N. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

GS/§4.114 GS/§4.203 GS/§4.212 @@@

References ✧ PE22/030.1901; PE22/034.1101; PE22/035.1601; PE22/035.2201; PE22/035.2701; PE22/035.3401

Variations

Order (05100)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
After 00700 voiceless [j̊], [w̥] became [x], [xw̥] ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn Ety/SWIN
After 00900 initial [w] became [gw] ᴹ√WEN/WENED > gwend > N. gwenn Ety/WEN
After 01000 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor Ety/ELED
After 01200 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn Ety/TUN
After 01400 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn Ety/PHEN
After 02100 short [e], [a], [o] became [i], [e], [œ] preceding [i] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin Ety/TIN
After 02200 short final vowels vanished ON. branda > brand > N. brann
ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m)
Ety/BARÁD
Ety/DARÁM
After 02400 initial [r], [l] were unvoiced ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann
ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham
Ety/LAD
Ety/RAMBĀ
After 03400 [nr] became [ðr] N. Belerian(d)ren PE22/36
After 03500 initial [x] became [h] ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann Ety/KHAN
After 03900 medial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon Ety/LOD
After 04600 non-initial [h] vanished ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell Ety/TIN
After 05000 [lð] became [ll] or [lt] ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell
ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel
Ety/TIN
Ety/TIN
Before 05400 [mm] shortened ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) Ety/DARÁM

