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Early Quenya Semantic Categories

1. Physical World

1.21 Earth, Land

kemen n. “soil, earth”
kereksa adj. “of earthenware”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

aiqa adj. “steep, tall; high, lofty, sublime; chief”
ambapenda adj. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”
ambo n. “hill”
amun n. “hill”

1.24 Dale, Valley

kíla n. “edge, rim”

1.32 Sea

ea(r) n. “(young) eagle”
earen n. “eyrie, eagle”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin¹ n. “lake, pool”
ailo n. “lake, pool”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

aksa¹ n. “waterfall”
kelu(me) n. “stream; fountain, spring”

1.37 Spring, Well

ehtil n. “spring, fount, source”
ektele n. “fountain”
kektele n. “fountain”

1.61 Light

alka n. “ray (of light), light of day; shining”
alkar³ n. “shining, light of day”
kala n. “light, daytime (sunlight), 12 hours”

1.99 Physical World (other)

karkaras n. “row of spikes or teeth”
karkasse n. “row of spikes or teeth”

2. Mankind

2.35 Father

atar n. “father”
atta¹ n. “father (child’s word)”
attu n. “father”

2.36 Mother

ama n. “mother”
ambi n. “mother”
amis n. “mother”

2.41 Son

vondo n. “son”
n. “son”
yondo n. “son, male descendant, (great) grandson”

3. Animals

3.64 Bird

aiwe n. “bird”
karon n. “crow”
oive n. “bird”
oi(we) n. “bird”

3.77 Elephant

hunto n. “elephant”

3.85 Snake

oqi n. “snake”

3.86 Swan

alqa n. “swan”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.16 Bone

as n. “bone”

4.19 Back

ehta¹ n. “thorn”
ekke n. “thorn”

4.20 Head

kar n. “head”
kas n. “head, top”

4.204 Face

anta n. “cheek; jaw(s)”

4.207 Jaw

n. “jaw”
maqar n. “jaw”

4.22 Ear

ankar n. “ear (of men)”
unk(o) n. “ear (of animals); corner, sticking out edge”

4.24 Mouth

anto n. “jaw(s)”

4.27 Tooth

karka n. “fang, tooth, tusk”

4.332 Hand (other)

paltya n. “palm of hand”

4.63 to Wake

koivie n. “awakening; liveliness”
qívie n. “awakening”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

koirea adj. “alive, lively”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

kaimassea adj. “confined to bed, a-bed, bedridden”

5. Food and Drink

5.26 Pot

kalpa n. “bucket, vessel”

5.71 Fruit

kulmarin n. “orange”
kulurin n. “piece of gold; orange”

6. Clothing and Adornment

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.21 Room

kaimasambe n. “bed-chamber”
kaimasan n. “bed-room, bed-chamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando(n) n. “door, gate”
pondo n. “gate”

7.42 Bed

kaima n. “couch, bed”
kamba n. “bed”

7.45 Lamp

kalma n. “(day)light; candle”
kalumet n. “lamp”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

kalka n. “sickle”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alalme n. “elm (tree)”
alda n. “tree, branch”
aldeon n. “avenue of trees”

8.62 Beech

neldor n. “beech”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

kara- v. “to make, to do”
karina adj. “finished”
karma n. “shape, fashion; act, deed”

9.22 to Cut

kiris n. “cleft, crack”
kirkis n. “cleft, crack”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”
angaina adj. “of iron”
ere(n) n. “iron, steel”

9.71 Potter

keresto n. “potter”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.22 to Lift, Raise

qalume² adj. “heaving”

10.48 to Come

#antulu- v. “return”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

#ava- v. “to depart”
kiri- v. “to cleave; *to sail”
lutta- v. “to flow, float”
lutu- v. “to flow, float, sail”
vana- v. “to pass, depart, vanish, go away”

10.81 Ship

kirya n. “ship, boat”

11. Possession and Trade

11.21 to Give

an n. “gift”
anar n. “giver”
anta- v. “to give”

12. Spatial Relations

12.14 to Lie, Recline

kaita- v. “to place, lie down”
kama- v. “to lie down; (c. loc.) to endure, suffer”
kamu- v. “to lay down, bend down, reduce”
kaya- v. “to lie”

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

er- v. “to remain”

12.392 Out, Outside

ere-¹ pref. “out”
erúmea adj. “outer, outermost”
erus(ta) n. and adj. “outside”
es- pref. “*out”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

amba adv. “up”
am(u)- pref. “up(wards)”
amu adv. “up(wards)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to(wards), until”
ana- pref.

