Neo-Sindarin Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

S., N. amar n. “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️ᴱN. barth n. “world, earth”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️ᴱN. blador n. “world”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”

1.21 Earth, Land

⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^cae n. “earth”; see instead:
S. ceven “*earth; Earth”
⚠️ᴺS. ^cefn adj. “of earth, earthen”; see instead:
N. cevn “of earth, earthen”
S. ceven n. “*earth; Earth”
N. cevn adj. “of earth, earthen”
⚠️N. coe n. “earth”; see instead:
S. ceven “*earth; Earth”
⚠️G. -gen suf. “*earth”
S., N. -ian(d) suf. “-land”
⚠️G. mar n. “Earth, ground, soil”; see instead:
S. amar “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”
⚠️G. maragwast n. “earth quake”
⚠️ᴱN. unnor adj. “without a land”
⚠️ᴱN. urnor adj. “landless”

1.212 Ground, Soil

N. cef n. “soil”
⚠️G. grosgen n. “soil”; see instead:
N. cef “soil”
⚠️G. groth n. “earth, soil”; see instead:
N. cef “soil”
S. groth “large excavation, delving, underground dwelling; [N.] cave, tunnel”
⚠️G. ham n. “ground, level of Earth’s service [surface]”; see instead:
N. talaf “ground, floor”

1.213 Dust, Powder

N. ast n. “dust”
ᴺS. !astren adj. “dusty”
⚠️ᴱN. lhith n. “dust”; see instead:
S. lith “ash; [N.] sand”
N. ast “dust”
⚠️G. thith n. “dust”; see instead:
S. lith “ash; [N.] sand”
N. ast “dust”
⚠️G. thithrin adj. “dusty”; see instead:
ᴺS. !astren “dusty”
⚠️ᴱN. yrlhith adj. “dustless”

1.214 Mud, Mire

S., N. both n. “fen, marsh; [N.] puddle, small pool”
⚠️N. mada adj. “soft, pliant, yielding”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mae² “soft, pliant”
S. madha “mud”
S. madha n. “mud”
ᴺS. !madhren adj. “muddy”
⚠️G. ôs n. “bog”
⚠️G. ûg n. “mud”; see instead:
S. madha “mud”
⚠️G. ûgrin adj. “muddy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !madhren “muddy”

1.215 Sand, Grit

⚠️G. armin n. “desert, waste”; see instead:
N. eru “waste, desert”
N. eru n. “waste, desert”
⚠️G. marol n. “sand”; see instead:
S. lith “ash; [N.] sand”
⚠️G. ôr n. “dry sand”; see instead:
S. lith “ash; [N.] sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

S. achad n. “rock ridge, neck (geographically)”
S., N., ᴱN., G. amon n. “hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; ⚠️[G.] steep slope”
⚠️G. môn n. “bare hill, knoll”
⚠️G. nog n. “hill, knob, prominence”; see instead:
N. dolt¹ “round knob, boss”
S., N., ᴱN., G. orod n. “mountain”
S. orodben n. “mountaineer, one living in the mountains”
S. pind n. “crest, ridge”
⚠️ᴱN. tain¹ n. “mountain”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
N. *tilias n. “?mountain range”
⚠️ᴱN., G. tûn n. “mound, bare hill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tund¹ “hill, mound”
ᴺS. [N.] ^tund¹ n. “hill, mound”
⚠️N. tunn n. “hill, mound”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tund¹ “hill, mound”

1.221 Peak, Summit

ᴺS. [N.] ^aegas n. “mountain peak”
S. #aeglir n. “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
⚠️ᴱN. aiglir n. “peak, mountain top”; see instead:
S. #aeglir “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
⚠️ᴱN. dain² n. “height, summit; height, loftiness, sublimity”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
⚠️G. dorm n. “summit”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
N. egnas n. “sharp point, peak”
⚠️N. feleg n. “(animal’s) horn; steep mountain peak”
S. min¹ n. “peak”
⚠️N. oegas n. “mountain peak”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aegas “mountain peak”
⚠️N. oeglir n. “range of mountain peaks”; see instead:
S. #aeglir “line of peaks, [N.] range of mountain peaks; ⚠️[ᴱN.] peak, mountain top”
⚠️G. orm n. “hill top, summit”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
N. taen¹ n. “height, summit of high mountain”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

⚠️N. aclod adj. “sloping, tilted”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlod “sloping, tilted”
ᴺS. [N.] ^adlant adj. “oblique, slanted”
⚠️ᴱN. amvinn n. “slope, incline, hillside”; see instead:
S. pind “crest, ridge”
⚠️N. atlant adj. “oblique, slanted”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlant “oblique, slanted”
S. avras n. “precipice”
⚠️ᴱN. benn adj. “sloping, inclined, slanting, up or down hill”; see instead:
S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
⚠️ᴱN. binn n. “slope, hillside, bank”; see instead:
S. pind “crest, ridge”
S. brass n. “great cliff”
⚠️G. falchos n. “cliffs”; see instead:
S. brass “great cliff”
S. îf n. “cliff, sheer descent”
⚠️G. numbros n. “incline, slope”; see instead:
N. talad “incline, slope”
⚠️G. ol n. “cliff, seaward precipice”
S., N. pend n. and adj. “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
N. pendrath n. “passage up or down slope, stairway”
N. rhass n. “precipice”
⚠️G. rost n. “slope, hill side, ascent”; see instead:
S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
S. #rost “rainy”
N. talad n. “incline, slope”
⚠️ᴱN. tlad n. “hillside, slope”; see instead:
N. talad “incline, slope”
⚠️ᴱN. tleth adj. “sloping, slanting, leaning”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlant “oblique, slanted”

1.223 Mound, Pile

⚠️ᴱN. bala n. “round hump, hump, hillock”
⚠️G. caum n. “knob”; see instead:
N. dolt¹ “round knob, boss”
S., N. cerin n. “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”
S., N. coron n. “mound; [N.] globe, ball”
⚠️N., ᴱN., G. cum n. “mound, heap, ⚠️[G.] burial mound”; see instead:
S. haudh “(funeral) mound, grave, [N.] tomb; [orig.] heap, piled mound”
S. amon “hill, (isolated) mountain; lump, clump, mass; ⚠️[G.] steep slope”
N. gwastar n. “hummock”
S. mâf [mb-] n. “pile or mass of rock or earth”
ᴺS. !tomp adj. “humped, bulging”
⚠️ᴱN. tuf n. “lump, knob”; see instead:
N. dolt¹ “round knob, boss”
N. tump n. “hump”

1.23 Plain, Field

⚠️ᴱN. balt² n. “a plain”
⚠️G. bladwen n. “plain”; see instead:
S. talath “flat lands, plain”
⚠️S., N., ᴱN. dalath n. “plain, low lying/flat ground; [N.] flat surface, plane; [ᴱN.] vale”; see instead:
S. talath “flat lands, plain”
⚠️G. eng(a) n. “plain, vale”; see instead:
S. talath “flat lands, plain”
⚠️G. fladwen n. “meadow, grassland”; see instead:
S. parth “field, enclosed grassland, sward, *meadow”
⚠️G. glair n. “meadow”; see instead:
S. glaer “[N.] long lay, narrative poem, ⚠️[S.] tale”
S., G. lad n. “plain, ⚠️valley; [G.] a level, a flat; fair dealing”
⚠️ᴱN., G. ladwen n. “plain, [G.] heath; levelness, flatness; plane; surface”; see instead:
S. lad “plain, ⚠️valley; [G.] a level, a flat; fair dealing”
⚠️G. lais n. “green sward, glade”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pathu “level space, sward”
⚠️N. lhad n. “plain”; see instead:
S. lad “plain, ⚠️valley; [G.] a level, a flat; fair dealing”
⚠️N. lhand n. “open space, level”; see instead:
S. #land “wide, broad; [N.] open space, level”
S. ness n. “headland; [G.] water meadow; long grass”
⚠️G. ness n. “water meadow, long grass”; see instead:
S. parth “field, enclosed grassland, sward, *meadow”
S. ness “headland; [G.] water meadow; long grass”
S. parth n. “field, enclosed grassland, sward, *meadow”
ᴺS. [N.] ^pathu n. “level space, sward”
⚠️N. pathw n. “level place, sward”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pathu “level space, sward”
S. sâdh n. “sward, turf”
S. talath n. “flat lands, plain”
S. talf n. “wang, flat field, topographical flat area”
⚠️ᴱN., G. #teloth n. “plain; [G.] roofing, canopy, shelter”; see instead:
S. talath “flat lands, plain”
N. tobas “roofing, roof”
N. orthelian “canopy”

1.24 Dale, Valley

⚠️G. engriol adj. “vale like, of the vale”; see instead:
ᴺS. !imladhren “vale like, of the vale”
⚠️G. glith n. “dale, hillslope”; see instead:
S. nan(d) “vale, valley, [ᴱN.] dale; [N.] wide grassland; ⚠️[G.] field acre”
S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
⚠️G. gobli n. “dell”; see instead:
S. imlad “deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides, gap, gully, [N.] dell, glen”
S. †im³ n. “valley; [N.] dell, deep vale”
S., N. imlad n. “deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides, gap, gully, [N.] dell, glen”
ᴺS. !imladhren adj. “vale like, of the vale”
⚠️N. imm n. “dell, deep vale”; see instead:
S. †im³ “valley; [N.] dell, deep vale”
S. imlad “deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides, gap, gully, [N.] dell, glen”
S. imrath n. “long narrow valley with road or watercourse running through it lengthwise, (lit.) *valley course”
⚠️G. nal¹ n. “dale, vale”; see instead:
S. nan(d) “vale, valley, [ᴱN.] dale; [N.] wide grassland; ⚠️[G.] field acre”
S., N., ᴱN., ᴱN., G., G. nan(d) n. “vale, valley, [ᴱN.] dale; [N.] wide grassland; ⚠️[G.] field acre”
S., N., ᴱN., G. tum n. “(deep) valley, vale; ⚠️[ᴱN.] flat vale”
⚠️G. tumli n. “dale”; see instead:
S. nan(d) “vale, valley, [ᴱN.] dale; [N.] wide grassland; ⚠️[G.] field acre”
⚠️G. umbel n. “a dell”; see instead:
S. imlad “deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides, gap, gully, [N.] dell, glen”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

⚠️N. cîl n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”; see instead:
S. cirith “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”
S., N. cirith n. “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”
S., N., G. criss n. “cleft, [N.] cut, slash, [G.] gash; ⚠️[N.] pass, [G.] gully, ravine”
N. dîn n. “opening, gap, pass in mountains”
⚠️G. falc n. “cleft, gash; cleft, ravine, cliffs”; see instead:
S. #falch “[ᴱN.] cleft, ravine”
S. criss “cleft, [N.] cut, slash, [G.] gash; ⚠️[N.] pass, [G.] gully, ravine”
S. brass “great cliff”
S., ᴱN. #falch n. “[ᴱN.] cleft, ravine”
S., N. n. “chasm, pit; void, abyss; [N.] gulf”
N. iau² n. “ravine, cleft, gulf”
S. imrad n. “path or pass between mountains or trackless forest, (lit.) *valley path”
⚠️N. lhonn n. “(narrow) path, strait, pass”; see instead:
S. lond “(land-locked) haven; [N.] narrow path, strait, pass”
⚠️N. rhis n. “ravine”; see instead:
S. riss “cleft, cloven, separate; cleft”
S. cirith “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”

1.25 Isle, Island

N. caer² n. “flat isle on a river”
S. #cast n. “cape, headland”
⚠️ᴱN. dol n. “island”; see instead:
S. tol(l) “island, (high steep-sided) isle”
⚠️G. mineth n. “island”; see instead:
S. tol(l) “island, (high steep-sided) isle”
S. ras(t) n. “cape, shore”
S., N., G., N. tol(l) n. “island, (high steep-sided) isle”

1.27 Shore, Beach

S., N., G. falas n. “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️G. falos n. “sea-marge, surf, coast, line, beach; margin, fringe, edge”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️N. faur n. “beach, shore”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️G. flass n. “sea-marge, surf; foam; margin, ragged margin, fringe”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️ᴱN. gwaithlos n. “*sea-shore”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️ᴱN., G. plados n. “surf, land’s edge; [G.] oar”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
ᴺS. plador “oar”
⚠️G. sarofarn n. “the seashore”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️ᴱN. thlos n. “shore”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️G. thloth n. “breakers, waves, surf”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”

1.31 Water

⚠️G. asc¹ n. “water”; see instead:
S. nen “water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, [ᴱN.] stream”
ᴺS. [G.] ^duidhrad n. “canal”
ᴺS. [G.] ^duiniant n. “aqueduct”
⚠️G. duivrad n. “canal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^duidhrad “canal”
⚠️G. duivrant n. “aqueduct”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^duiniant “aqueduct”
⚠️G. glib¹ n. “drop of water”; see instead:
ᴺS. limig “[small] drop, ⚠️drop of water”
⚠️G. glib² adj. “liquid”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ylin “liquid”
⚠️ᴱN. lim n. “water”; see instead:
S. nen “water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, [ᴱN.] stream”
ᴺS., ᴱN. limig n. “[small] drop, ⚠️drop of water”
S., N., ᴱN., G. nen n. “water; lake, pool; (lesser) river, [ᴱN.] stream”
ᴺS. [N.] ^nend adj. “watery”
⚠️N. nenn adj. “watery”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nend “watery”
⚠️G. ulin n. “liquid”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ylin “liquid”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ylin n. “liquid”

1.32 Sea

S. duinen n. “flood, high tide”
S. gaear n. “sea”
S. gaearon n. “ocean, (lit.) great sea”
⚠️ᴱN. gwai n. “sea”; see instead:
S. gaear “sea”
⚠️G. ô n. “the sea”; see instead:
S. gaear “sea”
⚠️N. oer n. “sea”; see instead:
S. gaear “sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

S. #ael n. “lake, pool”
⚠️G. ail n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️ᴱN. ailin n. “lake”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️G. ailion n. “lake, pool”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️N. lhîn n. “pool”; see instead:
S. lîn “pool, mere”
⚠️ᴱN. lhuin n. “pool”; see instead:
S. lîn “pool, mere”
S. lîn n. “pool, mere”
⚠️G. muil n. “tarn”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rim “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
⚠️G. †nîn² n. “pool”; see instead:
S. lîn “pool, mere”
⚠️N. oel n. “pool, lake”; see instead:
S. #ael “lake, pool”
⚠️N. rhim² n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rim “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rim n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

⚠️S. côf n. “bay”
⚠️ᴱN. n. “bay, cove”; see instead:
N. hûb “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
N. hûb n. “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”

1.35 Wave, Surge

N. falf n. “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”
⚠️G. falm n. “breaker, wave”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”
S. faloth n. “large foamy wave”
⚠️G. floss n. “breaker”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”
⚠️ᴺS. !gôl n. “wave”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”
⚠️G. saros n. “surf, sea”; see instead:
S. falas “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”
⚠️G. thloss n. “breaker”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”

1.351 Foam, Froth

⚠️G. craith n. “foam, froth, spume”
⚠️ᴱN. cruith n. “spume”
N. faltha- v. “to foam”
⚠️G. flathwi n. “scud, spray, spindrift”; see instead:
S. gwing “foam, spray, [N.] spindrift; [G.] wave-crest”
S., N., G. gwing n. “foam, spray, [N.] spindrift; [G.] wave-crest”
ᴺS., G. gwingil n. “mermaid, (lit.) foam maiden”
⚠️G. osp(a) n. “foam”; see instead:
S. gwing “foam, spray, [N.] spindrift; [G.] wave-crest”
⚠️G. ospa- v. “to seethe, foam, spout”; see instead:
N. faltha- “to foam”
⚠️G. ospoth n. “froth”

1.352 Splash, Spray

⚠️G. basbos n. “splash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felaich “splash”
⚠️G. basbotha- v. “to splash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felechia- “to splash”
⚠️G. fasca- v. “to splash, sprinkle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felechia- “to splash”
ᴺS. !felaich n. “splash”
ᴺS. !felechia- v. “to splash”
⚠️G. gwass n. “rush, rushing, noise of rushing, splash”
⚠️G. gwassiol adj. “rushing, noisy, loud, rustling or splashing”; see instead:
S. #brui “loud, *noisy”
N. alag “rushing, impetuous”
⚠️ᴱN. tlais n. “splashing, flapping noise”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

⚠️ᴱN., G. ach n. “waterfall”; see instead:
S. lanthir “waterfall”
⚠️G. acha n. “waterfall”; see instead:
S. lanthir “waterfall”
⚠️ᴺS. !cel n. “stream, little river”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
N. celeth n. “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
ᴺS. !celf n. “channel”
ᴺS. [Ilk.] ?celon n. “river”
⚠️G. duif (duiv-) n. “stream”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
S., N. duin n. “(large) river; ⚠️[N.] water”
N. duirro n. “*river-bank”
⚠️N. eges n. “mouths”; see instead:
S. ethir¹ “mouth of a river, (lit.) outflow”
⚠️G. gwed n. “*brook, small river”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
⚠️G. gwent² n. “brook, small river”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
S. lanthir n. “waterfall”
⚠️G. nern n. “brook”; see instead:
N. celeth “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
N. oll n. “torrent, mountain-stream”
ᴺS. [N.] ^raw¹ n. “bank (especially of a river)”
⚠️N. rhaw² n. “bank (especially of a river)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raw¹ “bank (especially of a river)”
S., N., ᴱN., G. sîr n. “river, stream”

