Reference Index

Here is a list of abbreviations for the sources used in this lexicon, with links to citations for individual sources.

Primary Sources

The following publications include primary source material, written by Tolkien himself.

Major Works:

It is common in the literature to cite some of Tolkien’s major linguistic works directly by name rather than by the source in which the text appear. This lexicon also follows this convention. The dates in the citations below are the dates of probable composition.


To avoid referencing every appearance of a proper name in a given primary source, this lexicon instead references its entry in that source’s index. Proper names are only referenced directly in primary sources if its appearance includes other important linguistic information, such as a translation or etymology of the name. The indices also sometimes include linguistic information not available elsewhere.


Some of the primary sources include large appendices of word lists compiled by Christopher Tolkien. These are referenced separately from the main works.

Secondary Sources

The following documents include analysis of primary material, but do not themselves include original writing by Tolkien. Some are specific to particular languages, as noted below.




Minor Elvish Languages (Ilkorin, Danian and Others):