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb] > [mm] ✧ PE19/020.0406 (amb- > amm-); PE19/020.1606 (amb- > amm-); PE19/023.2406 (-mb- > mb, mm)
[nd] > [nn] ✧ PE19/020.0706 (and- > ann-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. am ✧ Ety/AM².025
amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√ANGWA > N. am- ✧ Ety/ANGWA.010
ambar > ammar mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > N. amar ✧ Ety/MBAR.015
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT.008
ambaθ > ammaθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ambath > N. amath ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H).010
ambon > ammon mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. amon ✧ Ety/AM².030
damb > damm mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. dam ✧ Ety/NDAM.023
damba- > damma- mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. damma- ✧ Ety/NDAM.026
dramb > dramm mb > mm ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) ✧ Ety/DARÁM.005
dumb > dumm mb > mm ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > N. dum ✧ EtyAC/NDUB.009
emberein > emmerein mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > Emerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR.018
gemb > gemm mb > mm ᴹ√GENG-WĀ > gemb > N. gem ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ.007
glamb > glamm mb > mm ᴹ√G-LAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/GLAM.012
glamb > glamm mb > mm ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/ÑGAL.012
glambr > glammr mb > mm ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor ✧ Ety/GLAM.023
goθmbaug > goθmmaug mb > mm ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW.030
himb > himm mb > mm ᴹ√KHIM > N. him ✧ Ety/KHIM.018
imb > imm mb > mm ᴹ√IMBE > im(b) > N. imm ✧ EtyAC/IMBE.008
kamb > kamm mb > mm ᴹ√KAB > camb > N. cam ✧ Ety/KAB.010
kamb > kamm mb > mm ON. kamba > N. camm ✧ Ety/MAƷ.018
kramb > kramm mb > mm ᴹ√KRAB > cramb > N. cram ✧ Ety/KRAB.004
kromb > kromm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM.007
krumb > krumm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum ✧ Ety/KURÚM.003
kumb > kumm mb > mm ᴹ√KUB > cumb > N. cum ✧ Ety/KUB.008
l̥amb > l̥amm mb > mm ᴹ√LAB > N. lham(b) ✧ Ety/LAB.007
l̥imb > l̥imm mb > mm ᴹ✶liñwi > lhimb > N. lhim ✧ Ety/LIW.008
l̥imbid- > l̥immid- mb > mm ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI.007
l̥omb > l̥omm mb > mm ON. lumba > N. lhom ✧ EtyAC/LUB.008
l̥umb > l̥umm mb > mm ᴹ√LUM > N. lhum ✧ Ety/LUM.024
nemb > nemm mb > mm ᴹ√NEÑ-WI > nemb > N. nem ✧ Ety/NEÑ-WI.010
r̥amb > r̥amm mb > mm ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ.008
r̥emb > r̥emm mb > mm ON. rimba > rhemb > N. rhem ✧ Ety/RIM.010
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ON. rimbe > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RIM.020
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ᴹ√RINGI > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RINGI.037
r̥omb > r̥omm mb > mm ON. romba > N. rhom ✧ Ety/ROM.019
tamba- > tamma- mb > mm ᴹ✶tambā́- > N. tammo ✧ Ety/TAM.018
tumb > tumm mb > mm ᴹ✶tumbu > N. tum ✧ Ety/TUB.012
θamb > θamm mb > mm ᴹ✶stambē > thamb > N. tham ✧ Ety/STAB.019
aŋgolond > aŋgolonn nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > N. Angolonn ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD.040
and > ann nd > nn ᴹ✶andā > and > N. ann ✧ Ety/ÁNAD.009
anda- > anna- nd > nn *ᴹ✶anda > N. *anna- ✧ Ety/MBUD.021-1
andabond > annabond nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD.021
annabond > annabonn nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD.021
andon > annon nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. annon ✧ Ety/AD.009
andūn > annūn nd > nn ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > N. annûn ✧ Ety/NDŪ.042
balandor > balannor nd > nn ON. Balandor > N. Balannor ✧ Ety/BAL.140
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann ✧ Ety/MBAD.008
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ√BAD² > band > N. bann ✧ EtyAC/BAD².005
banwend > banwenn nd > nn ON. Bana-wende > Banwend > N. Banwen ✧ Ety/BAN.030
bind > binn nd > nn ᴹ√GWINDI > bind > N. binn ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI.010
bond > bonn nd > nn *ᴹ✶mbundā > N. *bon ✧ Ety/MBUD.021-2
brand > brann nd > nn ON. branda > brand > N. brann ✧ Ety/BARÁD.045
bund > bunn nd > nn ᴹ✶mbundu > bund > N. bunn ✧ Ety/MBUD.011
dend > denn nd > nn ᴹ√DEN > dend > N. denn ✧ Ety/DEN.036
duilind > duilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶dōmilindē > N. duilin ✧ SD/302.3608
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOƷ/DÔ > dúlind > N. dúlin(n) ✧ Ety/DOƷ.065
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > dúlind > N. dúlin ✧ Ety/TIN.145
edleðond > edleðonn nd > nn ON. etledro > N. egledhron ✧ Ety/LED.028
elendor > elennor nd > nn ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor ✧ Ety/ELED.056
emmlind > emmlinn nd > nn ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL.069
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ√DER > N. Enner ✧ Ety/TULUK.034
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ✶Enderō > N. Enner ✧ EtyAC/E.033
endin > ennin nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > N. ennin ✧ Ety/YEN.064
eθrend > eθrenn nd > nn ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN.065
fend > fenn nd > nn ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn ✧ Ety/PHEN.008
findel > finnel nd > nn ON. sphindéle > findel > N. finnel ✧ Ety/SPIN.018
findgon > finŋgon nd > nn ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN.035
findrod > finnrod nd > nn ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN.012
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGAN/ÑGANAD > N. gannado ✧ Ety/ÑGAN.026
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGAN/ÑGANAD > N. ganno ✧ Ety/ÑGAN.028
gandell > gannell nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGAN/ÑGANAD > gandel > N. gannel ✧ Ety/ÑGAN.023
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLIN > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLIN.011
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLINDI > glind > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLINDI.006
gondolind > gondolinn nd > nn ᴹ✶Gond-dol-ind > N. Gondolin ✧ EtyAC/DUL.025
gond > gonn nd > nn ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > N. gonn ✧ Ety/GOND.010
gwend > gwenn nd > nn ᴹ√WEN/WENED > gwend > N. gwenn ✧ Ety/WEN.009
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ Ety/WIN.014
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ EtyAC/WIN.044
gwinda- > gwinna- nd > nn ON. winda > N. gwinna ✧ EtyAC/WIN.069
hand > hann nd > nn ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann ✧ Ety/KHAN.027
hend > henn nd > nn ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. henn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E.008
herond > heronn nd > nn ᴹ√KHER > N. heron ✧ EtyAC/KHER.025
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > iðrind > N. iðrin ✧ Ety/RIN.012
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ✶ı̯en-rinde > N. îðrin ✧ Ety/YEN.055
ind > inn nd > nn ᴹ√ID > N. inn/ind ✧ Ety/ID.023
jond > jonn nd > nn ᴹ√YON > N. ionn ✧ Ety/YŌ.008
kallond > kallonn nd > nn ᴹ✶kalrondō > N. callon ✧ Ety/KAL.063
kand > kann nd > nn ᴹ✶kandā > N. cann ✧ Ety/KAN.016
krand > krann nd > nn ᴹ✶k’randā > crand > N. crann ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN.021
kund > kunn nd > nn ᴹ√KUND-Ū > N. †cunn ✧ Ety/KUNDŪ.006
l̥and > l̥ann nd > nn ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann ✧ Ety/LAD.010
l̥aθrond > l̥aθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶la(n)sro-ndo > N. lhathron ✧ Ety/LAS².031
l̥ind > l̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√LIN² > lhind > N. lhinn ✧ Ety/LIN².011
lond > lonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > lond > N. lonn ✧ Ety/AK.026
l̥ond > l̥onn nd > nn ᴹ✶londē > N. lhonn ✧ Ety/LOD.008
mellond > mellonn nd > nn ᴹ√MEL > meldon > N. mellon ✧ EtyAC/MEL.068
mindond > mindonn nd > nn ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN.033
mindass > minnass nd > nn ᴹ√MINI > N. minnas ✧ Ety/MINI.025
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin ✧ Ety/TIN.156
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn ✧ EtyAC/TIN.026
nand > nann nd > nn ᴹ√NAD > nand > N. nann ✧ Ety/NAD.010
nend > nenn nd > nn ᴹ✶nendā > nend > N. nenn ✧ Ety/NEN.021
nind > ninn nd > nn ᴹ√NIN-DI > N. ninn ✧ Ety/NIN-DI.008
oðrond > oðronn nd > nn ᴹ✶onrō > N. odhron ✧ Ety/ONO.023
oθlond > oθlonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon ✧ Ety/LOD.014
pand > pann nd > nn ᴹ√PAD > N. pann ✧ Ety/PAD.009
pend > penn nd > nn ᴹ√PEN/PÉNED > pend > N. penn ✧ Ety/PEN.017
peθrond > peθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET.024
r̥end > r̥enn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > N. rhenn ✧ Ety/RIN.015
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ√RIG > N. rhien ✧ Ety/TĀ.194
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ✶rīʒende > N. rhiend ✧ EtyAC/RIG.033
r̥ind > r̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > N. rhinn/rhind ✧ Ety/RIN.008
r̥ond > r̥onn nd > nn ᴹ√ROD > rhond > N. rhonn ✧ Ety/ROD.007
sund > sunn nd > nn ᴹ√SUD > N. sunn ✧ EtyAC/SUD.013
tindu > tinnu nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > tindumh > tindu > N. tinnu ✧ Ety/TIN.072
tindūviell > tinnūviell nd > nn ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel ✧ Ety/TIN.115
tond > tonn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn ✧ Ety/TUN.015
tuilind > tuilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶tuilelindō > tuilind > N. tuilinn ✧ Ety/TUY.036
tund > tunn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundu > tund > N. tunn ✧ Ety/TUN.007
tūrind > tūrinn nd > nn ᴹ√TUR > N. Túrin(n) ✧ Ety/ID.038
θaliond > θalionn nd > nn ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thalion ✧ Ety/STÁLAG.013
θand > θann nd > nn ᴹ√STAN > thand > N. thann ✧ Ety/STAN.011
θavrond > θavronn nd > nn ON. sthabro(ndo) > N. thavron ✧ Ety/STAB.043
θind > θinn nd > nn ᴹ✶thindi > thind > N. thinn ✧ Ety/THIN.051
θlind > θlinn nd > nn ᴹ✶slindi > thlind > N. thlinn ✧ Ety/SLIN.017
θond > θonn nd > nn ᴹ√STUD > thund > N. thonn ✧ EtyAC/SUD.004
Uinend > Uinenn nd > nn ON. Uinenda > Uinend > N. Uinen ✧ Ety/UY.021
ulund > ulunn nd > nn ᴹ✶ulgundō > ulund > N. ulun ✧ Ety/ÚLUG.024
xw̥and > xw̥ann nd > nn ᴹ✶swanda > chwand > N. chwann/hwand ✧ Ety/SWAD.009
xw̥ind > xw̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn ✧ Ety/SWIN.018