1.37 Spring, Well

⚠️ᴱN., G. aithl n. “spring, fount, source”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
⚠️G. aithla- v. “to spring (from), issue forth, bubble up”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithela- “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️G. cectha- v. “to spout out”
⚠️ᴺS. !celos n. “spring”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^celu n. “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”
⚠️N. celw n. “spring, source”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celu “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”
⚠️G. †ectha- v. “to spout, jet”
⚠️G. ecthel(uin) n. “fountain, fount”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
S., N. eithel n. “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^eithela- v. “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️ᴱN. #eithla- v. “to spring, well forth”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithela- “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”
⚠️ᴱN. eithlod n. “springing, welling forth”
⚠️ᴱN. eithlos n. “fountain”; see instead:
S. eithel “source [of water], spring, well, [N.] issue of water, fountain”
S., N. ethuil n. “spring [the season]”
⚠️G. gwelwi n. “spring of water”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^celu “spring, source; ⚠️[G.] rill, stream, runlet”

1.38 Whirlpool

⚠️N. chwinn n. “eddy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwind “eddy”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hwind n. “eddy”

1.41 Woods, Forest

⚠️G. alos n. “forest”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
⚠️G. drui n. “wood, forest”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
S. eryn n. “wood, forest (of trees)”
S. glad n. “wood”
⚠️G. goloth n. “forest”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lant n. “clearing in the forest”
⚠️N. lhant n. “clearing in the forest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lant “clearing in the forest”
ᴺS. !rostor n. “rainforest”
S., N., ᴱN., G. taur n. “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
S. tauron n. “forester”
⚠️G. tavros n. “forest, wooded land”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
⚠️S., N. tawar n. “forest; [N.] wood (material)”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
S. taw¹ “wood as material”

1.43 Wood, Timber

⚠️G. âl n. “wood (material)”; see instead:
S. taw¹ “wood as material”
⚠️G. âlog adj. “of wood, wooden”; see instead:
S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
⚠️N. drafn n. “hewn log”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dravn “hewn log”
⚠️ᴱN. dron n. “wood”; see instead:
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
⚠️G. durog adj. “wooden”; see instead:
S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
⚠️G. duru n. “wood; pole, beam, log”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dravn “hewn log”
⚠️G. lôg n. “fuel, firewood”; see instead:
ᴺS. tund² “log for the fire, *firewood, fuel”
⚠️G. tan n. “firewood”; see instead:
ᴺS. tund² “log for the fire, *firewood, fuel”
S. #tân “builder, smith, wright, artificer”
S. taw¹ n. “wood as material”
⚠️N. tawaren adj. “wooden”; see instead:
S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
S. tawen adj. “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”
ᴺS., G. tund² n. “log for the fire, *firewood, fuel”

1.44 Rock, Stone

⚠️G. bringlast n. “alabaster”
S., N. brith n. “gravel”
S. ?brithon adj. “pebbly”
⚠️G. cloch n. “stone (small), stone of fruit”
⚠️G. clochiol adj. “stone”
⚠️G. clocthi n. “a pebble”
⚠️G. clogod n. “shingle beach”; see instead:
S. serni “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️G. clogrin adj. “stony, stone-like”
⚠️G. clogwed adj. “stony, stone-covered”
⚠️G. closs n. “shingle”
⚠️G. dalech n. “(upright) stone”
⚠️ᴱN., G. esk n. “sharp upstanding rock in water; [G.] sharp point, sharp edge”; see instead:
N. carag “spike, tooth of rock”
N. egnas “sharp point, peak”
ᴺS., G. glast n. “marble”
⚠️G. glastrin adj. “marble”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^glathren “marble”
ᴺS. [G.] ^glathren adj. “marble”
S., ᴱN., G., N. gond n. “stone, rock, [N.] stone (as a material), ⚠️[G.] great stone”
N. gondram n. “hewn stone”
N. #gondren adj. “*of stone”
ᴺS. !gonneb adj. “rocky”
⚠️ᴱN. gonnen adj. “of stone”; see instead:
N. #gondren “*of stone”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gonnos n. “great rock”
⚠️G. gonthos n. “great rock”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gonnos “great rock”
⚠️G. gonwed adj. “rocky”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gonneb “rocky”
⚠️ᴱN. orsarn adj. “stoneless”
⚠️G. paglant n. “a pavement”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othlonn “paved way”
⚠️G. pagra- v. “to pave”
⚠️G. pagri n. “pavement”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othlonn “paved way”
S., N., ᴱN., G. sarn n. and adj. “(small) stone, pebble; stony (place), *with many stones; ⚠️[N.] stone as a material”
N. sarnas n. “cairn”
ᴺS. !senc adj. “mineral-like, flinty”
S. serni n. “shingle, pebble bank”
⚠️G. silc n. “flint”; see instead:
ᴺS. sinc “mineral, flint, ⚠️[G.] metal”
ᴺS., G. sinc n. “mineral, flint, ⚠️[G.] metal”

1.46 Cave

S., N. fela n. “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den; ⚠️[N.] cave”
⚠️S. feleg n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”; see instead:
S. fela “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den; ⚠️[N.] cave”
⚠️N. gath n. “cavern”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
⚠️N. gathrod n. “cave”; see instead:
S. groth “large excavation, delving, underground dwelling; [N.] cave, tunnel”
⚠️G. gerd(h)olm n. “mine”; see instead:
S. fela “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den; ⚠️[N.] cave”
⚠️G. gersauth n. “mine”; see instead:
S. fela “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den; ⚠️[N.] cave”
⚠️ᴱN. gronn n. “cave, cavern”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
S., N. groth n. “large excavation, delving, underground dwelling; [N.] cave, tunnel”
⚠️G. grûd n. “cavern”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
⚠️N. rhonn n. “roof, cave”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
⚠️ᴺS. !rhûd n. “cave, mine”; see instead:
S. groth “large excavation, delving, underground dwelling; [N.] cave, tunnel”
⚠️G. rodos n. “cavern”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
⚠️G. rodrin n. “cavern”; see instead:
S. rond “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
S., N. rond n. “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
S. torech n. “(secret) hole, lair, excavation”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

ᴺS. !cethaeg n. “horizon”
⚠️G. climli n. “sky, heaven”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
⚠️ᴱN., G. dai n. and adj. “sky; high”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
S. dae “shadow (cast by an object or form), [N.] shade”
N. #ell n. “sky”
⚠️G. ilon n. “sky”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
⚠️G. ilwint n. “sky, heavens”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S. menel “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
⚠️G. luiston n. “sky”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
S., N. menel n. “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”
⚠️ᴱN., G. telum n. “sky; [G.] roof”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
N. telu “dome, high roof”
⚠️ᴺS. !tiriw n. “horizon”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cethaeg “horizon”

1.52 Sun

S., N. Anor n. “Sun”
ᴺS. !anóren adj. “sunny”
⚠️G. augla n. “ray of sunlight, sunbeam”; see instead:
ᴺS. aglann “ray of light”
⚠️G. auglas n. “bright sunshine”; see instead:
S. glaw “sunshine; [N.] radiance”
⚠️G. áugwila adj. “sunny, sunlit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !anóren “sunny”
⚠️G. aur(a) n. “Sun”; see instead:
S. aur “(whole) day, sunlight, [N.] morning”
S. Anor “Sun”
⚠️G. auth n. “sunshine, warmth; noontide”; see instead:
S. glaw “sunshine; [N.] radiance”
ᴺS. ast “light or heat of the sun, *warmth”
ᴺS. ^laug “warm”
S. auth “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
N. auth “war, battle”
S. #fael¹ n. and adj. “gleam of the sun; *gleaming”
⚠️ᴱN. gladwen n. “radiance, sunshine”; see instead:
S. glawar “gold (light or colour); [N.] sunlight, radiance (of Laurelin)”
S., N. glaw n. “sunshine; [N.] radiance”
⚠️G. hŷr n. “sun”; see instead:
S. Anor “Sun”

1.53 Moon

⚠️N. cúran n. “crescent moon”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cúron “crescent moon”
ᴺS. [N.] ^cúron n. “crescent moon”
S. cýron n. “new-moon”
⚠️G. gilm n. “moonlight, silver light”; see instead:
N. silith “silver light, starlight, *moonlight”
N. gilith “starlight”
S., N. Ithil n. “Moon”
⚠️N. ithil n. “Moria-silver, true-silver”; see instead:
S. mithril “Moria-silver, true-silver”
S., N. ithildin n. “magical alloy that glows in moonlight, (lit.) moon-star”
⚠️ᴱN., G. rân n. “moon”; see instead:
S. #Raun “Moon”
S. #Raun n. “Moon”
⚠️N. Rhân n. “Moon”; see instead:
S. #Raun “Moon”
⚠️G. Sil n. “Rose of Silpion, Moon”; see instead:
S. Ithil “Moon”
⚠️G. Silma n. “*Moon”; see instead:
S. Ithil “Moon”

1.54 Star

S., N. êl n. “star”
ᴺS. !elui adj. “starry”
⚠️N. geil n. “star”; see instead:
S. gil “star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light”
S. gil [ng-] n. “star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light”
N. gildin n. “silver spark”
ᴺS. !tinithas n. “group of stars, star-cluster, constellation”
⚠️N. tint n. “spark, small star”; see instead:
S. tîn¹ “spark, sparkle, twinkle of stars”
S. gil “star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light”

1.542 Starlight

N. gilith n. “starlight”
N. silif n. “light of Silpion, †silver”
N. silith n. “silver light, starlight, *moonlight”
S. silivren adj. “(white) glittering”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

ᴺS. !agla- v. “to shine out, flash”
⚠️G. agla n. “flash”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^agol “flash”
ᴺS. [G.] ^agol n. “flash”
⚠️ᴱN. aithorn n. “lightning”
⚠️G. blectha- v. “to flash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !agla- “to shine out, flash”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

⚠️ᴺS. !dang n. “noise”; see instead:
S. lhôn “noise, *sound”
S. lhôn n. “noise, *sound”
⚠️G. rum n. “noise”; see instead:
S. lhôn “noise, *sound”
⚠️G. rumla- v. “to make a noise”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lenia- “to sound, make a noise”
⚠️ᴱN. tlach n. “a clap, clash”
⚠️ᴱN. tlacha- v. “to clap, clash, clatter”
⚠️ᴱN. tlachol adj. “clashing”

1.61 Light

ᴺS., ᴱN. aglann n. “ray of light”
S., N. calad n. “light, brightness, shining, ⚠️fire”
ᴺS. !celia- v. “to illuminate, light up; to illustrate”
ᴺS. !celias n. “(artificial) light, illumination”
⚠️G. dantha- v. “to illuminate, light up, illustrate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !celia- “to illuminate, light up; to illustrate”
⚠️G. danthos n. “(artificial) light, illumination”; see instead:
ᴺS. !celias “(artificial) light, illumination”
⚠️G. gal(a) n. “daylight, light”; see instead:
S. galad “radiance, glittering reflection; ⚠️light, fire, brightness, shining; bliss; [ᴱN.] dawn”
S. calad “light, brightness, shining, ⚠️fire”
S., N., ᴱN. galad [ng-] n. “radiance, glittering reflection; ⚠️light, fire, brightness, shining; bliss; [ᴱN.] dawn”
S. glae(gal) n. “light [substance]”
⚠️ᴱN. glaiw n. “light”; see instead:
S. calad “light, brightness, shining, ⚠️fire”
S. #narthan n. “beacon”

1.62 Darkness

⚠️ᴱN. avosaith n. “gloomy places”
⚠️N. daw n. “night-time, gloom”; see instead:
S. “night, dimness; [N.] night-fall, late evening; ⚠️[S.] dim, dark”
N. maur “gloom”
⚠️G. †gath² (gadh-) n. “gloom, blight”; see instead:
S. fuin “night, gloom, darkness, [N.] dead of night”
N. maur n. “gloom”
S., N. môr n. and adj. “dark(ness); †night, [N.] †black”
⚠️G. morth n. “darkness”; see instead:
S. môr “dark(ness); †night, [N.] †black”
⚠️G. mûri n. “darkness, †night”; see instead:
S. fuin “night, gloom, darkness, [N.] dead of night”
S., N. thû¹ n. “[N.] stench; [S.] black mist, horrible darkness”

1.622 Dark, Murky

⚠️ᴱN. danglarweb adj. “without light”
⚠️N. dofn adj. “gloomy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dovn “gloomy”
ᴺS. [N.] ^dovn adj. “gloomy”
⚠️ᴱN. drû adj. “dark”; see instead:
S. dûr “dark (with evil implications), gloomy, hellish”
S., N. dûr [nd-] adj. “dark (with evil implications), gloomy, hellish”
⚠️G. fung adj. “dark”; see instead:
S. morn “black, dark; ⚠️night”
⚠️ᴱN. hinar adj. “dark”; see instead:
S. morn “black, dark; ⚠️night”
⚠️G. mortha adj. “dim”; see instead:
S. gwathren “shadowy, dim”
S. muil n. and adj. “drear[iness]”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

⚠️S., N. dae n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), [N.] shade”; see instead:
S. #morchant “dark shape, shadow cast by light”
S. gwath “shadow, dim light, [N.] shade”
S., N. dúath n. “night shadow, dark/black shadow, [N.] night-shade”
S. esgal n. “veil, screen, hiding; cast shadow, shade”
S., N. gwath n. “shadow, dim light, [N.] shade”
S. gwathra- v. “to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure”
S. gwathren adj. “shadowy, dim”
S. #gwathui adj. “*shadowy”
⚠️ᴱN. lhom n. “shadow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lum “shade, *area with obscured light; [G.] [dark] cloud”
⚠️N. lhum n. “shade”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lum “shade, *area with obscured light; [G.] [dark] cloud”
⚠️N. lhumren n. “shady”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lumren “shady, [G.] overcast”
⚠️G. lôm n. “gloom, shade”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lum “shade, *area with obscured light; [G.] [dark] cloud”
⚠️G. lómin adj. and n. “shady, shadowy, gloomy; gloom(iness)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lumren “shady, [G.] overcast”
North S. lómin “echoing”
⚠️G. lomiol adj. “dismal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dovn “gloomy”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^lum n. “shade, *area with obscured light; [G.] [dark] cloud”
⚠️G. lumbrin adj. “overcast”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lumren “shady, [G.] overcast”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lumren n. “shady, [G.] overcast”
S. #morchant n. “dark shape, shadow cast by light”

1.71 Air, Ether

⚠️G. gwail n. “air”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwelu “air (as a substance)”
⚠️G. gwailtha- v. “to air; expose to air”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwiltha- “to air, expose to air”
ᴺS. [N.] ^gwelu n. “air (as a substance)”
⚠️N. gwelw n. “air (as a substance)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwelu “air (as a substance)”
N. gwelwen n. “air, lower air”
N., G. gwilith n. “air (as a region); ⚠️[G.] breeze”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gwiltha- v. “to air, expose to air”

1.72 Wind

⚠️ᴱN., G. gwâ n. “wind”; see instead:
S. gwae(w) “wind”
⚠️S. gwael n. “?wind”; see instead:
S. gwae(w) “wind”
ᴺS., S. gwaeren adj. “windy”
S., N., ᴱN. gwae(w) n. “wind”
⚠️G. gwam n. “gust of wind”; see instead:
S. gwae(w) “wind”
⚠️G. gwavwed adj. “windy”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwaeren “windy”
⚠️G. saul n. “great wind”; see instead:
S. sûl “wind”
⚠️G. sôr n. “wave, billow”; see instead:
N. falf “foam, breaker, [G.] wave”
ᴺS., G. n. “noise of wind”
S. sûl n. “wind”

1.722 Storm

N. alagos n. “storm (of wind)”
S. gwaew n. “storm”
⚠️ᴱN. huiriaith n. “gale”; see instead:
N. alagos “storm (of wind)”

1.723 Breeze

⚠️ᴱN., G. blith n. “breeze, [G.] zephyr; air”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwest “puff, breath, breeze”
ᴺS. ^gwelu “air (as a substance)”
⚠️N. chwest n. “puff, breath, breeze”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwest “puff, breath, breeze”
⚠️S. hwâ n. “breeze[?]”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwest “puff, breath, breeze”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hwest n. “puff, breath, breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

S. fân n. “(white) cloud; veil; shape, vision; ⚠️spirit [embodied]”
S., N. fanui adj. “cloudy, (lit.) having much cloud”
⚠️N. faun n. “cloud”; see instead:
S. fân “(white) cloud; veil; shape, vision; ⚠️spirit [embodied]”
⚠️G. luv- v. “to hang, lower (of clouds)”
⚠️G. ust n. “cloudy air”; see instead:
N. osp “smoke”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

