Q. nasals and liquids often became syllabic after a consonant; [ClV₁|ml|Cr|{ptk}{nm}] > [CV₁lV₁|mul|Car|{ptk}{an|um}]

Q. nasals and liquids often became syllabic after a consonant; [ClV₁|ml|Cr|{ptk}{nm}] > [CV₁lV₁|mul|Car|{ptk}{an|um}]

As discussed in the entry on how [r], [l] often became syllabic in clusters, in Ancient Quenya both r and l often became syllabic, where the vowel produced was generally a from syllabic but depended on the character of the preceding vowel for syllabic . There was a second wave of syllabification when r, l again came into contact with a preceding stops or voiceless spirants (originally aspirates) in Parmaquesta [PQ] and Tarquesta [TQ], as described in both the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology (OP2) from the 1950s. This second wave of vocalizations was essentially the same as the first, except that the development of syllabic often depended on the following rather than preceding vowel:

Where later, by analogy or by renewed suffixion, r (voiced) was again added to stops or aspirates the voiced r became syllabic. This syllabic r after consonants became ar, irrespective of the quality of the preceding vowel (OP1: PE19/40).
Where later, in PQ or TQ, by analogy of unaltered stems, or by renewed suffixion in newer formations (voiced) r was again added to stops or aspirates both l and r became syllabic. In the case of r the vowel developed was always a: > ar. In the case of the development was often the same as in the older strata, but in many cases a vowel was developed identical in quality with that immediately following the (OP2: PE19/83).

These developments are mentioned repeatedly in both OP1 (PE19/44, 49) and OP2 (PE19/86, 88, 100, 102) for more specific combinations, including late syllabifications after nasals (PE19/98). There is also evidence in phonetic notes from the late 1960s for the syllabification of nasals in late combination with voiceless stops, with > an and > um:

In later forms km > kum; kn > kan; tm > tum; tn > tan; pm > pum; pn > pan (PE22/150).

In almost all cases these combinations were modified in the ancient strata of the language via metathesis or other sound changes, so finding specific examples of these PQ/TQ sound changes is difficult.

Conceptual Development: For Early Qenya phonetic developments, see the discussion in the entries on how [r], [l] often became syllabic in clusters and how syllabic nasals developed a preceding vowel of similar quality.

References ✧ PE19/83, 86, 88, 98, 100, 102; PE22/150


Phonetic Rule Elements

[ClV₁] > [CV₁lV₁]
[ml] > [mul] ✧ PE19/98 (ml > mul)
[Cr] > [Car] ✧ PE19/83 (r > > ar; after stops or aspirates); PE19/86 (pr > par); PE19/86 (tr > tar); PE19/86 (kr > kar); PE19/98 (mr > mar); PE19/98 (n-r > nar); PE19/102 (z-r > zar)

ᴹQ. nasals and liquids often became syllabic after a consonant; [ClV₁|ml|Cr|{ptk}n|{ptk}m] > [CV₁lV₁|mul|Car|{ptk}an|{ptk}um]

References ✧ PE19/40, 44, 49

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Cl] > [-Cil]
[-aCl] > [-aCal]