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ᴹ√S root. “demonstrative stem”

⚠️ᴹ√S root. “demonstrative stem”
se “he, she, it, 3rd person singular pronoun”
sa “3 sg. neuter [it], the thing, impersonal; this by me, [ᴱ√] demonstrative”

An element described as a “demonstrative stem” in The Etymologies of the 1930s serving as the basis for gendered primitive and Noldorin pronouns like ᴹ✶sī̆/sē̆/N. he “she”, ᴹ✶sū̆/sō̆/N. ho “he”, and N. ha “it” (Ety/S). It was a later iteration of the demonstrative root ᴱ√SA from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/81), and primitive ✶sa appeared in Tolkien’s later writings as a neuter pronoun (VT49/51-52), also sometimes used as a demonstrative (PE22/119). Genders based on sex were a feature of the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s (PE13/131), but in Tolkien’s later writings the Elvish grammatical genders were animate ✶se (= both “he” and “she”) vs. inanimate ✶sa “it” (VT49/37).

Reference ✧ Ety/S ✧ “demonstrative stem”


ᴱ√SA root. “demonstrative”

See ᴹ√S for discussion.

References ✧ QL/81