⚠️ᴱN. blaith n. “fog, gloomy mist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”
⚠️ᴱN. blaithren adj. “foggy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hethu “foggy, obscure, vague”
⚠️G. drim n. “dew”; see instead:
S. mîdh “dew, *moisture, damp; ⚠️[ᴱN.] mist, drizzle”
S. faen n. “vapour; ⚠️[disembodied] spirit”
S., N. hîth n. “mist”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hithu n. “fog”
S., N. #hithui adj. “misty”
⚠️N. hithw n. “fog”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”
⚠️G. huir adj. “foggy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hethu “foggy, obscure, vague”
⚠️G. huith n. “fog”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”
⚠️G. huitha- v. “it is misty”
S., N., ᴱN. mîdh n. “dew, *moisture, damp; ⚠️[ᴱN.] mist, drizzle”
⚠️N. mith² n. “white fog, wet mist”; see instead:
S. hîth “mist”
ᴺS. ^hithu “fog”
⚠️G. usc n. “fog, mist”; see instead:
S. hîth “mist”
N. osp “smoke”

1.75 Rain (n)

N. eil- v. “to rain”
⚠️ᴱN. narog adj. “violent (of water, rain, etc.), torrential”
⚠️G. †nigor n. “rain, rainy weather”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
⚠️G. nigwin adj. “rainy”; see instead:
S. #rost “rainy”
⚠️G. noss¹ n. “rain”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
⚠️N. rhoss¹ n. “rain”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
S. ross¹ n. “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
S. #rost adj. “rainy”
⚠️G. tibli n. “drizzle, sleet”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
⚠️G. ubra- v. “to rain”; see instead:
N. eil- “to rain”
⚠️G. ubri n. “rainfall, rain”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
⚠️G. uch n. “rain”; see instead:
S. ross¹ “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”

1.752 Rainbow

⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^eiliant n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”
⚠️N. eilian(w) n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”
⚠️G. ilbrant n. “rainbow”; see instead:
S. ninniach “rainbow”
S. ninniach n. “rainbow”

1.76 Snow (n)

⚠️G. fautha- v. “to snow”
⚠️G. n. “snow”; see instead:
S. loss “snow”
⚠️G. fôtha- v. “to snow”
ᴺS. !glosta- v. “to snow”
⚠️G. glui n. “snow”; see instead:
S. loss “snow”
⚠️G. ith¹ n. “fine snow”; see instead:
S. loss “snow”
S. loss n. “snow”
S. lossen adj. “snowy”
⚠️G. nib n. “snowflake”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nibis “ice-flake, snowflake”
ᴺS. !nibis n. “ice-flake, snowflake”
⚠️G. nictha- v. “to rain, hail, snow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nítha-¹ “to snow, hail, ⚠️rain”
N. eil- “to rain”
⚠️G. nigweth n. “(snow) storm”; see instead:
N. alagos “storm (of wind)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nítha-¹ v. “to snow, hail, ⚠️rain”
⚠️G. nybol adj. “?snowy”; see instead:
S. lossen “snowy”

1.77 Ice, Frost

S. aeglos n. “snowthorn; icicle”
ᴺS. !gochel n. “mass of ice”
N., G. heleg n. “ice”
⚠️G. helfileg n. “frost on panes, etc.”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nibis “ice-flake, snowflake”
⚠️G. helfingl n. “icicle”; see instead:
S. aeglos “snowthorn; icicle”
⚠️N. hell² n. “frost”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nais “frost”
⚠️G. heloth n. “frost”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nais “frost”
⚠️G. hîl n. “frost”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nais “frost”
⚠️ᴱN. lhinc n. “ice”
ᴺS. !nais n. “frost”

1.772 to Freeze

ᴺS., G. hel- v. “to freeze”
⚠️ᴺS. !helegnen adj. “frozen”; see instead:
ᴺS. !helen “frozen”
ᴺS. !helen adj. “frozen”
⚠️G. helon adj. “frozen”; see instead:
ᴺS. !helen “frozen”
⚠️G. heltha- v. “to freeze, congeal (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. hel- “to freeze”
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”

1.78 Weather

ᴺS. [G.] ^glaen adj. “serene, clear, fair (espec. of weather)”
ᴺS. !glaenas n. “serenity, fair weather”
⚠️G. glaim adj. “serene, clear, fair (espec. of weather)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^glaen “serene, clear, fair (espec. of weather)”
⚠️G. glaimri n. “serenity, fair weather”; see instead:
ᴺS. !glaenas “serenity, fair weather”
ᴺS. !gwilwist n. “weather”
⚠️G. lumbri n. “foul weather”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lummor “foul weather”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lummor n. “foul weather”
⚠️G. lust n. “weather; time; tide”; see instead:
S. duinen “flood, high tide”

1.81 Fire (n)

N. bregedur n. “wild fire”
⚠️ᴱN. byr n. “fire”; see instead:
S. naur “fire, [N.] flame”
⚠️ᴺS. !erynaur n. “forest-fire”; see instead:
ᴺS. !erynor “forest-fire”
ᴺS. !erynor n. “forest-fire”
S., N. naur n. “fire, [N.] flame”
⚠️N. rhuin n. “fire”; see instead:
S. ruin “red flame; fiery red”
⚠️G. n. “fire”; see instead:
S. naur “fire, [N.] flame”
S. ?uir adj. “*fiery”
S., N., ᴱN. *ûr n. “fire; ⚠️[ᴱN.] sun”

1.82 Flame (n)

⚠️G. blectha n. “a flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
⚠️G. bleg n. “a flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
S. bragollach n. “sudden flame; ?wild fire”
⚠️G. cantha n. “flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
⚠️G. cantharol adj. “glaring, flaming”
⚠️G. canthor n. “blaze, flare, glare”
⚠️G. gudhri n. “inflammation; conflagration”
⚠️G. gudhrin adj. “inflamed, burning hot”; see instead:
N. brassen “white-hot, *very hot”
⚠️G. gudhriol adj. “inflamed, inflammatory”
S. lach n. “(leaping) flame”
S. #lacha- v. “to flame”
⚠️ᴱN. lhacha n. “flame”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
S. ruin n. and adj. “red flame; fiery red”
⚠️G. tang n. “flame, flash”; see instead:
S. lach “(leaping) flame”
ᴺS. ^agol “flash”

1.83 Smoke (n)

⚠️G. faug² n. “wood smoke”; see instead:
N. osp “smoke”
⚠️G. fluim n. “(black) smoke, reek”; see instead:
N. osp “smoke”
⚠️G. foltha- v. “to emit smoke, smoulder, reek”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ysgia- “to smoke (intr.)”
⚠️G. fuctha- v. “to smoke (over a wood fire)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !uitha- “to smoke (trans.)”
⚠️G. fug- v. “to smoulder”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ysgia- “to smoke (intr.)”
⚠️G. fugri n. “smother (of smoke)”; see instead:
N. osp “smoke”
⚠️G. func n. “smoke”; see instead:
N. osp “smoke”
N. osp n. “smoke”
ᴺS., G. tuim n. “steam”
ᴺS. !uitha- v. “to smoke (trans.)”
ᴺS. !ysgia- v. “to smoke (intr.)”

1.84 Ash(es)

S., N. lith n. “ash; [N.] sand”
S., N. lithui adj. “ashen, ashy, of ash”
⚠️G. pruin n. “charcoal”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

ᴺS. [G.] ^branna- v. “to scorch”
⚠️G. brantha- v. “to scorch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^branna- “to scorch”
⚠️ᴺS. !dosta- v. “to burn”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orna- “to blaze, burn”
⚠️G. gusta- v. “to burn (tr.), destroy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orna- “to blaze, burn”
ᴺS. tertha- “to destroy, *ruin, †(orig.) to make pierced; ⚠️to devour”
ᴺS. [G.] ^orna- v. “to blaze, burn”
⚠️G. ras- v. “to scorch, toast”
⚠️G. rasc n. “toast(ed bread)”
⚠️G. torc n. “a sear, mark of a burn”
⚠️G. tortha- v. “to scorch”
⚠️G. urna- v. “to blaze, burn (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orna- “to blaze, burn”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

⚠️G. cintha- v. “to light, set alight”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
⚠️G. galtha- v. “to kindle”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
N. nartha- v. “to kindle”
⚠️G. tanga- v. “to set light to, kindle”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
⚠️G. tantha- v. “to set light to, kindle”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
S. thoniel adj. “kindler (in the past)”
⚠️G. tusc adj. “inflammable; touchy, irritable; explosive”; see instead:
ᴺS. !urnui “inflammable; touchy, irritable; ⚠️explosive”
⚠️G. tusta- v. “to inflame, kindle, set light to, burn (tr.)”; see instead:
N. nartha- “to kindle”
⚠️G. tustarol adj. “inflammable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !urnui “inflammable; touchy, irritable; ⚠️explosive”
ᴺS. !urnui adj. “inflammable; touchy, irritable; ⚠️explosive”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

N. iolf n. “brand”
N. iûl n. “embers”
ᴺS. !tustur n. “tinder”
ᴺS. !tustureg n. “match”
⚠️G. tuth n. “tinder”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tustur “tinder”
⚠️G. tuthli n. “match”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tustureg “match”

1.99 Physical World (other)

ᴺS. [G.] ^dorgant [nd-] n. “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”
⚠️G. dorven [nd-] n. “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dorgant “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

S. Adan n. “Man (as a race)”
⚠️G. an¹ n. “person, -body, one, anyone, someone, they; creature”
S., N. Feir n. “Mortal, [N.] mortal man”
⚠️ᴱN. fion n. “mortal man”; see instead:
S. Feir “Mortal, [N.] mortal man”
S. Fíreb n. “Mortal”
S. fíreb adj. “mortal”
⚠️N. firen adj. “human”; see instead:
S. firin “dying, mortal”
⚠️ᴱN. gwiaithos n. “a person, human (not specifically m. or f.)”; see instead:
S. Feir “Mortal, [N.] mortal man”
S., N. -we suf. “person, being, individual; [N.] masculine suffix”

2.21 Man

⚠️G. anos n. “man (fullgrown), warrior”
⚠️G. anoth n. “manhood†; man (fullgrown), warrior”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwas “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
N., G. benn n. “man, male, †husband”
S., N. dîr¹ [nd-] n. “man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix”
⚠️ᴱN. fionweg n. “a man”; see instead:
S. Firion “(Male) Mortal”
S. Firion n. “(Male) Mortal”
N. gwe n. “man, warrior”
⚠️ᴱN., G. gweg n. “man, male (being)”; see instead:
S. -we “person, being, individual; [N.] masculine suffix”
⚠️G. idhweg n. “*Man (m.)”; see instead:
S. Firion “(Male) Mortal”

2.22 Woman

S. adaneth n. “(mortal) woman”
ᴺS., N. [nd-] n. “woman, lady, ⚠️bride”
⚠️ᴱN. fionwin n. “woman; (fem.) mortal man”; see instead:
S. Firieth “(Female) Mortal”
S. Firieth n. “(Female) Mortal”
⚠️G. gwin n. “woman, female”; see instead:
N. bess “woman; †wife”
S. gwend “maiden”
⚠️G. idhwin n. “*Man (f.)”; see instead:
S. Firieth “(Female) Mortal”
⚠️ᴱN. nain n. “woman”; see instead:
N. † “woman, bride, lady”
⚠️G. †nîr² n. “woman”; see instead:
N. † “woman, bride, lady”
⚠️ᴱN. uin n. “woman”; see instead:
N. bess “woman; †wife”
S. gwend “maiden”

2.23 Male

⚠️G. anothrin adj. “adult (of men), fullgrown; manly”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwathren “manly, masculine”
ᴺS. [N.] ^anu n. and adj. “male (person or animal)”
⚠️N. anw n. and adj. “male (person or animal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anu “male (person or animal)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^anwas n. “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
ᴺS. [G.] ^anwathren adj. “manly, masculine”
⚠️G. gwegri n. “manhood (time or state)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwas “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
⚠️G. gwegrin adj. “masculine”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwathren “manly, masculine”
⚠️G. gwegwed adj. “male”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anu “male (person or animal)”
⚠️G. gwegweth n. “male sex, manhood (state)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwas “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
⚠️G. nerthu n. “manhood, manliness; virtue”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^anwas “manhood, *manliness, masculinity”
S., N. -on¹ suf. “masculine suffix”
⚠️G. #-os² suf. “masculine suffix”

2.24 Female

⚠️G. gwenedh adj. “womanly?”; see instead:
S. gweneth “maidenhood, [N.] virginity”
⚠️G. gwineth adj. “female”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^inu “female”
⚠️G. gwiniol adj. “feminine”; see instead:
ᴺS. !inwathren “feminine”
⚠️G. gwinios n. “womanhood (time or state)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !inwas “feminity, womanhood”
⚠️G. gwinlaith n. “womanhood (time)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !inwas “feminity, womanhood”
⚠️G. gwinwed adj. “female”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^inu “female”
⚠️G. gwinweth n. “female sex, womanhood (state)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !inwas “feminity, womanhood”
S., N., G. -iel¹ suf. “feminine suffix; daughter”
S. -ien suf. “feminine ending”
S., G., N. -il suf. “feminine suffix”
ᴺS. [N.] ^inu adj. “female”
⚠️N. inw adj. “female”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^inu “female”
ᴺS. !inwas n. “feminity, womanhood”
ᴺS. !inwathren adj. “feminine”
N., G. -(r)il suf. “feminine suffix”
S. -wen n. “maiden, *female suffix”
⚠️G. -win suf. “*female suffix”; see instead:
S. -wen “maiden, *female suffix”

2.242 Sex

⚠️G. gwegwin n. “hermaphrodite”

2.25 Boy

⚠️G. nogin n. “boy, lad, urchin”

2.26 Girl

N. †dess n. “young woman”
S., N. gwend n. “maiden”
ᴺS. !gwendren adj. “maidenly, girlish”
S., N. gweneth n. “maidenhood, [N.] virginity”
⚠️G. gwenithli n. “maidenhood”; see instead:
S. gweneth “maidenhood, [N.] virginity”
⚠️G. gwennin n. “girl”; see instead:
S. neth “sister (diminutive); (little) girl”
S. gwend “maiden”
⚠️G. gwenniniol adj. “maiden(ly), girlish”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwendren “maidenly, girlish”
⚠️G. gwethli n. “maiden, little girl”; see instead:
S. gwend “maiden”
S. neth “sister (diminutive); (little) girl”

2.27 Child

⚠️ᴱN., G. arn n. “child, [G.] son”; see instead:
S. hên “child”
ᴺS. !gwidhren adj. “adolescent, pre-adult”
S. hên n. “child”
⚠️G. hilwed adj. “adolescent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwidhren “adolescent, pre-adult”
⚠️G. hithadrin adj. “adolescent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwidhren “adolescent, pre-adult”
⚠️G. pui n. “child”; see instead:
S. hên “child”

2.28 Infant

⚠️G. gioth n. “germ, foetus, embryon”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gŷth “germ, foetus, embryon”
⚠️G. giothrin adj. “embryonic”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gythren “embryonic”
S. gwinig n. “little-one, baby”
ᴺS. [N.] ^laes n. “babe”
⚠️N. lhaes n. “babe”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laes “babe”
⚠️G. puthli n. “baby”; see instead:
S. gwinig “little-one, baby”

2.31 Husband

⚠️G. bedhron n. “husband”; see instead:
N. herven “husband”
ᴺS. !bethron n. “spouse (m.)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^daer [nd-] n. “bridegroom”
⚠️N. doer [nd-] n. “bridegroom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^daer “bridegroom”
⚠️ᴱN. gwedhion n. “husband”; see instead:
N. herven “husband”
⚠️G. hauthwaid n. “consort, wife or husband”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bethron “spouse (m.)”
ᴺS. !bethril “spouse (f.)”
N. herven n. “husband”
⚠️ᴱN. urwedhw adj. “without mate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️ᴱN. uwedhweb adj. “not married”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️ᴱN. yrwidhion adj. “without husband”; see instead:
N. herven “husband”

2.32 Wife

⚠️G. †bedhril n. “wife”; see instead:
N. herves “wife”
S., N., G. bess n. “wife; [N.] woman”
ᴺS. !bethril n. “spouse (f.)”
⚠️ᴱN. gweth n. “wife”; see instead:
N. herves “wife”
N. herves n. “wife”
⚠️ᴱN. urweth adj. “without wife”; see instead:
N. herves “wife”

2.321 Bride

N. dineth [nd-] n. “bride”
N. dîs [nd-] n. “bride”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

⚠️G. benna- v. “to wed”; see instead:
ᴺS. !besta- “to wed, marry”
ᴺS. !besta- v. “to wed, marry”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

