ae] ✧ PE19/091.1004 (aı̯ > ae); VT48/07.3620 (ai > ae)
[oi] > [oe]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aikanauro > aekanauro ai > ae Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347.1805
aθaia > aθaea ai > ae aþayā > S. athae ✧ PE17/049.0813
daila > daela ai > ae NDAY > S. dael ✧ PE17/151.0208
daira > daera ai > ae daira > S. daer ✧ VT42/11.2306
daira > daera ai > ae NDAY > S. daer ✧ PE17/151.0210
faila > faela ai > ae PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352.1609
gaiar > gaear ai > ae Gayar- > S. gaear ✧ PM/363.3502
gair > gaer ai > ae gaı̯ră > S. gaer ✧ PE17/027.2312
gaira > gaera ai > ae gairā > S. *gaer ✧ WJ/400.2002-1
kaire > kaere ai > ae KAYA > S. caer ✧ PE17/101.2710
laika > laeka ai > ae laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282.2513
laipa > laepa ai > ae laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153.3310
mai > mae ai > ae mai > S. mae ✧ PE17/017.0201
maika > maeka ai > ae maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337.2409-1
maila > maela ai > ae MAGA > S. mael ✧ PE17/162.1214
maina > maena ai > ae MAY > S. maen ✧ PE17/163.1810
maira > maera ai > ae MAY > S. maer ✧ PE17/162.1010
maira > maera ai > ae MAG > S. maer ✧ PE17/172.2306
mairondo > maerondo ai > ae MAY > S. maeron ✧ PE17/163.1102
maiti > maeti ai > ae magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10.2006
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae MAG > S. maetha- ✧ PE17/161.2905
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/06.1801
maiθe > maeθe ai > ae MAG > S. maeth ✧ PE17/161.2904
n̥aiðe > n̥aeðe ai > ae snagdē > S. naeð ✧ PE19/091.2201
naira > naera ai > ae NAY > S. naer ✧ PE17/151.0513
nimfiraite > nimfiraete ai > ae ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/055.2211
paiθa > paeθa ai > ae PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126.2301
r̥aia > r̥aea ai > ae SRA/SRAYA > S. rhae ✧ PE17/172.2809
r̥aite > r̥aete ai > ae raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185.3209
taira > taera ai > ae tagra > S. taer ✧ PE17/186.4108
xaiða > xaeða ai > ae khagdā > S. haeð ✧ PE19/091.1804
goia > goea oi > oe gāyā > S. goe ✧ PM/363.2810
l̥oima > l̥oema oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoew ✧ PE17/185.0610
loina > loena oi > oe logna > S. loen ✧ VT42/10.0602
l̥oire > l̥oere oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoer ✧ PE17/185.0611
oima > oema oi > oe okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170.0506

N. [ai] became [oe] or [ae]; [ai] > [oe|ae]

In the Etymologies, the Noldorin development of the primitive diphthong ᴹ✶ai is unclear. In some cases, it became ae: N. gwaew “wind” < ᴹ√WAIWA (Ety/WĀ). In others, it became oe: N. moed “handy, skilled” < ON. maite (Ety/MAƷ). Tolkien seems to have vacillated between the two results, for example gaer (EtyAC/GAIRĀ) >> goer (Ety/GAY) and lhaeb (EtyAC/LÁYAK) >> lhoeb (Ety/LÁYAK).

Possible Phonetic Rules: In the contemporaneous Comparative Tables (PE19/18-28), the phonetic development was primitive ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > ei > N. ae (PE19/25, column 9). There is one example in the Etymologies that seems to follow a similar development: ᴹ✶gaisrā > gǣsra > ON. gērrha > N. gaer “dreadful” (Ety/GÁYAS). It seems likely that entry in the table represents Tolkien’s original idea for the Noldorin development of this diphthong.

Examples in the Etymologies seem to indicate that, where it appeared, the diphthong oe was a further development from ae, for example: ᴹ√GAY > N. gaer, goer (Ety/GAY) and ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae (hoe) (EtyAC/KHAYA). There are several cases in which the diphthong ae is consistently preserved, however:

It is possible that at this stage, Tolkien considered the normal development to be ai > ae > oe, except that ae was preserved in words with the combination aew or its antecedents: ᴹ✶[ai{wbm}]. Furthermore, the shift of ae > oe occurred before the vocalizations of primitive g, p, k, so that:

There are quite a few ae-forms in the Etymologies that cannot be explained by this rule, however:

It seems that Tolkien’s ideas on the Noldorin development of primitive ᴹ✶ai were in flux as he wrote the Etymologies, making it very difficult to discern his intentions.

