S. Calenardhon loc. “Green Province”

S. Calenardhon, loc. “Green Province”

The name of the Gondorian province that would become Rohan (LotR/678), translated “Green Province” (RC/477) or “(great) green region” (Let/383). The initial element is clearly calen “green” (SA/calen). Tolkien stated that its final element is the suffix -(i)on “land” (UT/318), but the translation “(great) green region” indicates he may also have considered the augmentative suffix -on². Its middle element is most likely (g)ardh “region”; if so, the ending of this word might be a lenited form of a noun *gardhon meaning “province”.

Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, this region was first named ᴹQ. Elenarda, revised to (mixed language?) Kalenarda or Kalinarda (WR/155-6). Tolkien soon changed the name again to Calenardan >> N. Calenardhon (WR/168), and kept this name thereafter.

References ✧ Let/383; LotRI; PMI; RC/477; SA/calen; SI; TII; UT/318; UTI

Glosses

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Elements

calen “green; fresh, vigorous; †bright” ✧ SA/calen
gardh “region”
-ion² “-region, -land” ✧ UT/318 (-ond)

N. Calenardhon loc.

See S. Calenardhon for discussion.

References ✧ WR/168; WRI

Variations

Changes

Elements

calen “green, bright colored”
ardh “realm”
?

N. Kalenarda loc.

Earlier name of Calenardhon in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (WR/155), perhaps a mix-language combination of N. calen “green” and ᴹQ. arda “realm”. It also appeared as Kalinarda (WR/156), which might be the pure Quenya form of the name as suggested by Roman Rausch (EE/§3.17).

See S. Calenardhon for further discussion.

References ✧ WR/155-156; WRI/Calenardhon

Variations

Related

Elements

calen “green, bright colored”
ᴹQ. arda “realm, region”