⚠️G. bedhgad n. “wedlock”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️G. bedhin adj. “wedded, married”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestannen “wedded, married”
⚠️G. †bedhiod n. “wedlock”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️G. bedhri n. “wedding”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestad “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
⚠️G. †bedhwen n. “matrimony”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
ᴺS. !best n. “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
ᴺS. !bestad n. “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
ᴺS. !bestannen adj. “wedded, married”
⚠️G. govedhri n. “wedding”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestad “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
⚠️G. govedhwen n. “matrimony”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️ᴱN. gwedhw n. “matrimony”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”
⚠️G. hauthwais n. “matrimony, conjugal rights”; see instead:
ᴺS. !best “marriage, matrimony, wedlock, ⚠️wedding”

2.35 Father

N., G. ada n. “father (hypocoristic), [G.] daddy”
S., N. adar n. “father”
⚠️G. †ador n. “father”; see instead:
S. adar “father”
S. atheg n. “(little) father; thumb”
⚠️G. athon n. “father”
⚠️G. athonri n. “fatherhood”
⚠️G. bâb n. “father”
⚠️G. (n)ada n. “daddy, father”; see instead:
N. ada “father (hypocoristic), [G.] daddy”
⚠️G. nathanwi n. “fatherhood”
⚠️G. nathon n. “father”

2.36 Mother

⚠️G. amil n. “mother”; see instead:
S. emel “mother”
⚠️G. babi n. “mummy, mamma”; see instead:
N. nana “mother (hypocoristic), *mommy”
S. emel n. “mother”
S. emig n. “(little) mother, *mommy”
⚠️N. †emil n. “mother”; see instead:
S. emel “mother”
⚠️G. mab(a) n. “mother”; see instead:
N. naneth “mother”
⚠️G. (m)ami n. “mummy”; see instead:
N. nana “mother (hypocoristic), *mommy”
⚠️G. nan¹ n. “mother”; see instead:
N. naneth “mother”
N. nana n. “mother (hypocoristic), *mommy”
N. naneth n. “mother”

2.37 Parent(s)

N. odhril n. “parent (f.)”
N. odhron n. “parent”

2.41 Son

⚠️G. bo- pref. “son of”; see instead:
S. -ion¹ “-son”
⚠️G. bo(n) n. “son”; see instead:
S. ion(n) “son, *boy”
⚠️ᴱN. n. “son”; see instead:
S. ion(n) “son, *boy”
⚠️G. go-² pref. “son of”; see instead:
S. -ion¹ “-son”
S., N. -ion¹ suf. “-son”
S., N. ion(n) n. “son, *boy”

2.42 Daughter

⚠️G. fwi- pref. “fem. patronymic prefix”
N. iell n. “daughter”
S., N. sell n. “daughter; [N.] †girl, maid”
⚠️G. suil n. “daughter”; see instead:
S. sell “daughter; [N.] †girl, maid”

2.44 Brother

S. hanar n. “brother”
S. †hawn n. “brother”
⚠️G. hethos n. “brother”; see instead:
S. hanar “brother”
S. honeg n. “brother (diminutive)”
N. muindor n. “brother”
N. tôr n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

N. gwathel n. “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”
⚠️G. hethir n. “sister”; see instead:
S. nethel “sister”
N. muinthel n. “sister”
S. neth n. “sister (diminutive); (little) girl”
S. nethel n. “sister”
S. nethig n. “sister, girl (diminutive)”
S. †nîth n. “sister”
N. thêl n. “sister”

2.452 Sibling(s)

⚠️G. gedrin adj. “sib, akin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^goredhen “sib, akin, [closely] related”
⚠️G. gochest n. “brother and brother, brother and sister, etc.”
⚠️G. gochethri n. “consanguinity”
⚠️G. gohestri n. “consanguinity”
ᴺS. [G.] ^goredhen adj. “sib, akin, [closely] related”
⚠️G. goredhin [ng-] adj. “related, sib, akin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^goredhen “sib, akin, [closely] related”
⚠️G. hest n. “†consanguinity; brother or sister”
⚠️G. hestri n. “consanguinity”
⚠️G. †heth¹ n. “brother or sister”; see instead:
S. hanar “brother”
S. nethel “sister”

2.46 Grandfather

ᴺS., G. dâd n. “grandfather”

2.47 Grandmother

ᴺS., G. mam n. “grandmother, ⚠️mother”

2.48 Grandson

⚠️G. ho(n)- pref. “grandson of”
⚠️G. sion n. “grandson”

2.49 Granddaughter

⚠️G. siel n. “granddaughter”
⚠️G. si(n)- pref. “granddaughter of”

2.53 Nephew

⚠️G. fwion n. “nephew”

2.54 Niece

⚠️G. fwîr n. “niece”

2.55 Cousin

⚠️G. gedren n. “second cousin (m.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renn “cousin (m.), relative”
⚠️G. gedres n. “second cousin (f.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ress “cousin (f.), relative”
⚠️G. goredhweg n. “cousin (m.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renn “cousin (m.), relative”
⚠️G. goredhwin n. “cousin (f.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ress “cousin (f.), relative”
⚠️G. gwarest n. “cousinhood, -ship”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rennas “kinship, relation”
⚠️G. hethren n. “first cousin (m.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renn “cousin (m.), relative”
⚠️G. hethres n. “first cousin (f.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ress “cousin (f.), relative”
⚠️G. †redhweg n. “cousin [m.]”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renn “cousin (m.), relative”
⚠️G. †redhwin n. “cousin [f.]”; see instead:
ᴺS. ress “cousin (f.), relative”
⚠️G. ren(d) n. “cousin (m.), relative”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renn “cousin (m.), relative”
ᴺS. [G.] ^renn n. “cousin (m.), relative”
ᴺS., G. ress n. “cousin (f.), relative”

2.56 Ancestor(s)

⚠️G. eithog n. “ancestor, †father, sire”
⚠️G. mavwin¹ n. “ancestress, †mother”

2.57 Descendant(s)

⚠️G. bôr n. “descendant”
⚠️G. hilm n. “posterity; one’s descendents, progeny, offspring”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hilu “posterity; one’s descendents, progeny, offspring”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hilu coll. “posterity; one’s descendents, progeny, offspring”

2.65 Brother-in-Law

⚠️G. bedhren n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethren “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bethren n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”
⚠️G. gadren n. “*brother in law, kinsman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethren “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”

2.66 Sister-in-Law

⚠️G. bedhres n. “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethres “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bethres n. “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”
⚠️G. gadres n. “*sister in law, kinswoman by marriage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bethres “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”

2.81 Relative(s)

⚠️G. gonothri(n) adj. “of same kindred”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwanuren “of same kindred, akin”
⚠️G. gwaid n. “kinsmen, relations; companion”; see instead:
N. gwanur “kinsman, kinswoman”
N. gwador “(sworn) brother, associate”
N. gwathel “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”
⚠️G. gwais n. “kinship, relation”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rennas “kinship, relation”
N. gwanur n. “kinsman, kinswoman”
ᴺS. !gwanuren adj. “of same kindred, akin”
⚠️G. hethrin adj. “of the same family (in a close sense), consanguine”
⚠️G. nosied n. “kinsman”; see instead:
N. gwanur “kinsman, kinswoman”
ᴺS. [G.] ^redhen adj. “related”
⚠️G. redhin adj. “related”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^redhen “related”
ᴺS. !rennas n. “kinship, relation”
⚠️G. †rest² n. “kinship”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rennas “kinship, relation”

2.82 Family

⚠️G. eithlos n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwaren “[nuclear] family”
ᴺS., G. gwanos n. “family, birth, heredity”
ᴺS., G. gwaren n. “[nuclear] family”
⚠️G. gwarin(n) n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwaren “[nuclear] family”
⚠️G. renni n. “family”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwaren “[nuclear] family”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

⚠️G. cuid n. “animal, living creature”; see instead:
S. lavan “animal”
S. gwê n. “living creature”
⚠️ᴱN. lafn n. “*animal”; see instead:
S. lavan “animal”
S. lavan n. “animal”
N. ûn¹ n. “creature”

3.16 to Pasture

⚠️ᴱN. cig n. “cud”
ᴺS., G. masta- v. “to feed, graze”
⚠️G. nesta- v. “to put to grass, graze, pasture, feed”; see instead:
ᴺS. !media- “to feed”
N. #nesta- “to heal”

3.17 Pasture

⚠️G. masgar n. “pasture”; see instead:
N. nadhras “pasture”
N. nadhor n. “pasture”
N. nadhras n. “pasture”

3.18 Herdsman

ᴺS. !bavron n. “shepherd, herdsman”
ᴺS. !lavor n. “flock, herd”
⚠️G. mathron n. “herd, herdsman, shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bavron “shepherd, herdsman”
ᴺS. !lavor “flock, herd”
⚠️G. mothweg n. “shepherd”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bavron “shepherd, herdsman”
⚠️G. nethron n. “herd”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lavor “flock, herd”

3.20 Cattle, Bovines

⚠️G. muin² n. “kine, cattle”

3.21 Bull

S. mund n. “bull”

3.22 Ox, Steer

⚠️G. gagron n. “yoke ox, bullock”; see instead:
S. mund “bull”
⚠️G. n. “ox”; see instead:
S. mund “bull”
⚠️G. tarog n. “ox”; see instead:
S. mund “bull”

3.23 Cow

ᴺS., G. gach n. “cow”
⚠️G. maul n. “the lowing of cattle, bellowing”
⚠️G. muir n. “heifer”
⚠️G. mul- v. “to low, bellow”
⚠️G. mûm n. “lowing”
⚠️G. mûs n. “cow”; see instead:
ᴺS. gach “cow”
⚠️G. mûst n. “byre, cowhouse”

3.24 Calf

⚠️G. mugli n. “calf”

3.25 Sheep

ᴺS. !bam [mb-] n. “sheep”
⚠️ᴺS. !maw² n. “sheep”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bam “sheep”
ᴺS. ^maw¹ “soil, stain”
⚠️G. moth n. “sheep”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bam “sheep”

3.26 Ram

ᴺS. !poll n. “ram”

3.29 Lamb

⚠️G. iol n. “lamb”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ŷl “lamb”
⚠️G. iolinc n. “little lamb, lambkin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ŷl “lamb”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ŷl n. “lamb”

3.34 Sow

⚠️G. graus n. “sow, *female pig”

3.35 Pig

⚠️G. hugin n. “young pig”
ᴺS., G. hunc n. “pig”

3.36 Goat

ᴺS. !naeag n. “goat”

3.41 Horse (generic)

⚠️ᴱN., G. brog n. “horse”; see instead:
S. roch “horse”
N. lobor n. “horse”
⚠️G. lobros n. “steed, horse”; see instead:
N. lobor “horse”
⚠️G. †mair n. “horse”; see instead:
S. roch “horse”
ᴺS. [G.] ^raebroch n. “zebra”
⚠️G. raibrog n. “zebra”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raebroch “zebra”
S., N. roch n. “horse”
ᴺS. !rogol n. “saddle”
ᴺS. [G.] ^taudh n. “paddock”
⚠️G. tôdhi n. “paddock”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^taudh “paddock”
⚠️ᴱN. u(r)vrog adj. “horseless”

3.44 Mare

⚠️ᴱN. bregil n. “mare”
⚠️G. bros(s) n. “mare”

3.51 Hen, Chicken (generic)

ᴺS., G. porog n. “fowl (domestic)”
⚠️G. porogog n. “the clucking and noise of fowls”
⚠️G. porogwil n. “hen”
⚠️ᴺS. !prôg n. “fowl, hen”; see instead:
ᴺS. porog “fowl (domestic)”
⚠️G. uil n. “hen”

3.52 Cock, Rooster

ᴺS. !holl n. “cock”

3.54 Hen

⚠️ᴺS. !hŷl n. “hen”; see instead:
ᴺS. porog “fowl (domestic)”

3.56 Goose

N. gwaun n. “goose”

3.57 Duck

ᴺS. !sommor n. “duck, waterfowl”

3.61 Dog

⚠️ᴱN. fan(d) n. “dog”; see instead:
N. “dog”
⚠️G. gab- v. “to bark, bay (of dogs)”; see instead:
N. gaw- “to howl”
⚠️G. gôbi n. “large hound”; see instead:
S. huan “great dog, hound”
N., G. n. “dog”
S., N. huan n. “great dog, hound”
⚠️G. hûbi n. “hound”; see instead:
S. huan “great dog, hound”
ᴺS., G. huil n. “bitch, *female dog”
⚠️N. rhŷn n. “chaser, hound of chase”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rŷn “chaser, hound of chase”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rŷn n. “chaser, hound of chase”
⚠️G. saur n. “hound, wild dog”; see instead:
N. “dog”

3.62 Cat

⚠️G. miaug n. “tomcat”
⚠️G. miaulin n. “she-cat”
⚠️G. miog n. “cat”; see instead:
ᴺS. muig¹ “cat”
ᴺS., ᴱN. muig¹ n. “cat”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

N. nâr n. “rat”
⚠️G. nig(la) n. “mouse”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nigol “mouse, (lit.) small one”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nigol n. “mouse, (lit.) small one”

3.64 Bird

ᴺS. [G.] ^aedh n. “nest”
ᴺS. [G.] ^aevar n. “rookery, colony of birds”
S., N. aew n. “(small) bird”
S. #aewen adj. “of birds”
⚠️G. aidha n. “nest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aedh “nest”
⚠️G. aigli n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
⚠️G. aivor n. “rookery, colony of birds”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aevar “rookery, colony of birds”
⚠️ᴱN. aiw n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
⚠️G. bil n. “bird”; see instead:
S. aew “(small) bird”
⚠️G. ciloba- v. “to twitter, chirp, chirrup”
⚠️G. end n. “birds nest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aedh “nest”
ᴺS. [G.] ^oetha- v. “to lay eggs, nest”
⚠️G. uitha- v. “to lay eggs, nest”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^oetha- “to lay eggs, nest”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

⚠️G. inthorn n. “eagle’s nest, eyrie”; see instead:
ᴺS. !thorombar “eagle’s nest, eyrie”
⚠️G. †ior n. “eagle”; see instead:
S. thoron “eagle”
⚠️G. ioroth n. “eagle”; see instead:
S. thoron “eagle”
ᴺS. !thorombar n. “eagle’s nest, eyrie”
S., N. thoron n. “eagle”
⚠️ᴱN. thrond n. “sky lord”; see instead:
S. Thorondor “King of Eagles”
⚠️G. thrond n. “(eyrie), pinnacle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aegas “mountain peak”
ᴺS. !thorombar “eagle’s nest, eyrie”

3.642 Crow, Raven

N., ᴱN. corch n. “crow”
S. craban n. “bird of crow-kind, *raven”
⚠️ᴱN., G. crunc n. “crow”; see instead:
N. corch “crow”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

N. cuen n. “small gull, petrel, sea-bird”
N. heledir(n) n. “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher”
S., N. #maew n. “gull”
S. #mŷl n. “gull”
N. †poen n. “small gull, petrel”

3.648 Swan

⚠️G. alfa n. “swan”; see instead:
S. alph “swan”
⚠️ᴱN., G. alfuilin n. “large white sea-bird, albatross, †swan”
S., N., ᴱN., G. alph n. “swan”
⚠️ᴱN. elflin n. “cygnet, *young swan”
⚠️ᴱN. gwanwen n. “swan”; see instead:
S. alph “swan”
⚠️G. silwin n. “swan”; see instead:
S. alph “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

ᴺS., G. amosgarn n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
⚠️ᴱN. amrent n. “lark”
⚠️G. amrint n. “lark”
⚠️G. bilin(c) n. “small bird, sparrow”; see instead:
N. fileg “small bird, [Q.] *sparrow”
⚠️G. cilobinc n. “robin”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
⚠️G. crinthammos n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
N. cugu n. “dove”
⚠️G. duil² n. “swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
⚠️ᴱN., G. duilin n. “swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
S., N. dúlin n. “nightingale”
N. emlin n. “yellow bird, (lit.) yellow hammer”
N. fileg n. “small bird, [Q.] *sparrow”
⚠️G. fini(o)s n. “larch”
S., N. flinc n. “finch”
⚠️G. glindwil n. “a swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
ᴺS. !laeglin(n) n. “greenfinch ”
⚠️G. lindwil n. “swallow”; see instead:
N. tuilinn “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
N. merilin(n) n. “nightingale”
N., G. tavor n. “woodpecker, knocker; ⚠️[G.] wood fay”
N. tuilinn n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”
⚠️ᴱN. urdhuilin adj. “without swallows”

3.65 Fish (n)

N. hâl n. “fish”
⚠️G. igli n. “young of fish, small fry”; see instead:
ᴺS. !limmeg “young of fish, small fry”
⚠️G. ing n. “fish”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lim “fish”
⚠️N. lhim n. “fish”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lim “fish”
⚠️N. lhimlug n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^limlug “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lim n. “fish”
ᴺS. [N.] ^limlug n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
ᴺS. !limmeg n. “young of fish, small fry”
ᴺS. !torchal n. “shark or other large predatory fish ”