Conceptual Development: The Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s generally had ae-forms: N. Belegaer (LR/19) and N. Aelin-uial (LR/262) versus the oe-forms in the Etymologies: N. Belegoer (Ety/AY) and N. Oelinuial (Ety/AY). As noted above, the development in the Comparative Tables from the (?early) 1930s was ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > N. ae (PE19/25). It seems likely that Tolkien introduced the oe-forms as he was composing the Etymologies.

The variations between ae and oe continued in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, for example N. Taragaer “Ruddyhorn” (RS/419) versus earlier goer “ruddy” (Ety/GAY) but N. loer “summer” (PM/135) versus later S. laer¹ (LotR/1107). In the published versions of The Lord of the Rings and in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s, the oe-forms had largely disappeared, making it likely that Tolkien abandoned this particular phonetic rule.

Alternate Theories: I am not sure who first pointed out the ae/oe variation in the Etymologies, but it is well established in the literature. Helge Fauskanger discussed the variation in his article: “AE or OE?” (AL). David Salo also noted the variation in his discussion of Noldorin phonology (GS/68, §4.230). My analysis agrees with the broad outlines of both these treatments, but given the ambiguity of the underlying evidence, the details are open to interpretation.

References ✧ PE22/031.1102; PE22/039.1001; PE22/039.1201; PE22/039.1401

Variations

Order (01600)

After 01100 [ɣ], [ŋ] vocalized before [l], [r], [m], [n] ON. magna > N. maen Ety/MAƷ|MAG
Before 02300 final [j] intruded into preceding syllable ᴹ✶galyā > N. gail
ᴹ✶(a)ranı̯ā > rhain > N. rhein
Ety/KAL
EtyAC/RAN
Before 06700 initial [θl] sometimes became [fl] ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew Ety/SLIW

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [oe]
[ai] > [ae]

