S. Ras-Arphain loc.
Conceptual Development: The earliest precursor of this name was G. Danigwethil, the Gnomish cognate of ᴱQ. Taniqetil in the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s (GL/29). This version of the name seems to be a combination of dâ “high” and nigweth “(snow) storm”, as suggested by Christopher Tolkien (LT1A/Taniquetil). This name had numerous variants, and evolved into ᴱN. Taingwethil in the Lays of Beleriand from the 1920s (LB/49, 135). A similar name TainBethil appeared in Early Noldorin notes from the same period as a combination of ᴱN. tain¹ “mountain” and ᴱN. pethil (PE13/152); the later word was unglossed but was probably equivalent to the -qetil in ᴱQ. Taniqetil.
Starting with Tolkien’s writings in the 1930s, the usual Noldorin/Sindarin name for this mountain was Amon Uilos, cognate to its other Quenya name Oiolossë. He gave a few other Noldorin/Sindarin names, but none were direct cognates of Q. Taniquetil. In The Etymologies from the 1930s, he gave N. Nimdildor “High White Horn” derived from ᴹ✶Ninkwitil(di) Tára, a combination of nimdil “white horn” and taur² “high” (Ety/NIK-W, TĀ). In the “Quendi and Eldar” essay from 1959-60 he gave the Sindarin form Ras-Arphain noted above (WJ/403).
References ✧ WJ/403; WJI
|ar(a)-||“noble, royal, high”|
|fain||“white, shimmering, shining; dim, dimmed; filmy, fine-woven; (vague) apparition; cloud”||plural|
N. Nimdildor loc. “High White Horn”
References ✧ Ety/NIK-W, TĀ
|nimdil||“white horn”||✧ Ety/TĀ|
|taur²||“vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge; high, sublime”||soft-mutation||✧ Ety/TĀ (dor)|
ᴱN. Taingwethil loc.
References ✧ LB/22, 49, 79, 135; LBI/Tain-gwethil, Tengwethil; PE13/152; SM/12, 80; SMI
G. Danigwethil loc.
References ✧ GL/29; LB/22; LBI; LT1A/Taniquetil; LT2A/Danigwiel; LT2I/Danigwiel; PE13/103, 112; PE15/22
|dâ||“high”||✧ GL/29; LT1A/Taniquetil|
|nigweth||“(snow) storm”||✧ LT1A/Taniquetil|