12.399 From, Away

au prep. “away from”

12.44 Far (adj)

en n. “that by you; thereupon”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long”
ande(a) adj. “long (of space)”
andra adj. “long”

12.81 Round (adj)

korima adj. “round”

12.82 Circle

korin n. “circular enclosure, great circular hedge”

12.85 Hole

apsa n. “hole, opening”

13. Quantity and Number

13.25 Fraction, Division

kesto fraction. “one tenth”

13.31 Numerals

ende num. card. “six”
enekse num. card. “six”
enetya num. ord. “sixth”
enqe num. card. “six”
kanta num. card. “four”
kanya num. ord. “fourth”
satta adj. “both”
satto adj. “both; the two”

13.33 Alone, Only

er¹ adj. “one; a single”
er² conj. “only, but, still”
erda adj. “solitary, deserted”
eresse adv. “alone, by oneself, singly, only; once”
eressea adj. “lonely”
erya adj. “only, single”

14. Time

14.35 Again

#an- pref. “re-”
att- pref. “bi-, twi-”
ento adv. “next”

14.37 After

pote adv. “after, behind (of place)”

14.41 Day

aure n. “sunlight, sunshine, gold light, warmth”

14.43 Dawn

amunte n. “sun-rise, (lit.) lifting”
oronte n. “sun-rise”

14.44 Morning

arinya adj. “fireside”
kále n. “morning”

14.64 Tuesday

aldea adj. “tree-shadowed”

14.71 Month

*-nto suf. “fraction suffix”

14.75 Spring

koi n. “life”
koile n. “life”
koire n. “life”
koito n. “*life”

15. Sense Perception

15.51 to See

kili- v. “to see, head”
sehta- v. “to see”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

kala- v. “to shine”
kalta- v. “to kindle, set light to”

15.57 Bright

kal(l)u- v. “to illuminate, to light up”

15.66 Red

karne adj. “red”
kulmarinda adj. “orange-coloured”
kuluina adj. “golden”
kuluksa adj. “golden”
kulurinda adj. “orange-coloured”
kuluvoite adj. “golden”

15.78 Sharp

aika adj. “broad, vast”

16. Emotion

16.31 Pain, Suffering

angayasse n. “misery”

16.47 Fame, Glory

alkar¹ n. “glory”
alkara adj. “brilliant, bright, shining”

16.99 Emotion (other)

faika² adj. “bad, worthless, useless”
falka² adj. “bad”

17. Mind and Thought

17.20 Imagination

aule adj. “shaggy”

18. Language and Music

18.14 Various Cries

ai interj. “o!, ha!”
ala¹ interj prep. “behold, look; beyond, after; before”
áye interj. “hail”
ea interj. “a cry of pain or woe”

18.24 Language

Eldarin adj. “Elfin”

18.28 Name

en(we) n. “name”

19. Social Relations

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “place, spot”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.26 Spear

ehta² n. “sword-point”
ehtar n. “swordsman; sword”
ektar¹ n. “swordsman”
ekte n. “sword”
elk n. “spear”
eska n. “spear, spike”
mektar n.

20.33 Helmet

kalla n. “helmet”
kasien n. “helmet”

21. Law and Judgment

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Enu n. “God Almighty, Almighty Creator”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy, revered, worshipful”
aira adj. “holy, worshipful”

22.33 Angel

Aini n. “a (pagan) Goddess”
Ainu n. “a (pagan) God”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

kuru n. “magic, wizardry”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Elda n. “Elf; beach-fay”
Eldalie n. “People of the Elves, Elf-folk”

23. Grammar

23.3 Preposition

ar² n. “to, against, next, on (wall)”
are¹ adv. “beside, along”
na prep. “for”

23.4 Pronoun

hea pron. “it (emphatic); 3rd sg. neut. pronoun”
hie pron. “she (emphatic); 3rd sg. fem. pronoun”
húyo pron. “he (emphatic); 3rd sg. masc. pronoun”
melmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. exclusive pronoun”
qelmo pron. “we (emphatic); 1st pl. inclusive pronoun”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

ari- pref. “intensive”

23.8 Conjunction

ar(a) conj. “but; and”

23.9 Affix

har(e) prep. “near”