Phonetic Rule Examples

airosse > aerosse ai > ae ᴹ√GOS > N. Aeros ✧ EtyAC/GOS.040
aisa > aesa ai > ae ᴹ√AP > N. aes ✧ Ety/AP.007
aiwe > aewe ai > ae ᴹ✶AIWĒ > N. aew ✧ Ety/AIWĒ.007
dai > dae ai > ae ᴹ√DAƷ > N. dae ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ.007
daia > daea ai > ae ᴹ✶daiā > N. Dae ✧ EtyAC/DAY.022
daino > daeno ai > ae ON. ndagno > N. daen ✧ Ety/NDAK.021
dair > daer ai > ae ᴹ√NDERE > ON. daer ✧ Ety/DER.031
gaia > gaea ai > ae ON. gaia > gae > N. goe/gae ✧ Ety/GÁYAS.012
gail > gael ai > ae ᴹ√GIL > N. gael ✧ Ety/GIL.039
gaira > gaera ai > ae ᴹ√GAIRĀ > N. gaer ✧ EtyAC/GAIRĀ.003
glaire > glaere ai > ae ᴹ√GLIR > N. glaer ✧ Ety/GLIR.017
glaive > glaeve ai > ae ᴹ✶laibē > N. g-laew ✧ Ety/LIB².009
glaive > glaeve ai > ae ON. glaibe > N. glaiw ✧ PE22/032.2709
gwaiðe > gwaeðe ai > ae ON. waide > N. gwaeð ✧ Ety/WED.034
gwaita- > gwaeta- ai > ae ᴹ√WAY > N. gwaedo ✧ EtyAC/WAY.022
gwaiwa > gwaewa ai > ae ᴹ√WAWA/WAIWA > N. gwaew ✧ Ety/WĀ.010
haia > haea ai > ae ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae/hoe ✧ EtyAC/KHAYA.013
jaiθa > jaeθa ai > ae ᴹ✶yakta- > N. iaeth ✧ Ety/YAK.008
jaiwe > jaewe ai > ae ON. yaiwe > N. iaew ✧ Ety/YAY.010
kaila > kaela ai > ae ᴹ√KAY > N. cael ✧ Ety/KAY.012
kaira > kaera ai > ae ᴹ√KAYAN/KAYAR > N. caer ✧ Ety/KAYAN.007
laia > laea ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhae ✧ EtyAC/LI.015
laika > laeka ai > ae ᴹ√LAIK > N. lhaeg ✧ Ety/LAIK.008
laipa > laepa ai > ae ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhaeb ✧ EtyAC/LÁYAK.017
laire > laere ai > ae ᴹ✶laire > N. lhaer ✧ EtyAC/LIR¹.016
laisa > laesa ai > ae ᴹ√LAP > N. lhaes ✧ Ety/LAP.006
laiwa > laewa ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LI.019
laiwa > laewa ai > ae ᴹ√LIW > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LIW.037
maila > maela ai > ae ᴹ✶magla > N. mael ✧ Ety/SMAG.009
m̥aila > m̥aela ai > ae ᴹ√SMAG > N. hmael ✧ Ety/SMAG.023
maila > maela ai > ae ᴹ✶maglā/ē > N. mael ✧ EtyAC/MAG².009
maile > maele ai > ae ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. mael ✧ Ety/MIL-IK.023
maileka > maeleka ai > ae ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK.018
maina > maena ai > ae ON. magna > N. maen ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG.022
maira > maera ai > ae ᴹ✶magrā > N. maer ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG.016
maiθa > maeθa ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maeth ✧ Ety/MAK.036
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maetha ✧ Ety/MAK.049
maiwe > maewe ai > ae ᴹ√MIW > N. maew ✧ Ety/MIW.007
nai > nae ai > ae ᴹ√NAY > N. nae, nae ✧ Ety/NAY.037
naike > naeke ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. naeg ✧ Ety/NÁYAK.018
naikra- > naekra- ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. negro ✧ Ety/NÁYAK.020
naima > naema ai > ae ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK.023
naisa > naesa ai > ae ᴹ✶nakse > N. naes ✧ EtyAC/NAK.037
naiθa > naeθa ai > ae ᴹ√NAK > N. naeth ✧ Ety/NAK.015
pelθaisa > pelθaesa ai > ae ON. pelthaksa > N. pelthaes ✧ Ety/PEL.021
raime > raeme ai > ae ON. ragme > N. rhaew ✧ Ety/RAK.030
raina > raena ai > ae ON. ragna > N. rhaen ✧ Ety/RAG.007
raina > raena ai > ae ᴹ√RAG > N. rhaen ✧ EtyAC/REG.020
saima > saema ai > ae ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG.013
saima > saema ai > ae ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/032.2716
saira > saera ai > ae ᴹ✶sagrā > N. saer ✧ Ety/SAG.007
taima > taema ai > ae ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK.073
taina > taena ai > ae ᴹ✶taʒna > N. taen ✧ Ety/TĀ.235
taina > taena ai > ae ᴹ√TAY > N. taen ✧ Ety/TAY.016
tair > taer ai > ae ᴹ✶teñrā > tær > N. taer ✧ Ety/TEÑ.007
taisa > taesa ai > ae ᴹ✶taksē > N. taes ✧ Ety/TAK.052
taiθa- > taeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√TAK > N. taetho ✧ Ety/TAK.016
θlaiwa > θlaewa ai > ae ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew ✧ Ety/SLIW.027
xaime > xaeme ai > ae ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM.031
ɸaianour > ɸaeanour ai > ae ON. Phayanṓr > Feanoúr > N. Féanor ✧ Ety/PHAY.026
dair > doer ai > oe ON. ndair > N. doer ✧ Ety/NDER.022
faika > foeka ai > oe ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY.009
faina > foena ai > oe ᴹ√PHAY > N. foen ✧ Ety/PHAY.029
gaira > goera ai > oe ᴹ√GAY > gaer > N. goer ✧ Ety/GAY.010
kai > koe ai > oe ᴹ√KEM > N. coe ✧ Ety/KEM.008
kainel > koenel ai > oe ᴹ√KEN > N. coenel ✧ EtyAC/KEN.024
laika > loeka ai > oe ON. laika > N. lhoeg ✧ EtyAC/LAIK.019
laipa > loepa ai > oe ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhoeb ✧ Ety/LÁYAK.007
maiɣa > moeɣa ai > oe ON. maiga > N. moe ✧ Ety/MASAG.018
maile > moele ai > oe ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. moel ✧ Ety/MIL-IK.023-1
maileka > moeleka ai > oe ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK.018-1
maite > moete ai > oe ON. maite > N. moed ✧ Ety/MAƷ.032
naira > noera ai > oe ᴹ√NAY > N. noer ✧ Ety/NAY.033
aiar > oear ai > oe ᴹ√ÁYAR > N. oear ✧ Ety/AY.040
aika > oeka ai > oe ᴹ√AYAK > N. oeg ✧ Ety/AYAK.011
aili > oeli ai > oe ᴹ✶ai-lin- > N. oel ✧ Ety/AY.010
air > oer ai > oe ᴹ√AI̯R > N. oer ✧ Ety/AY.041
airosse > oerosse ai > oe ᴹ√GOS > N. Oeros ✧ Ety/GOS.016
paine > poene ai > oe ON. †paine > N. †poen ✧ EtyAC/KWǢ.019
raika > roeka ai > oe ᴹ√RÁYAK > N. rhoeg ✧ Ety/RÁYAK.008

N. [ę̄] became [ae]; [ę̄] > [ae]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ę̄] > [ae] ✧ PE19/025.1103 (ę̄ > ei > ae); PE19/025.1109 (ę̄ > ei > ae)

Phonetic Rule Examples

gę̄rra > gaerra ę̄ > ae ON. gērrha > N. gaer ✧ Ety/GÁYAS.018

G. [ae] became [ai]; [ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Examples

gwaed > gwaid ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43.8901
gwaes > gwais ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43.9201