3.71 Wolf

⚠️N. araf n. “wolf, dog”; see instead:
N. garaf “wolf”
S. baw² [mb-] n. “howling”
S., N. draug n. “wolf”
N. garaf [ng-] n. “wolf”
N. gaul [ng-] n. “wolfhowl”
S., N. gaur [ng-] n. “werewolf”
N. gaw- [ng-] v. “to howl”
N. gawad [ng-] adj. “howling”
⚠️G. harach n. “she-wolf”; see instead:
N. garaf “wolf”
⚠️G. harog n. “wolf”; see instead:
N. garaf “wolf”
⚠️N. ûn² n. “howl; groan”; see instead:
S. baw² “howling”
N. gaul “wolfhowl”
⚠️G. urc n. “wolf”; see instead:
S. draug “wolf”

3.72 Lion

ᴺS., G. [G.] ^raw² n. “lion”
⚠️N. rhaw³ n. “lion”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raw² “lion”

3.73 Bear

N. brôg n. “bear”
⚠️ᴱN. gorch n. “bear; fierce fighter”; see instead:
N. brôg “bear”
⚠️S. graw n. “bear”; see instead:
N. brôg “bear”
⚠️ᴱN. magli n. “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^medli “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”
ᴺS. [N.] ^medli n. “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”
ᴺS. [N.] ^medlin adj. “*bear-like”
ᴺS. [N.] ^medlivorn n. “blackbear”
⚠️N. megli n. “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^medli “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”
⚠️N. meglin adj. “*bear-like”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^medlin “*bear-like”
⚠️N. meglivorn n. “blackbear”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^medlivorn “blackbear”

3.74 Fox

⚠️ᴺS. !rosg n. “fox”; see instead:
S. rusc “fox”
S. rusc n. “fox”

3.75 Deer

S. aras n. “deer, hart, *stag”
ᴺS. !celef n. “deer, hind”

3.77 Elephant

N. annabon n. “elephant”
⚠️G. funt n. “elephant”; see instead:
N. annabon “elephant”

3.79 to Hunt

N. fara- v. “to hunt”
ᴺS. !farad n. “[act of] hunting”
N. faras n. “hunting”
N. #faron n. “hunter”
⚠️S. faroth n. “?hunting, hunters”; see instead:
N. faras “hunting”
N. #faron “hunter”
N. feredir n. “hunter”
ᴺS. !feredis n. “hunter (f.)”
⚠️G. raust n. “hunt, chase”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rui “hunt, hunting, *chase”
⚠️G. rausta- v. “to hunt, chase, pursue (only in actual sense of following game)”; see instead:
N. fara- “to hunt”
ᴺS. !ruida- “to pursue, chase”
⚠️G. rautha- v. “hunt, chase, pursue”
N. rewinion n. “of the hunters”
⚠️N. rhui n. “hunt, hunting”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rui “hunt, hunting, *chase”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rui n. “hunt, hunting, *chase”
ᴺS. !ruida- v. “to pursue, chase”

3.81 Insect

⚠️G. fufril n. “moth”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^fuvrol “moth”
ᴺS. [G.] ^fuvrol n. “moth”
ᴺS., G. gwef n. “louse”
⚠️G. gwilbrin n. “butterfly”; see instead:
N. gwilwileth “butterfly”
⚠️G. gwilbriniol adj. “like a butterfly”
N. gwilwileth n. “butterfly”
ᴺS. !píeg n. “mosquito”

3.811 Spider

⚠️G. cing(win) n. “spider”; see instead:
S. ungol “spider”
⚠️G. gung n. “spider”; see instead:
S. ungol “spider”
⚠️G. gwaidhin n. “web”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhing “spider’s web, cobweb; ⚠️spider”
⚠️G. gwidh-a-ging n. “cobweb”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhing “spider’s web, cobweb; ⚠️spider”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhing n. “spider’s web, cobweb; ⚠️spider”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhingril n. “spider”
N. nath n. “web”
N. nathron n. “weaver, webster”
⚠️N. thling n. “spider, spider’s web, cobweb”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhing “spider’s web, cobweb; ⚠️spider”
⚠️N. thlingril n. “spider”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhingril “spider”
S., N. ungol n. “spider”
⚠️G. ungwi n. “spider”; see instead:
S. ungol “spider”

3.82 Bee

⚠️ᴱN. glinui n. “honey-bee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nîw “bee”
⚠️G. niogrim n. “swarm”
⚠️G. nio(s) n. “bee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nîw “bee”
⚠️G. niost n. “hive”
⚠️G. niosturwin n. “queen bee”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^nîw n. “bee”
⚠️ᴱN. niw n. “*bee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nîw “bee”
⚠️G. niwin n. “female bee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nîw “bee”
⚠️ᴱN. nui n. “bee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nîw “bee”

3.83 Fly (n)

S. budhu n. “large fly”
ᴺS. !budhulug n. “dragonfly”
S. cáfru n. “?flea”
⚠️ᴱN. caifr n. “flea”; see instead:
S. cáfru “?flea”
⚠️G. sitha¹ n. “fly”; see instead:
S. budhu “large fly”
⚠️G. sithagong n. “dragonfly”; see instead:
ᴺS. !budhulug “dragonfly”
⚠️G. sithaling n. “fly snake, dragonfly”; see instead:
ᴺS. !budhulug “dragonfly”

3.84 Worm

⚠️G. gwem n. “worm”; see instead:
S. leweg “worm”
⚠️G. gwembel n. “weevil”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwemmel “weevil”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gwemmel n. “weevil”
S. leweg n. “worm”
⚠️ᴱN. lhiw n. “worm”; see instead:
S. leweg “worm”
⚠️G. tereg n. “worm”; see instead:
S. leweg “worm”

3.85 Snake

N. am- pref. “snake”
⚠️G. fent n. “snake”; see instead:
S. lŷg “snake”
⚠️ᴱN. lamthanc n. “snake, (lit.) *forked tongue”; see instead:
S. lŷg “snake”
S., N. lhûg n. “snake, serpent, reptile, worm; [N.] dragon”
⚠️G. ling n. “small snake”; see instead:
S. lŷg “snake”
⚠️G. lingos n. “snake”; see instead:
S. lŷg “snake”
⚠️G. lûg n. “drake, snake”; see instead:
S. lhûg “snake, serpent, reptile, worm; [N.] dragon”
S. lŷg n. “snake”

3.99 Animals (other)

N. cabor n. “frog”
⚠️G. cwildred n. “bat (animal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pillor “bat (animal)”
⚠️G. doldrin [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
⚠️G. dolfa [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
⚠️G. dolmeg [nd-] n. “mole”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dolweg “mole”
ᴺS. [G.] ^dolweg [nd-] n. “mole”
S. felagund n. “den-dweller; brock, badger”
ᴺS. !gwimmam n. “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”
ᴺS., G. laboth n. “hare, *rabbit”
⚠️ᴺS. !loboth n. “rabbit, hare”; see instead:
ᴺS. laboth “hare, *rabbit”
⚠️G. meg n. “any small animal; (esp.) mole”
ᴺS. !pechof n. “squirrel”
⚠️ᴺS. !pegof n. “squirrel”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pechof “squirrel”
ᴺS. !pillor n. “bat (animal)”
ᴺS. !thindrostir n. “badger ”
⚠️G. uimoth n. “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwimmam “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”
⚠️G. uin n. “whale, †wave”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwimmam “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

⚠️G. baul n. “body, trunk”; see instead:
ᴺS. !polch “trunk, torso”
ᴺS. !polch n. “trunk, torso”
S. rhond n. “body”
S. rhû² n. “matter”

4.12 Skin, Hide

⚠️G. daf- v. “to strip, flay, peel skin”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
⚠️G. dafros n. “bark, skin, peel”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
S. #rîf “bark”
⚠️G. dauth n. “skin, hide”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
N. helf “fur, *hide”
⚠️G. dôf n. “hide, skin”; see instead:
N. helf “fur, *hide”
S. #flâd “skin”
S. #flâd n. “skin”
⚠️ᴱN. gwadh n. “bark, skin, peel”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
S. #rîf “bark”
⚠️G. past n. “skin”; see instead:
S. #flâd “skin”
⚠️G. path n. “peel, skin of fruit, fine bark (paper)”
S. #rîf n. “bark”

4.13 Flesh

⚠️G. cwim(ri) n. “body, flesh”; see instead:
S. rhond “body”
S. rhaw² “flesh”
⚠️G. harc n. “flesh (on a living body)”; see instead:
S. rhaw² “flesh”
S. rhaw² n. “flesh”

4.14 Hair

⚠️G. faigli n. “hair, long tresses”; see instead:
S. fing “lock of hair”
⚠️G. faiglim adj. “having long hair”; see instead:
S. †findel “having fine or beautiful hair; (head of) hair, fax, mass of long hair, ⚠️[N.] (braided) hair; [G.] tress”
⚠️G. faiglion adj. “having long hair”; see instead:
S. †findel “having fine or beautiful hair; (head of) hair, fax, mass of long hair, ⚠️[N.] (braided) hair; [G.] tress”
S. fîn n. “(single) hair, filament”
S., ᴱN. find n. “tress, [ON.] lock of hair; ⚠️[S.] single hair; [ᴱN.] hair”
S. †findel adj. and n. “having fine or beautiful hair; (head of) hair, fax, mass of long hair, ⚠️[N.] (braided) hair; [G.] tress”
S. fing n. “lock of hair”
⚠️G. fingl n. “tress”; see instead:
S. fing “lock of hair”
⚠️ᴱN. fîr n. “a hair”; see instead:
S. fîn “(single) hair, filament”
⚠️G. fith (fidh-) n. “single hair”; see instead:
S. fîn “(single) hair, filament”
ᴺS. [N.] ^laus n. “hair”
⚠️N. lhaws n. “hair”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laus “hair”

4.142 Beard

S., N., ᴱN., G. fang n. “beard, ⚠️[G.] long beard”
⚠️ᴱN. orfang adj. “beardless”
⚠️G. pau n. “a beard”; see instead:
S. fang “beard, ⚠️[G.] long beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

⚠️G. cingra adj. “plaited”
⚠️G. cingra- v. “to plait”
⚠️G. cingrafindl n. “pigtail”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwirphin “braid, pigtail, (lit.) woven-tress”
S. esbin n. “thin thread, tress”
N. fast n. “shaggy hair”
ᴺS. !fastui n. “hairy, hirsute”
⚠️G. fidhra n. “collective hair”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^fidhras “collective hair, *all hair on the body”
⚠️G. fidhrad adj. “hairy, hirsute”; see instead:
ᴺS. !fastui “hairy, hirsute”
ᴺS. [G.] ^fidhras n. “collective hair, *all hair on the body”
ᴺS. [G.] ^fidhren adj. “having hair, -haired”
⚠️G. #fidhrin adj. “haired”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^fidhren “having hair, -haired”
S. gwain² adj. “fair-haired (yellow to golden), *blond”
⚠️S. gwân adj. “pale, fair”; see instead:
S. gwain² “fair-haired (yellow to golden), *blond”
S. bain “beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; ⚠️fair, fair-haired”
ᴺS. !gwirphin n. “braid, pigtail, (lit.) woven-tress”
⚠️N. lhoch n. “ringlet”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loch “ringlet”
ᴺS. [N.] ^loch n. “ringlet”
ᴺS. [G.] ^logrifidhren adj. “curly haired”
⚠️G. logrifidhrin adj. “curly haired”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^logrifidhren “curly haired”
⚠️G. mairos n. “mane, long hair”
ᴺS. !merifind adj. “Black-haired”
⚠️G. taus adj. “shaggy”

4.15 Blood

⚠️S. #agar n. “blood”; see instead:
S. sereg “blood”
⚠️G. carna n. “gore, blood (especially fresh blood)”; see instead:
ᴺS. mechor “gore”
S. sereg “blood”
⚠️N. iâr n. “blood”; see instead:
S. sereg “blood”
⚠️G. †mais n. “gore”; see instead:
ᴺS. mechor “gore”
ᴺS., G. mechor n. “gore”
S. sereg n. “blood”

4.16 Bone

⚠️ᴺS. !ach n. “bone”; see instead:
ᴺS. asg “bone; ⚠️[G.] stone of fruit”
S. ach¹ “neck, *spine”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. asg n. “bone; ⚠️[G.] stone of fruit”
⚠️ᴱN. asgatheb adj. “bony”
⚠️G. hûn n. “bone”; see instead:
ᴱN. asg “bone; ⚠️[G.] stone of fruit”
⚠️G. huniol adj. “bony, rawboned”
⚠️G. lempachùn n. “wishbone”

4.17 Horn (animal)

N. half n. “seashell”
⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^rasg n. “horn”; see instead:
S. rass “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
S. rasg “wain, *wagon, cart”
S. rass n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
⚠️N. rhas n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”; see instead:
S. rass “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
⚠️N. rhasg n. “horn”; see instead:
S. rass “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
⚠️G. târ n. “horn”; see instead:
N. tarag “horn; steep mountain peak”
S. rass “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
N. tarag n. “horn; steep mountain peak”

4.18 Tail

⚠️ᴺS. !pim n. “tail”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pimp “tail”
ᴺS. !pimp n. “tail”

4.19 Back

⚠️ᴱN., G. alm n. “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️ᴱN. bost n. “back from shoulder to shoulder”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^hach n. “the hams, buttocks”
⚠️G. pont n. “the back, reverse or far side”

4.20 Head

⚠️N. dôl [nd-] n. “head, hill”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
S. dol(l) n. “head, hill”
⚠️ᴱN. nod n. “head”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
⚠️G. nôl n. “head”; see instead:
S. dol(l) “head, hill”

4.202 Skull

⚠️ᴱN., G. cas n. “skull, [G.] head”; see instead:
ᴺS. corob “skull”
S. dol(l) “head, hill”
ᴺS., G. corob n. “skull”

4.204 Face

⚠️ᴱN. annas n. “face, countenance”; see instead:
S. thîr “face, [N.] look, expression, countenance”
N. crann adj. and n. “ruddy (of face); face, blush, the cheeks”
⚠️G. gwint n. “face”; see instead:
S. thîr “face, [N.] look, expression, countenance”
S., N. thîr n. “face, [N.] look, expression, countenance”

4.206 Eyebrow

ᴺS. !hendelu n. “brow”

4.207 Jaw

N. anc n. “jaw, row of teeth”
S., N. carach n. “jaws, rows of teeth”
⚠️G. gag n. “jaw”; see instead:
N. anc “jaw, row of teeth”
N. naew n. “jaw”

4.209 Chin

⚠️G. bectha n. “tip; chin”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bened “chin”
⚠️G. beg n. “chin”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bened “chin”
ᴺS. !bened n. “chin”

4.21 Eye

S., N., ᴱN., G. hen n. “eye”
⚠️G. thed n. “eye; bud”; see instead:
S. hen “eye”
N. tui “sprout, bud”

4.212 Sharpeyed

S. maecheneb adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.22 Ear

S. lheweg n. “ear”
⚠️N. lhewig n. “ear”; see instead:
S. lheweg “ear”
⚠️G. unc² n. “ear, handle (of a jar)”; see instead:
S. lheweg “ear”

4.23 Nose

ᴺS. [N.] #^bond [mb-] adj. “snouted”
⚠️N. #bonn [mb-] adj. “snouted”; see instead:
ᴺS. #^bond “snouted”
ᴺS. [N.] ^bund [mb-] n. “snout, nose, cape”
⚠️N. bunn [mb-] n. “snout, nose, cape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bund “snout, nose, cape”
⚠️G. crug n. “beak (espec. of a ship)”
⚠️G. hunt n. “nose, nostrils”
⚠️G. irt² n. “beak (of small birds)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^irth “beak”
ᴺS. [G.] ^irth n. “beak”
N. nem n. “nose”
⚠️ᴱN. neth n. “nose”; see instead:
N. nem “nose”
⚠️G. nûn n. “a nose (of men only)”; see instead:
N. nem “nose”

4.24 Mouth

S., N. ethir¹ n. “mouth of a river, (lit.) outflow”
ᴺS. !gobem n. “mouth”
⚠️G. gogail n. “mouth”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gobem “mouth”
⚠️G. mem n. “mouth”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gobem “mouth”
⚠️G. môl n. “the (inside of the) mouth”

4.25 Lip

⚠️G. cail n. “lip”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pemp “lip”
ᴺS. !pemp n. “lip”

4.27 Tooth

⚠️G. carc n. “jag, point, fang”; see instead:
S. carch “fang, [N.] tooth”
S., N. carch n. “fang, [N.] tooth”
⚠️G. gomol n. “the teeth, two rows of teeth”; see instead:
S. carach “jaws, rows of teeth”
ᴺS. [G.] ^molnaes n. “molar”
⚠️G. molnaith n. “molar”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^molnaes “molar”
⚠️G. nacthanaith n. “incisor (tooth)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nagnaes “incisor (tooth)”
N. naes n. “tooth”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nagnaes n. “incisor (tooth)”
⚠️ᴺS. !nagol n. “tooth”; see instead:
N. neleg “tooth”
⚠️G. naith n. “tooth”; see instead:
N. naes “tooth”
N. nêl n. “tooth”
N. neleg n. “tooth”
⚠️G. sanc n. “jag, tooth”; see instead:
S. carch “fang, [N.] tooth”

