✶Ad. medial [w] and [j] vanished before [u] and [i]; [Xwu|Xji] > [Xøu|Xøi]

✶Ad. medial [w] and [j] vanished before [u] and [i]; [Xwu|Xji] > [Xøu|Xøi]

The semi-vowels [w] and [j] vanished medially when they were followed by their corresponding vowels [u] and [i], respectively (SD/419). Tolkien indicated they “disappeared prehistorically” in this position. They did, however, survive at the beginning of words (SD/419).

When the preceding vowel was the same as the following, this would result in a long vowel. Otherwise if the preceding vowel was an [a], the result would be one of the two primitive diphthongs [au] or [ai]. When the combinations were [ui] or [iu], however, the result was not a diphthong and the [w] or [j] was restored when the glide consonant [w] or [j] was inserted between [u] or [i] and a following distinct vowel.

Reference ✧ SD/419

Order (00300)

Before 00500 Ad. [ɣ] became [w], [j] between [u], [i] and another vowel


Phonetic Rule Elements

[Xwu] > [Xøu] ✧ SD/419 ([Xwu] > [Xøu])
[Xji] > [Xøi] ✧ SD/419 ([Xji] > [Xøi])

Phonetic Rule Examples

-jī > -ī Xji > Xøi ✶Ad. -yī > Ad. ✧ SD/429
izrēji > izrēi Xji > Xøi ✶Ad. izray+yi > izrai+yi > izrēyi > izrêi > Ad. izrê ✧ SD/424
manōji > manōi Xji > Xøi ✶Ad. manaw+yi > manau+yi > manōyi > Ad. manôi ✧ SD/424
zājīn > zāīn Xji > Xøi Ad. †zāyīn > *zāīn > Ad. zâin ✧ SD/423