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S. #achar- v. “to avenge, do back, react, requite”

S. #achar-, v. “to avenge, do back, react, requite”

A verb meaning “to avenge”, derived from the Sindarin-only root √AK “hostile return” (PE17/167), probably in combination with ✶kar- “to do” and hence literally “do back with hostility”.

Conceptual Development: The initial element of this word was first derived from √AT “again” (PE17/166). Apparently the prefix ✶at- (also meaning “twice”) did not have the connotation Tolkien wanted, because he rejected this etymology, and went on to explore several different possible primitive forms meaning “back (again)”. Among these discussions, he coined the new root √AK, from which he derived the related Sindarin words acharn “(act of) revenge” and achared “vengeance”. The latter is clearly the gerund of achar-, so it seems this was also the new derivation of this verb.

References ✧ PE17/166-167




achared gerund “vengeance” ✧ PE17/167


AT “two, double, bi-, di-; back, re-; across, over, lying from side to side” ✧ PE17/166 (AT)
AK “hostile return” ✧ PE17/167

Element In