OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals; [{ptk}{mn}] > [{bdg}{mnŋ}]

OS. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals; [{ptk}{mn}] > [{bdg}{mnŋ}]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, voiceless stops became voiced stops before nasals. There is a clear description of this sound change in notes associated with The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor from the late 1960s:

In Sindarin voiceless stops (i.e. p, t, k) before nasals became voiced > b, d, g, and then together with the original voiced stops in this position became nasals before homorganic nasals (tn, dn > nn; pm, bm > mm), but before other nasals became spirants as generally medially (pn, bn > vn; tm, dm > ðm, later ðv, ðw; kn, gn > gn > in; km, gm > gm > im > iv, iw) (VT42/26).

It is hard to find obvious Sindarin examples of this sound change, but there are a fair number of examples in Noldorin:

As shown by these examples, the sound change must have occurred in Old Noldorin, and David Salo attributes the change to Old Sindarin in his Gateway to Sindarin (GS/§4.46). There a few similar sound changes in Welsh, notably [tn] > [dn], but there the changes are less comprehensive (WGCH/§104i).

Conceptual Development: There are not enough examples in Gnomish or Early Noldorin to determine what these developments were at that conceptual stage of the Early Period.

References ✧ PE22/148; VT42/26

Order (01100)

Before 03600 [bm], [dn] became [mm], [nn]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pn] > [bn] ✧ VT42/26 (pn > bn)
[tn] > [dn] ✧ VT42/26 (tn > dn)
[kn] > [gn] ✧ VT42/26 (kn > gn)
[pm] > [bm] ✧ VT42/26 (pm > bm)
[tm] > [dm] ✧ VT42/26 (tm > dm)
[km] > [gm] ✧ VT42/26 (km > gm)

Phonetic Rule Examples

okma > ogma km > gm okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170
tekmā > tegmā km > gm tekmā > tegmā > teŋw > S. tēw ✧ PE17/43
tekmā > tegmā km > gm tek-mā > S. tew ✧ PE17/44
tekmā > tegmā km > gm tekma > teŋ̃ma > S. tēw ✧ PE17/44
tekmī > tegmī km > gm tekmāi > tekmī > tiŋw > S. tīw ✧ PE17/43
tekmī > tegmī km > gm teñmi > tiñm(i) > S. tîw ✧ PE17/44

ON. voiceless stops were voiced before nasals; [{ptk}{mn}] > [{bdg}{mn}]

GS/§4.46 @@@

References ✧ PE22/26, 35

Order (01700)

Before 04700 voiced stops became nasals before nasals

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pn] > [bn]
[tn] > [dn]
[kn] > [gn]
[pm] > [bm]
[tm] > [dm]
[km] > [gm]

Phonetic Rule Examples

nakma > nagma km > gm ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK
rakmē > ragmē km > gm ᴹ✶rakmē > ON. ragme ✧ Ety/RAK
takma > tagma km > gm ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK
tekmē > tegmē km > gm ᴹ✶tekmē > N. tîw ✧ Ety/TEK
tulukmē > tulugmē km > gm ᴹ✶tulukmē > ON. tulugme ✧ Ety/TULUK
lekna > legna kn > gn ᴹ√LEK > lhein > N. lhain ✧ Ety/LEK
ndakno > ndagno kn > gn ᴹ√NDAK > ON. ndagno ✧ Ety/NDAK
kelepna > kelebna pn > bn ᴹ√KYÉLEP > celefn > N. celevon ✧ Ety/KYELEP
lepnar > lebnar pn > bn ᴹ✶lepenar > N. lhevnar ✧ EtyAC/LEP
jatmē > jadmē tm > dm ᴹ✶yatmā > N. ianw ✧ Ety/YAT
jatmē > jadmē tm > dm ᴹ✶yatmā > ON. yadme ✧ Ety/ƷEL
matna > madna tn > dn ᴹ✶matna > N. mann ✧ EtyAC/MAT
patnā > padnā tn > dn ᴹ✶patnā > N. pann ✧ Ety/PAT
patna- > padna- tn > dn ᴹ√PAT > N. panno ✧ Ety/PAT