4.28 Neck

S. ach¹ n. “neck, *spine”
⚠️G. gath¹ n. “neck”; see instead:
S. ach¹ “neck, *spine”
N. iaeth n. “neck”
S. lang n. “passage; neck, *throat”

4.29 Throat

⚠️G. cwerc n. “throat”; see instead:
S. lang “passage; neck, *throat”
⚠️ᴱN. gara n. “throat”; see instead:
S. lang “passage; neck, *throat”
⚠️G. glod n. “gullet, throat”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhung “pharynx, gullet”
⚠️ᴱN. griw n. “alimentary canel”
⚠️N. lhanc n. “throat”; see instead:
S. lang “passage; neck, *throat”
ᴺS. !lhung “pharynx, gullet”
ᴺS. !lhung n. “pharynx, gullet”

4.30 Shoulder

⚠️G. alan n. “shoulder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️ᴱN. amoth n. “shoulder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galf “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️G. egelmion adj. “broadshouldered”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^galf n. “back (from shoulder to shoulder), [G.] shoulders”
⚠️G. rôma n. “shoulder”

4.31 Arm

⚠️G. † n. “arm, strength”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ranc “arm”
ᴺS. [N.] ^ranc n. “arm”
⚠️G. rath n. “the full arm, the extent of one’s arm, one’s reach; a measure = 2 feet”
⚠️N. rhanc n. “arm”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ranc “arm”

4.32 Elbow

ᴺS., G. crig n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

S., N., ᴱN., G. mâb n. “hand, [N.] grasp”
S. †maw n. “hand”
⚠️G. n. “hand”; see instead:
S. †maw “hand”
⚠️ᴱN. orvab adj. “handless”

4.332 Hand (other)

S., N. cam n. “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful”
⚠️N. camland n. “palm of hand”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^camlann “palm of hand”
ᴺS. [N.] ^camlann n. “palm of hand”
⚠️N. dalf n. “palm of hand”; see instead:
S. plad “palm, flat of the hand”
S. dond n. “fist”
N., G. drambor n. “clenched fist; blow with a fist; [G.] thudder”
⚠️G. gob n. “hollow of hand”; see instead:
S. cam “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful”
ᴺS. ^camlann “palm of hand”
⚠️G. grinn n. “ankle, wrist”; see instead:
S. molif “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
ᴺS. !talif “ankle”
⚠️G. mablad n. “palm of the hand”; see instead:
S. plad “palm, flat of the hand”
ᴺS., G. mabren adj. “handed, having hands, dextrous”
ᴺS. [G.] ^mabrenas adj. “dexterity”
⚠️G. mabrin(d) n. “wrist”; see instead:
S. molif “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
⚠️G. mabwedri n. “dexterity”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mabrenas “dexterity”
⚠️G. mavlant n. “*palm (of hand)”; see instead:
S. plad “palm, flat of the hand”
S. molif n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
S., N. paur n. “fist, (closed) hand”
S. plad n. “palm, flat of the hand”

4.34 Finger

⚠️G. alepthog adj. “fingered, having fingers”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”
⚠️G. alewthion adj. “having fingers”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”
S. lebdas n. “index finger”
S. lebenedh n. “middle finger”
S. lebent n. “fourth finger”
S. leber n. “finger”
ᴺS. !leberen adj. “fingered, of fingers”
S. lebig n. “little finger”
⚠️G. lemfadrin adj. and n. “of the finger; ring”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”
⚠️G. lemp¹ n. “crooked finger; little finger”; see instead:
S. lebig “little finger”
⚠️G. leptha n. “finger”; see instead:
S. leber “finger”
⚠️G. lepthadrin adj. “fingered, of fingers”; see instead:
ᴺS. !leberen “fingered, of fingers”
⚠️ᴱN. lhê n. “finger”; see instead:
S. leber “finger”
⚠️N. lhebed n. “finger”; see instead:
S. leber “finger”
S. niged n. “little finger”
S. tas n. “index finger”
S. toleg n. “*sticker-up”

4.342 Thumb

⚠️S. lebed n. “thumb”; see instead:
S. naub “thumb”
S. leber “finger”
S. naub n. “thumb”
S. nobad n. “thumb and index finger as a pair, (lit.) *pickers”

4.35 Leg

⚠️G. bactha n. “leg”; see instead:
ᴺS. !teleg “leg”
⚠️N. n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tŷg “thigh”
ᴺS. !teleg n. “leg”
⚠️ᴱN. tûd n. “thigh”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tŷg “thigh”
ᴺS. !tŷg n. “thigh”

4.36 Knee

⚠️G. octha n. “knee”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ogod “knee”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ogod n. “knee”

4.37 Foot

⚠️ᴱN. #mathal n. “footstep”
N. pôd n. “animal’s foot”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rein n. “slot, spoor, track, footprint”
⚠️N. rhein n. “slot, spoor, track, footprint”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rein “slot, spoor, track, footprint”
S., N., G. tâl n. “foot; [lower] end”
⚠️G. talgrin(d) n. “ankle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !talif “ankle”
ᴺS. !talif n. “ankle”
⚠️G. taltha n. “foot (of things), base, pedestal, pediment”
⚠️ᴱN. taul n. “foot”; see instead:
S. tâl “foot; [lower] end”
N. tellen n. “sole of foot”
⚠️G. tent n. “toe”

4.39 Nail, Claw

⚠️G. clam(p) n. “grasp, claw”; see instead:
S. gamp “hook, crook; [N.] claw”
S. mâb “hand, [N.] grasp”
⚠️G. cog n. “claw, fist”

4.392 Wing

⚠️G. bascovas n. “flapping and beating (especially of wings)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !blabed “flapping, beating (especially of wings)”
⚠️G. basga- v. “to flap”; see instead:
N. #blab- “to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
⚠️G. bass n. “wing, pinion”; see instead:
S. raw “wing”
S. roval “winged; [N.] pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”
N. #blab- v. “to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
ᴺS. !blabed n. “flapping, beating (especially of wings)”
⚠️G. ram n. “wing, pinion”; see instead:
S. raw “wing”
ᴺS. [N.] ^ravn n. “wing (horn), extended point at side”
S. raw n. “wing”
⚠️N. rhafn n. “wing (horn), extended point at side”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ravn “wing (horn), extended point at side”
⚠️N. rhofal n. “pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”; see instead:
S. roval “winged; [N.] pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”
S. roval adj. and n. “winged; [N.] pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”

4.393 Feather

⚠️G. cwathli n. “plume, spray, tassel”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pesson “plume, feather”
⚠️G. pectha n. “plume”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pess² “feather”
⚠️G. pecthon n. “plume, feather”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pesson “plume, feather”
ᴺS. !pess² n. “feather”
ᴺS. !pesson n. “plume, feather”
⚠️G. tuf n. “down, fluff”
⚠️G. tufrin adj. “fluffy”

4.41 Breast of Woman

⚠️G. am² n. “breast, front (chest)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ammos “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
⚠️G. ammogrint adj. “red-breast[ed]”; see instead:
ᴺS. amosgarn “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
ᴺS., G. ammos n. “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
⚠️ᴺS. !sûf n. “bosom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ammos “*breast, chest, bosom; ⚠️breastplate”
ᴺS., ᴱN. tith n. “breast, teat”

4.44 Heart

⚠️G. elf n. “heart”; see instead:
S. ind “some particular purpose or intention of an individual; heart [metaphorical], [N.] inner thought, meaning”
⚠️G. honn n. “heart”; see instead:
N. hûn “heart (physical)”
N. hûn n. “heart (physical)”
⚠️G. ilf n. “heart”; see instead:
S. ind “some particular purpose or intention of an individual; heart [metaphorical], [N.] inner thought, meaning”
⚠️ᴱN. lhonn n. “heart”; see instead:
N. hûn “heart (physical)”
⚠️ᴱN. urhonn adj. “heartless”

4.45 Liver

⚠️G. rôn² n. “liver”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

ᴺS. !com adj. and n. “bellied”
ᴺS. !cum n. “belly”
⚠️G. fam n. “fat belly, paunch”; see instead:
ᴺS. !com “bellied”
⚠️G. famfolc adj. “fat-bellied”; see instead:
ᴺS. !túgom “fat-bellied”
⚠️ᴱN. girdh n. “entrails, bowels, inwards”
ᴺS. !iâd¹ n. “waist, isthmus”

4.47 Womb

⚠️ᴱN. huch n. “cunnus, *vagina”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puch “vagina”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^puch n. “vagina”

4.48 Egg

ᴺS., G. och n. “egg”

4.492 Penis

⚠️ᴱN. †gwî n. “teors, *penis”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwîb “teors, *penis”
ᴺS., ᴱN. gwîb n. “teors, *penis”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

⚠️G. fest n. “breath, breathing”; see instead:
N. thûl “breath”
⚠️G. festa- v. “to breath[e]”; see instead:
N. thuia- “to breathe”
⚠️G. feth n. “one breath”; see instead:
S. faw “*breath, puff of breath”
N. thuia- v. “to breathe”
N. thûl n. “breath”
⚠️G. ufestog adj. “breathless”; see instead:
ᴺS. !úthúlui “breathless”
ᴺS. !úthúlui adj. “breathless”

4.53 to Cough

ᴺS. !tosta- v. “to cough”

4.56 to Spit

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. crech n. “spittle”
⚠️G. crectha- v. “to spit”; see instead:
N. puia- “to spit”
⚠️ᴱN. hist- v. “to spit”; see instead:
N. puia- “to spit”
N. puia- v. “to spit”

4.57 to Vomit

⚠️ᴱN. hich- v. “to vomit”

4.58 to Bite

⚠️G. nactha- v. “bite”; see instead:
N. nag- “to bite; [G.] to chew, gnaw”
N., G. nag- v. “to bite; [G.] to chew, gnaw”
ᴺS., G. nanc n. “bite”
S., N. narch adj. “bitter-biting”

4.59 to Lick

ᴺS. !hlab n. “sip”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hlab- v. “to sup, lap up, suck, *sip”
ᴺS., S., N. laudh n. “gluttonous eating, [N.] licking up (food or drink)”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^lav- v. “to lick”
ᴺS., G. lavra- v. “to lap (of animals), suck up”
⚠️N. #lhav- v. “to lick”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lav- “to lick”
⚠️G. thlib- v. “to sup, lap up, suck”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hlab- “to sup, lap up, suck, *sip”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

⚠️N. chwîn n. “giddyness, faintness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwîn “giddyness, faintness”
⚠️G. hum- v. “to sleep, drowze”; see instead:
ᴺS. lor- “to sleep, slumber, ⚠️dream”
⚠️G. hûm n. “sleep”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lûr “sleep, slumber”
⚠️G. humiol adj. “sleepy, drowzy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !olost “drowsy, dreamy, lazy”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hwîn n. “giddyness, faintness”
⚠️N. lhorn² adj. “asleep”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lorn “asleep”
⚠️N. lhûr n. “slumber”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lûr “sleep, slumber”
ᴺS., G. lor- v. “to sleep, slumber, ⚠️dream”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lorn adj. “asleep”
ᴺS., G. lortha- v. “to put to sleep, send to sleep”
⚠️G. lorwen n. “slumber, sleep”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lûr “sleep, slumber”
⚠️ᴺS. !losta-² v. “to sleep”; see instead:
ᴺS. lor- “to sleep, slumber, ⚠️dream”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^lûr n. “sleep, slumber”
⚠️G. mur- v. “*to slumber, sleep”; see instead:
ᴺS. lor- “to sleep, slumber, ⚠️dream”

4.62 Dream (n)

S. ?fanwos n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”
⚠️G. lorc adj. “drowsy, dreamy, lazy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !olost “drowsy, dreamy, lazy”
⚠️G. maur n. “dream, vision”; see instead:
N. ôl “dream”
⚠️G. murc n. “a nightmare, vision of the night”
⚠️G. murtha- v. “to dream”; see instead:
N. oltha- “to dream; ⚠️[G.] to appear as an apparition”
N. ôl n. “dream”
⚠️G. olm n. “dream”; see instead:
N. ôl “dream”
⚠️G. olma- v. “to dream”; see instead:
N. oltha- “to dream; ⚠️[G.] to appear as an apparition”
ᴺS. !olost adj. “drowsy, dreamy, lazy”
⚠️G. oloth n. “dream, apparition, vision”; see instead:
N. ôl “dream”
S. auth “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
N., G. oltha- v. “to dream; ⚠️[G.] to appear as an apparition”
ᴺS. !olui adj. “dreamy”

4.63 to Wake

⚠️G. bractha- v. “to refresh; to revive, arouse, awaken”; see instead:
ᴺS. !laeda- “to refresh, revive”
⚠️ᴱN. cuivros n. “awakening”; see instead:
S. echui “awakening”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cui(w) adj. “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwim adj. “awake, alert, alive”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwimp adj. “alert, vigilant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwiv- v. “to be awake”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cui(w) “awake, alert, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cwivra- v. “to awaken (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuia- “to awaken, wake up (intrans.)”
⚠️G. cwivros n. “awakening”; see instead:
S. echui “awakening”
S., N. echui n. “awakening”
ᴺS. !echuia- v. “to awaken, wake up (intrans.)”
ᴺS. !echuida- v. “to wake up (trans.), waken, rouse”
⚠️ᴺS. !echuinu- v. “to awaken, wake up (intrans.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuia- “to awaken, wake up (intrans.)”
ᴺS. !laeda- v. “to refresh, revive”

4.65 to Urinate; Urine

⚠️G. fafli n. “bladder”; see instead:
ᴺS. !faul¹ “bladder, (orig.) inflated thing”
ᴺS. !faul¹ n. “bladder, (orig.) inflated thing”
⚠️G. pigla- v. “to make urine”; see instead:
ᴺS. !saerlif “urine”
⚠️G. piglin n. “urine”; see instead:
ᴺS. !saerlif “urine”
ᴺS. !saerlif n. “urine”

4.66 to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement

⚠️G. gorn n. “dung”

4.67 to have Sexual Intercourse

⚠️ᴱN. hoith n. “coitus, *sex”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puith “coitus, *sex”
⚠️ᴱN. hoitha- v. “*to have sex (with)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puitha- “*to have sex (with)”
⚠️ᴱN. hug- v. “futuere, *to copulate”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pog- “futuere, *to copulate, have sex”
⚠️ᴱN. huigion n. “fututor, *one who copulates”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pogron “fututor, *one who copulates”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^pog- v. “futuere, *to copulate, have sex”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^pogron n. “fututor, *one who copulates”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^puith n. “coitus, *sex”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^puitha- v. “*to have sex (with)”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

N. edonna- v. “to beget”
⚠️G. gaibra- v. “to impregnate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gýda- “to impregnate”
⚠️G. gwaith² (gwaith-) n. “semen”
⚠️G. gwectha- v. “to impregnate, generate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gýda- “to impregnate”
ᴺS. !gýda- v. “to impregnate”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

⚠️ᴱN. bodamrost n. “resurrection”
ᴺS. !enia- v. “to be born, be generated, result”
⚠️G. gav- v. “to produce, yield, bear fruit”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^iav- “to produce, yield, bear fruit”
⚠️G. nôs n. “birthday; nature”; see instead:
ᴺS. !oronnad “birthday”
⚠️G. nost n. “birth; blood, high birth; birthday”; see instead:
ᴺS. !onnad “birth”
ᴺS. !oronnad “birthday”
⚠️G. nosta- v. “to be born”; see instead:
N. onna- “?to beget, make born”
⚠️G. nosteg adj. “birth”; see instead:
ᴺS. !onnad “birth”
⚠️ᴺS. !nostor n. “birthday”; see instead:
ᴺS. !oronnad “birthday”
⚠️G. nuin adj. “born”; see instead:
S. #onnen “born”
S., N. #onna- v. “to beget, make born”
ᴺS. !onnad n. “birth”
S. #onnen adj. “born”
ᴺS. !oronnad n. “birthday”

4.73 Pregnant

ᴺS. [G.] ^gaew adj. “pregnant”
⚠️G. gaiw adj. “pregnant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaew “pregnant”
⚠️G. giol adj. “fecund; conceiving, having conceived, just pregnant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gŷl “fecund; conceiving, having conceived, just pregnant”
⚠️G. gwivrin adj. “barren”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gŷl adj. “fecund; conceiving, having conceived, just pregnant”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gŷth n. “germ, foetus, embryon”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gythren adj. “embryonic”
⚠️G. ilgiol adj. “barren”
⚠️G. ilgioth n. “sterility”
⚠️G. uivrin adj. “barren”

4.732 to Conceive

⚠️G. giothra- v. “to germinate, be conceived”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gythra- “to germinate, be conceived”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gythra- v. “to germinate, be conceived”
ᴺS. [G.] ^iavren adj. “fertile”
⚠️G. ivrin adj. “fertile”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^iavren “fertile”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