G. [mβ] became [mb]; [mβ] > [mb]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04300)

Before 04400 [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mβ] > [mb]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kwimβ > kwimb mβ > mb ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28.7901

G. [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally; [n{dð}|-mb] > [nn|m]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04400)

After 04300 [mβ] became [mb]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[nd] > [nn]
[nd] > [nd]
[-mb] > [-m]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kamb > kam -mb > -m ᴱ✶kamba > G. cam ✧ GL/25.1905
kwimb > kwim -mb > -m ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28.7901
tlimb > tlim -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. climli ✧ GL/26.2901
tlumb > tlum -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. clum ✧ GL/26.3003
mband > mband nd > nd ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > G. band ✧ PME/058.9106
amund > amunn nd > nn ᴱ✶amundǝ > G. amon ✧ PE13/110.0101
and > ann nd > nn ᴱ✶anda > G. [a]nn ✧ PE13/110.3801
andai > annai nd > nn ᴱ✶ṇ̄dai > G. annai ✧ GL/19.7801
bend > benn nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. †benn ✧ GL/22.2803
benda- > benna- nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. benna- ✧ GL/22.3801
brond > brond nd > nn ᴱ√VORO > G. brod ✧ LT1A/Bronweg.017
glonθend > glonθenn nd > nn ᴱ✶glon-χend > G. glonthen ✧ GL/40.0901
gwarenda > gwarenna nd > nn ᴱ✶ŋuarenđā > G. gwarin(n) ✧ GL/44.5401
gwendin > gwennin nd > nn ᴱ√gu̯eđe > G. gwennin ✧ GL/45.1701
handa- > hanna- nd > nn ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ > G. †hanna- ✧ GL/48.0701
ndrond > ndronn nd > nn ᴱ√NORO > G. drond ✧ LT1A/Nornorë.059
sindai > sinnai nd > nn ᴱ✶sind(an)ai > G. sinnai ✧ GL/68.1501