S., N. #cuia- v. “to live”
⚠️G. cuib adj. “alive”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
⚠️G. cuibri n. “vitality”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuinas “vitality, liveliness”
⚠️ᴺS. !cuida- v. “to bring to life, enliven, energize”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuida- “to wake up (trans.), waken, rouse”
⚠️ᴱN. cuif (cuiv-) adj. “alive”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
N., ᴱN., G. cuil n. “life, [G.] lifetime”
⚠️G. cuilborn n. “lifetime”; see instead:
ᴺS. cuilvorn “lifetime”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuileb adj. “lively, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cuilog adj. “alive, lively”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
ᴺS. ^cuileb “lively, ⚠️alive”
⚠️G. cuilogri n. “liveliness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuinas “vitality, liveliness”
ᴺS., ᴱN. cuilvorn n. “lifetime”
N. cuin adj. “alive”
S., N. #cuina- v. “to be alive”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuinas n. “vitality, liveliness”
ᴺS., G. cuith n. “life, the vital principle; living body”
⚠️G. cuitha- v. “to live, be alive”; see instead:
S. #cuina- “to be alive”
S. #cuia- “to live”
ᴺS. [G.] ^cuithas n. “life (period of life); living, livelihood”
⚠️G. cuithos n. “life (period of life); living, livelihood”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cuithas “life (period of life); living, livelihood”
⚠️ᴺS. !echuira- v. “to come to life”; see instead:
ᴺS. !echuiru- “to come to life”
ᴺS. !echuiru- v. “to come to life”
⚠️G. laug adj. “(of plants) alive, having sap, green, vigorous”; see instead:
N. cuin “alive”
S. calen “green; †bright, [N.] bright colored; ⚠️[S.] fresh, vigorous”
S. tharan “vigorous”
ᴺS. ^laug “warm”
⚠️ᴱN. uchuil adj. “lifeless”
⚠️ᴱN. urguil adj. “lifeless”
⚠️ᴱN. urrost adj. “never coming to life”

4.742 Immortal

S. alfirin adj. and n. “immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

ᴺS. [N.] ^delu adj. “hateful, deadly, fell”
⚠️N. delw adj. “hateful, deadly, fell”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^delu “hateful, deadly, fell”
S., N. #fern adj. and n. “dead person; [N.] dead (of mortals)”
S. #fir- v. “to fade, die”
S. firin adj. “dying, mortal”
⚠️G. gor-² v. “to die”; see instead:
S. #fir- “to fade, die”
N. gwanna- “to depart, die”
⚠️ᴱN. gurdh- v. “to die”; see instead:
S. #fir- “to fade, die”
N. gwanna- “to depart, die”
⚠️ᴱN. gurdh n. “death”; see instead:
S. gurth “death”
S., ᴱN., G., N. gurth [ng-] n. “death”
S., N. guru [ng-] n. “death (abstract)”
⚠️N. guruth [ng-] n. “death”; see instead:
S. gurth “death”
S., N. guruthos [ng-] n. “death-horror, shadow of death, [N.] fear of death”
N. gwanath n. “death (act of dying)”
N. gwann adj. “departed, dead”
N. gwanna- v. “to depart, die”
ᴺS. [N.] ^gwanu n. “death (act of dying)”
⚠️N. gwanw n. “death (act of dying)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwanu “death (act of dying)”
⚠️ᴱN. gwardh adj. “dead”; see instead:
N. gwann “departed, dead”
⚠️G. gwarth adj. “dead (only of persons)”; see instead:
N. gwann “departed, dead”

4.76 to Kill

S., N., ᴱN. #dag- [nd-] v. “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”
S. dagnir [nd-] n. “slayer, bane”
ᴺS. !dagnis n. “slayer, bane (f.)”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^dagras [nd-] n. “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. dagros [nd-] n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dagras “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. danc adj. “killed in battle”; see instead:
S. dangen “slain”
S., N. dangen [nd-] adj. “slain”
⚠️G. ecthadra- v. “to slay, put to the sword”; see instead:
S. #dag- “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”
⚠️G. mactha- v. “to slay, kill”; see instead:
S. #dag- “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”
N. maetha- “to fight”
⚠️G. (n)gôl n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dagras “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. rangos n. “slaughter”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dagras “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. rhach n. “carnage, slaughter”; see instead:
S. #rhach “curse”
ᴺS. ^dagras “slaughter”
⚠️ᴱN. rhang- v. “to slay in battle”; see instead:
S. #dag- “to slay, [ᴱN.] kill”

4.77 Corpse, Body

⚠️G. cweleg n. “corpse”; see instead:
N. daen “corpse”
N. daen [nd-] n. “corpse”
S. #gorth¹ [ng-] n. “dead (person)”
⚠️ᴱN. rhanc n. “corpse, body of one slain in battle”; see instead:
N. daen “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

⚠️G. dal n. “cairn”; see instead:
N. sarnas “cairn”
S., N. haudh n. “(funeral) mound, grave, [N.] tomb; [orig.] heap, piled mound”
S. sarch n. “grave”
⚠️S. tor n. “the Dead”
S. torn¹ n. “burial mound”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

⚠️ᴱN. balt¹ n. “might”; see instead:
ᴺS. polod “power, might, authority”
⚠️ᴺS. !bel n. “strength”; see instead:
N. bellas “bodily strength”
S. belaith [mb-] adj. “mighty”
N. bellas n. “bodily strength”
N. belt adj. “strong in body”
⚠️G. drum adj. “stout, firm, strong”; see instead:
S. taug “firm, strong, (?withstand)”
N. gorf n. “impetus, vigor”
⚠️G. nert n. “prowess, a feat, strength”; see instead:
N. bellas “bodily strength”
⚠️G. nerthog adj. “stout, vigorous, douty”; see instead:
S. tharan “vigorous”
⚠️ᴱN. nûr n. “muscle”; see instead:
N. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”
⚠️G. ogor n. “might, power, ability”; see instead:
ᴺS. polod “power, might, authority”
S. curu “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
⚠️G. polm n. “strength (physical)”; see instead:
N. bellas “bodily strength”
⚠️G. polmog adj. “strong (physically)”; see instead:
N. belt “strong in body”
ᴺS., G. polod n. “power, might, authority”
ᴺS. [G.] ^polodren adj. “mighty, *powerful”
⚠️G. polodrin adj. “mighty”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^polodren “mighty, *powerful”
⚠️ᴱN. rhôg n. “strength”
⚠️ᴱN. rhogrin adj. “doughty”
⚠️G. rôg adj. “doughty, strong”; see instead:
N. belt “strong in body”
⚠️G. †taur² n. “ability, power”; see instead:
S. curu “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
ᴺS. polod “power, might, authority”
S. taur “forest, wood, [N.] great wood, [G.] dense wood”
N. taur² adj. “vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge; high, sublime”
⚠️G. taura adj. “powerful”; see instead:
N. taur² “vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge; high, sublime”
ᴺS. ^polodren “mighty, *powerful”
S. tharan adj. “vigorous”
N. n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

ᴺS. [G.] ^gaug adj. “clumsy; ⚠️left (hand)”
⚠️G. gôg adj. “clumsy; left (hand)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaug “clumsy; ⚠️left (hand)”
⚠️ᴱN. gwesg adv. “weakly”

4.83 Well; Health

S. *alu adj. “wholesome”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

N. cael n. “lying in bed, sickness”
N. caeleb adj. “bedridden, sick”
⚠️G. colu n. “pestilence”; see instead:
N. gem “sickly”
⚠️G. coluid adj. “pestilent”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️ᴱN. côm n. “sickness”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️G. côma n. “disease, illness”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️G. cômathol adj. “diseased, ill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhaew “sick, sickly, ill”
N. caeleb “bedridden, sick”
⚠️G. cwam adj. “ill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhaew “sick, sickly, ill”
⚠️G. cwanc adj. “sickly, poorly, seedy”; see instead:
N. gem “sickly”
⚠️G. cwancha- v. “to ail”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pavra- “to ail, *be ill”
⚠️G. cwanchri n. “ailment”; see instead:
N. paw “sickness, *illness, ailment”
⚠️N. flaew adj. “sick, sickly, ill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhaew “sick, sickly, ill”
⚠️N. fliw n. “sickness”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhîw “sickness, disease”
⚠️G. gaudhwen n. “fever”
N. gem adj. “sickly”
⚠️G. il(d)rim n. “unquiet, disturbance; disease”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhaew adj. “sick, sickly, ill”
ᴺS., N. [N.] ^lhîw n. “sickness, disease”
ᴺS. !lhýda- v. “to make sick, sicken”
⚠️G. lib n. “drop, gout”; see instead:
ᴺS. limig “[small] drop, ⚠️drop of water”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pavra- v. “to ail, *be ill”
N., ᴱN. paw n. “sickness, *illness, ailment”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

ᴺS. !ammatha- v. “to maul”
⚠️G. famfa- v. “to maul”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ammatha- “to maul”
⚠️G. gund n. “boil, pus”
⚠️ᴱN. hardh adj. “wounded”
N. harn² adj. “wounded”
N. harna- v. “to wound”
ᴺS. [N.] ^haru n. “wound”
⚠️N., ᴱN. harw n. “wound”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^haru “wound”
⚠️G. lui n. “blueness, livor, livid mark”
S. naedh n. “wounding, wound”
⚠️G. tîl n. “cicatrice, scab, healing of a wound”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

S. athae n. and adj. “?healing”
S., N., ᴱN. athelas n. “kingsfoil, a healing herb”
S. athra-² v. “to treat medically”
N. #nesta- v. “to heal”
N. nestad n. “healing”

4.87 Physician

ᴺS. !athor n. “doctor”

4.89 Poison

⚠️G. fem n. “venom (of snakes), poison in general”; see instead:
S. lhoer “venom, poison(ousness)”
⚠️G. fenog adj. “venomous”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhoereb “venomous, poisonous”
⚠️G. fuior n. “deadly nightshade”
S. lhoer n. “venom, poison(ousness)”
ᴺS. !lhoereb adj. “venomous, poisonous”
S. lhoew n. “poison(ous substance)”
⚠️N. saew n. “poison”; see instead:
S. lhoew “poison(ous substance)”

4.91 Tired, Weary

⚠️ᴱN. darw adj. “tired, weary”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lom “weary, *tired”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. drauth adj. “[G.] weary, toilworn, tired; ⚠️[ᴱN.] labour”
ᴺS., G. drautha- v. “to weary, tire out”
⚠️ᴱN. dre adj. “wearisome, tiresome”
⚠️G. fadrog adj. “tiresome”; see instead:
N. amben “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. fadros n. “satiety, weariness of anything”; see instead:
ᴺS. !farthas “satiety, satisfaction”
⚠️N. lhom adj. “weary”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lom “weary, *tired”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lom adj. “weary, *tired”

4.93 Bald

⚠️G. cafalon adj. “bald, *(lit.) head-naked”; see instead:
S. rûdh “bald”
S. rûdh n. “bald”

4.94 Lame

⚠️G. caug¹ n. “hunchback”

4.96 Dumb

⚠️ᴱN. uvlam adj. “dumb”

4.97 Blind

⚠️ᴱN. dam(b) adj. “blind”
ᴺS., S. dom adj. “blind”

4.98 Drunk

⚠️ᴱN. balfaug adj. “drunken”

4.99 Naked, Bare

⚠️G. dautha adj. “naked, stripped”; see instead:
N. hell¹ “naked, *stripped”
⚠️G. falon adj. “naked”; see instead:
S. parch “naked (of persons)”
⚠️G. falt adj. “bare”; see instead:
S. paran “bare, naked; smooth, shaven”
⚠️G. fôl adj. “empty, bare, leafless (esp. of trees)”; see instead:
S. paran “bare, naked; smooth, shaven”
N. hell¹ adj. “naked, *stripped”
⚠️G. hulc adj. “naked”; see instead:
N. hell¹ “naked, *stripped”
S. lanc² adj. “naked”
S. paran adj. “bare, naked; smooth, shaven”
⚠️S. parch adj. “naked (of persons)”; see instead:
N. hell¹ “naked, *stripped”
N. parch “dry”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

⚠️G. baptha- v. “to feed; to take sup of”; see instead:
ᴺS. !media- “to feed”
⚠️G. dultha- v. “to dine”; see instead:
S. #mad- “to eat”
⚠️G. loda- v. “to swallow, gulp down”
S., N., ᴱN., G. #mad- v. “to eat”
⚠️ᴱN. madren adj. “edible”; see instead:
ᴺS. !madui “edible”
⚠️G. madrin adj. “edible, fit for food, wholesome”; see instead:
ᴺS. !madui “edible”
ᴺS. !madui adj. “edible”
S. madweg adj. “gluttonous”
⚠️G. mal- v. “chew”
ᴺS. !media- v. “to feed”
⚠️ᴱN. medid adj. “edible”; see instead:
ᴺS. !madui “edible”
⚠️ᴱN. medion n. “eater, feeder”
⚠️ᴱN. meidianweb adj. “worthy of being eaten”

5.12 Food

⚠️G. madri n. “food, edibles”; see instead:
ᴺS. math “food”
⚠️ᴺS., N. mann n. “food”; see instead:
ᴺS. math “food”
⚠️G. mast n. “feed, food, nourishment; fodder”; see instead:
ᴺS. math “food”
ᴺS. ^salch “green cut grass, ensilage, *fodder”
ᴺS., ᴱN. math n. “food”
⚠️G. môs n. “food (of men)”; see instead:
ᴺS. math “food”
⚠️ᴱN. orvath adj. “foodless”

5.13 to Drink

⚠️G. bab- v. “to drink, quaff”; see instead:
N. #sog- “to drink”
⚠️ᴱN. lhif- v. “to drink”; see instead:
N. #sog- “to drink”
S. #luithia- v. “to quench”
N. sautha- v. “to drain”
⚠️G. soctha- v. “to give to drink, quench”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^suitha- “to give to drink, quench”
N., ᴱN., G. #sog- v. “to drink”
ᴺS. !sogannen adj. “drunk”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^suith n. “draught, [G.] drink”
ᴺS. [G.] ^suitha- v. “to give to drink, quench”
⚠️N. sûth n. “draught”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^suith “draught, [G.] drink”
S. uluithiad adj. “unquenchable”
⚠️ᴺS. !ýl- v. “to drink”; see instead:
N. #sog- “to drink”
⚠️ᴺS. !yll n. “draught”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^suith “draught, [G.] drink”

5.14 Hunger (n)

⚠️ᴱN. haib adj. “hungry”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saeb “hungry”
⚠️ᴱN. hais n. “hunger”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saeg “hunger”
ᴺS. [G.] ^mavor n. “appetite”
⚠️G. mavri n. “appetite”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mavor “appetite”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^saeb adj. “hungry”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^saeg n. “hunger”
ᴺS. !saegon n. “famine, (great) hunger”
ᴺS. [G.] ^saetha- v. “to have hunger”
⚠️G. saig adj. “hungry”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saeb “hungry”
⚠️G. saigri n. “hunger (great), famine”; see instead:
ᴺS. !saegon “famine, (great) hunger”
⚠️G. saith n. “hunger”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saeg “hunger”
⚠️G. saitha- v. “to have hunger”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saetha- “to have hunger”

5.15 Thirst (n)

⚠️ᴺS. !faul² n. “thirst”; see instead:
ᴺS. faus(t) “thirst”
ᴺS., ᴱN. faus(t) n. “thirst”
⚠️G. luist n. “thirst”; see instead:
ᴺS. faus(t) “thirst”
⚠️G. maig adj. “thirst”; see instead:
ᴺS. faus(t) “thirst”

5.151 Thirsty

S., N., ᴱN. faug adj. “[N.] thirsty, ⚠️[S.] gape”
⚠️G. luib adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
S. faug “[N.] thirsty, ⚠️[S.] gape”
⚠️G. maiglos adj. “thirsty”; see instead:
S. faug “[N.] thirsty, ⚠️[S.] gape”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

ᴺS. [N.] ^hwinia- v. “to twirl, whirl, eddy”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hwiniol adj. “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”

5.21 to Cook

ᴺS., G. brant adj. “cooked, done; overdone”
ᴺS., G. brath- v. “to cook”

5.24 to Bake

⚠️G. bast- [mb-] v. “to bake”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^basta- “to bake”
ᴺS. [G.] ^basta- [mb-] v. “to bake”

5.25 Oven

⚠️G. bothli [mb-] n. “oven”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bothol “oven”
ᴺS. [G.] ^bothol [mb-] n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

⚠️N. calf n. “water-vessel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^calph “water-vessel, [G.] bucket”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^calph n. “water-vessel, [G.] bucket”
⚠️G. ceral n. “jar”
⚠️G. tambos n. “cauldron”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tammos “cauldron”
ᴺS. [G.] ^tammos n. “cauldron”

5.33 Bowl

⚠️G. fion n. “bowl, goblet”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tolph “bowl, basin”
N. sûl “goblet”
⚠️G. salf n. “bowl, basin”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tolph “bowl, basin”
ᴺS. ^salph “broth”
ᴺS. !tolph n. “bowl, basin”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

⚠️G. ulm n. “jar, flagon”

5.35 Cup

⚠️G. socthor n. “a drinking-horn”
⚠️G. sogli n. “a drinking-horn”
⚠️G. sogridâr n. “a drinking-horn”
N. sûl n. “goblet”
S. ylf n. “drinking-vessel”
ᴺS. !ylvon n. “chalice”

5.37 Spoon

⚠️G. salfinc n. “spoon”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tolpheg “spoon”
ᴺS. !tolpheg n. “spoon”

5.41 a Meal

ᴺS., G. mâd n. “meal”

5.42 Breakfast

⚠️G. maudrimad n. “breakfast”

5.43 Lunch

⚠️G. authmadri n. “midday meal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nedhwad “lunch, (lit.) middle-meal”
⚠️G. haimadri adj. “lunch, food in morning, elevens”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nedhwad “lunch, (lit.) middle-meal”
ᴺS. !nedhwad n. “lunch, (lit.) middle-meal”

5.44 Dinner

⚠️G. dultha n. “supper, dinner”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dúvad “supper, dinner”
ᴺS. [G.] ^dúvad n. “supper, dinner”

5.51 Bread

N., ᴱN., G. basgorn [mb-] n. “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”
S., N., ᴱN., G. #bas(t) [mb-] n. “bread”
⚠️G. corn n. “loaf”; see instead:
N. basgorn “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”
S., N. lembas n. “waybread, journey-bread”
⚠️G. losbas n. “ryebread”
⚠️ᴱN. mui n. “crumb”
⚠️ᴱN. ormast adj. “breadless”
⚠️ᴱN. ummast adj. “without bread”

5.52 Cake

N. cram n. “cake of compressed flour or meal”

5.53 Dough

ᴺS. [N.] ^maeas n. “dough”
⚠️N. moeas n. “dough”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^maeas “dough”

5.54 to Knead

ᴺS. !medhia- v. “to knead, soften”

5.55 Meal, Flour

⚠️G. ‽mail n. “flour”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maul “flour”
ᴺS. !maul n. “flour”

5.56 to Grind

ᴺS. !mol- v. “to grind, pulverize”

5.57 Mill

ᴺS. !molor n. “mill”

5.61 Meat

N. aes n. “cooked food, meat”
⚠️G. hara n. “flesh meat, meat”; see instead:
N. aes “cooked food, meat”

5.614 Fat, Grease

ᴺS., ᴱN. blê n. and adj. “fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy”
⚠️ᴱN. híw adj. “rich”; see instead:
ᴺS. blê “fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy”
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”
⚠️ᴺS. !larf n. “fat, (fat) flesh”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lûb “fat, (fat) flesh”
⚠️ᴱN. lhub n. “fat”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lûb “fat, (fat) flesh”
ᴺS. !lûb n. “fat, (fat) flesh”
⚠️G. lub n. “fat, fat flesh”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lûb “fat, (fat) flesh”
⚠️ᴱN. thalf n. “grease”

5.64 Soup, Broth

⚠️N. salff n. “broth”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^salph “broth”
ᴺS. [N.] ^salph n. “broth”
ᴺS. !solph n. “soup”
⚠️G. thlibri n. “soup”; see instead:
ᴺS. !solph “soup”

5.70 Potato

⚠️G. grothorf n. “potato”
⚠️G. podod n. “potato”

5.71 Fruit

ᴺS. [G.] ^aebin n. “cherry (tree)”
⚠️G. aibin n. “cherry (tree)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^aebin “cherry (tree)”
ᴺS. !colof n. “orange [fruit]”
⚠️G. gôf n. “fruit (esp. of tree)”
⚠️G. gôf·clochiol n. “stone-fruit”
ᴺS. !iaf n. “fruit”
⚠️G. maros n. “ripe fruit”

5.72 Apple

⚠️G. arwad n. “apple tree”
S. cordof n. “pippin, *(small red) apple”
ᴺS., G. orf n. “apple”
⚠️G. urf n. “apple (tree)”; see instead:
ᴺS. orf “apple”

5.73 Pear

⚠️G. orfing n. “pear”

5.76 Grape

⚠️G. mirobin n. “grape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mirybin “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”
ᴺS. [G.] ^mirybin n. “grape, (lit.) wine-berry”

5.77 Nut

N. breth n. “mast, *forest nuts”
⚠️G. cod n. “nut”
⚠️G. codiof adj. “nutbearing”
⚠️G. codomla n. “*chestnut”
⚠️G. codorn n. “*nut tree”
⚠️G. codrin adj. “nutty”
⚠️G. codwalion n. “walnut, chestnut”
⚠️G. codwed adj. “nutbearing”
⚠️G. coth n. “nutshell, husk”
⚠️G. ivangod n. “walnut”
⚠️G. ivogodron n. “walnut tree”
⚠️G. omla n. “a horse chestnut”
⚠️G. ormagod n. “a (Spanish) chestnut”
ᴺS. !pech n. “nut”
ᴺS. !pechol n. “hazel”

5.79 Oil

ᴺS., ᴱN. blîw n. “oil”
N. glaew n. “ointment, salve”
⚠️G. ilbrin adj. “oily, fat, greasy”; see instead:
ᴺS. blê “fat of meat; *fatty, oily, greasy”
⚠️G. ilm n. “oil, fat, grease”; see instead:
ᴺS. blîw “oil”
ᴺS. !lûb “fat, (fat) flesh”

5.80 Berry

ᴺS., G. dod n. “berry”
ᴺS., G. pibin n. “(small) berry, haw”
⚠️G. piog n. “berry”; see instead:
ᴺS. pibin “(small) berry, haw”

5.81 Salt

ᴺS., G. sing n. “salt”
ᴺS. [G.] ^singren adj. “salt, *salty”
⚠️G. singrin adj. “salt”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^singren “salt, *salty”

5.84 Honey

N., ᴱN. glî n. “honey”
ᴺS., ᴱN. glidheb adj. “like honey”
⚠️G. nectha n. “honey comb”
⚠️G. neglis n. “honey”; see instead:
N. glî “honey”

5.85 Sugar

⚠️G. glissith n. “sugar”; see instead:
ᴺS. glist “sugar”
ᴺS., G. glist n. “sugar”

5.86 Milk

⚠️G. thim n. “milk after separation”

5.87 to Milk

⚠️G. thin- v. “to skim”

5.88 Cheese

⚠️ᴱN. corn² n. “cheese”; see instead:
ᴺS. cûr “cheese”
N. corn “round, globed”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^cortha- v. “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
⚠️G. cur- v. “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
ᴺS., G. cûr n. “cheese”
⚠️ᴱN. #curan- v. “to curdle (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
ᴺS., G. curth n. “curd”
⚠️G. curtha- v. “to curdle, to make cheese (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cortha- “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”

5.89 Butter

⚠️G. cwîr n. “cream”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pîr “cream”
⚠️G. malthin n. “cream”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pîr “cream”
ᴺS., G. mang n. “butter”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pîr n. “cream”
⚠️ᴱN. tlî n. “butter”; see instead:
ᴺS. mang “butter”

5.92 Wine

⚠️G. gurmir n. “drink of the Valar, (lit.) *sweet wine”; see instead:
S. miruvor “a special wine or cordial”
⚠️G. limfa n. “drink of the fairies”; see instead:
S. miruvor “a special wine or cordial”
⚠️G. limp(elis) n. “drink of the fairies”; see instead:
S. miruvor “a special wine or cordial”
⚠️G. mîr n. “wine”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^miru “wine”
S. mîr “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
⚠️G. mirofor n. “drink of the Gods”; see instead:
S. miruvor “a special wine or cordial”
⚠️G. miros n. “wine”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^miru “wine”
ᴺS. [G.] ^miru n. “wine”
S. miruvor n. “a special wine or cordial”
ᴺS. [G.] ^mirwelthen n. “vintage, (lit.) *wine pressing”
⚠️G. mirwelthin n. “vintage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mirwelthen “vintage, (lit.) *wine pressing”
⚠️ᴺS. !ŷ n. “wine”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^miru “wine”

5.94 Juice

⚠️G. bith n. “juice, sap”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^paich “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️G. gwâs n. “juice”; see instead:
N. saw “juice”
⚠️ᴱN. hî¹ n. “sap, juice”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^paich “juice, syrup, *sap”
ᴺS., N. iovog n. “fruit drink”
⚠️G. laus n. and adj. “juice, sap; energy, vitality; (aj.) fresh”; see instead:
N. saw “juice”
ᴺS. ^cuinas “vitality, liveliness”
S. laew “fresh”
S., N. nîdh n. “juice; [N.] honeycomb”
ᴺS. [N.] ^paich n. “juice, syrup, *sap”
⚠️N. peich n. “juice, syrup”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^paich “juice, syrup, *sap”
N. pichen adj. “juicy”
N. saw n. “juice”

5.999 Food (Other)

⚠️ᴺS. !lasguil n. “tea (lit.) awake leaf”; see instead:
ᴺS. suithlas “tea, *(lit.) drink of leaf”
ᴺS. !mornechui n. “coffee”
ᴺS., G. suithlas n. “tea, *(lit.) drink of leaf”
⚠️ᴺS. !yllas n. “tea, *(lit.) drink of leaf”; see instead:
ᴺS. suithlas “tea, *(lit.) drink of leaf”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

⚠️ᴱN. bai adj. “clad”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hammen “clad”
⚠️G. baidha- v. “to clothe”; see instead:
N. hamma- “to clothe”
⚠️G. bain adj. “clad”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hammen “clad”
⚠️G. braitha- v. “wrap, swathe”
N. hab- v. “to clothe”
N. hamma- v. “to clothe”
ᴺS. !hammen adj. “clad”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

⚠️ᴱN., G. baith n. “clothes, garments, dress”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”
⚠️G. baithri n. “clothes, clothing”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”
⚠️ᴱN. gwab n. “garment”; see instead:
N. hamp “garment”
⚠️ᴱN. gwablith n. “clothes”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”
⚠️ᴺS. !hab n. “clothes”; see instead:
N. hammad “clothing, *clothes”
N. hammad n. “clothing, *clothes”
N. hamp n. “garment”
⚠️ᴱN. orvaith² adj. “garmentless”
⚠️ᴱN. umaith adj. “naked”

6.21 Cloth

ᴺS. !lann n. “thin cloth, tissue”

6.22 Wool

⚠️G. ocha n. “fleece”; see instead:
ᴺS. “wool, fleece”
N. taw adj. “of wool, woollen”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. n. “wool, fleece”
⚠️G. tûs- v. “to tease wool, comb out”
⚠️G. uf² n. “fine wool, down”

6.28 Fur

⚠️N. halath n. “skin, fell”
N. heleth n. “fur, fur-coat”
N. helf n. “fur, *hide”

6.29 Leather

ᴺS. [N.] ^lath n. “thong of (?leather)”
⚠️N. lhath n. “thong of (?leather)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lath “thong of (?leather)”

6.31 to Spin

⚠️N. chwinia- v. “to twirl, whirl, eddy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwinia- “to twirl, whirl, eddy”
⚠️N. chwiniol adj. “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwiniol “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”
⚠️G. cwir- v. “to stir, stir round, make spin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pir- “to stir, stir round, make spin”
⚠️G. cwiruin n. “spinning wheel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^piruin “spinning wheel”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pir- v. “to stir, stir round, make spin”
ᴺS. !piren adj. “spun, rounded, cylindrical”

6.32 Spindle

⚠️G. cwiril n. “spindle”; see instead:
ᴺS. gwiril “spindle”
ᴺS., G. gwiril n. “spindle”

6.33 to Weave

⚠️ᴺS. !gwer- v. “to weave, wind, spin, twist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwir- “to weave”
⚠️G. gwidh- v. “weave (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwir- “to weave”
⚠️G. gwidhin n. “woof”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lanad “weft, woof”
⚠️G. gwidhon adj. “woven”; see instead:
S. remmen “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gwir- v. “to weave”
⚠️G. gwist n. “weft”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lanad “weft, woof”
ᴺS. !lanad n. “weft, woof”

6.34 Loom

⚠️G. gwingli n. “loom”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lanu “loom”
ᴺS. !gwirthar n. “shuttle, (lit.) weave-across”
⚠️G. gwithadr n. “shuttle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwirthar “shuttle, (lit.) weave-across”
ᴺS. !lanu n. “loom”

6.35 to Sew

ᴺS. !ther- v. “to sew, stitch, embroider”

6.36 Needle

ᴺS., G. [G.] ^eglin n. “needle”

6.38 Thread

S. #lain n. “thread, warp, twine”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhê n. “fine thread, spider filament”
ᴺS., G. theres n. “ribbon, ⚠️tie”
⚠️N. thlê n. “fine thread, spider filament”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhê “fine thread, spider filament”

6.41 Cloak

⚠️G. brach n. “a shawl, plaid, wrap”
S. #coll¹ n. “cloak, mantle”
⚠️G. tôl n. “a mantle”; see instead:
S. #coll¹ “cloak, mantle”

6.412 Overcoat

⚠️ᴱN., G. garob n. “robe, [G.] cloak, outer garment”; see instead:
S. #coll¹ “cloak, mantle”

6.43 Coat

ᴺS. [G.] ^bâch n. “jacket, coat”
⚠️G. bacha n. “jacket, coat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bâch “jacket, coat”

6.44 Shirt

⚠️G. laub n. “shirt”

6.51 Shoe

⚠️G. habach n. “big shoe, clog, sabot”; see instead:
N. habad “shoe”
N. habad n. “shoe”
⚠️G. hab(in) n. “shoe”; see instead:
N. habad “shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

N. carab n. “hat”
⚠️ᴱN. mindeb n. “crown”; see instead:
S. “wreath, garland; [N.] crown”
⚠️G. ôf n. “hood”
⚠️N. rhî n. “crown”; see instead:
S. “wreath, garland; [N.] crown”
⚠️N. rhîn adj. “crowned”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rîn “crowned”
S. n. “wreath, garland; [N.] crown”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rîn adj. “crowned”
⚠️G. tôd n. “hat”; see instead:
N. carab “hat”
⚠️G. togli n. “cap”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

S. lest n. “girdle, *belt”

6.58 Glove

ᴺS. !mawedh n. “glove”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

S., N. tachol n. “brooch, clasp, [N.] pin”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

S. cathrae n. “tressure, *net for containing hair”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

⚠️G. brithla n. “pearl”
ᴺS. !gaessarn n. “pearl, (lit.) sea-pebble/stone”
⚠️ᴱN. himp n. “jewel”; see instead:
S. mîr “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
S., N. mîr n. “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
S. #mírdan n. “jewel smith”
S. míria- v. “to sparkle like jewels”
S. míriel adj. “sparkling like jewels, like a jewel”
⚠️G. nind n. “blue stone, turquoise”
⚠️G. sî¹ n. “bead, small gem or pearl”

6.73 Finger Ring

ᴺS. !corf n. “ring (for fingers)”
⚠️G. grilthi n. “finger-ring”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️G. lemfarilt n. “ring”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”

6.75 Necklace

⚠️ᴱN., G. fring n. “necklace, [G.] carcanet”; see instead:
S. sigil “necklace”
S. sigil n. “necklace”

6.82 Towel

⚠️G. suithli n. “a towel”

6.92 Brush

⚠️G. fwegli v. “brush”

6.95 Soap

N. glûdh n. “soap”
⚠️G. puim n. “soap”; see instead:
N. glûdh “soap”

6.96 Mirror

S. cenedril n. “mirror, looking-glass, (lit.) looking-crystal”

6.999 Adornment (other)

⚠️G. fath n. “tassle”
⚠️G. fathli n. “tasselled fringe”
⚠️G. fathrin adj. “tasselled”
⚠️G. fathwed adj. “tasselled”
⚠️G. flathrin adj. “foamy, tasseled”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

ᴺS. !bardhon n. “inhabitant, native”
ᴺS., G. barn² adj. “tilled, inhabited”
⚠️G. bar(n)a- [mb-] v. “to dwell in, till (land)”
N., G. dortha- [nd-] v. “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️G. gwadh- v. “to dwell”; see instead:
N. dortha- “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️G. gwadhra adj. “habitable”
⚠️G. gwadhril n. “inhabitant (f.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bardhon “inhabitant, native”
⚠️G. gwadhron n. “inhabitant (m.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bardhon “inhabitant, native”
⚠️G. gwar-² v. “*to dwell”; see instead:
N. dortha- “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️G. mara- v. “to dwell”; see instead:
N. dortha- “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️ᴱN. #meria- v. “to dwell, live, stay”; see instead:
N. dortha- “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”
⚠️G. ruin adj. “inhabited, tilled”; see instead:
ᴺS. barn² “tilled, inhabited”
S. ruin “red flame; fiery red”
⚠️G. rûtha- v. “to dwell, remain”; see instead:
S. reth- “to remain in same place”
N. dortha- “to dwell, stay, [G.] settle”

7.12 House

N. adab n. “building, house”
⚠️ᴱN. adob n. “building”; see instead:
N. adab “building, house”
⚠️G. bad¹ n. “building, outhouse, shed”; see instead:
N. adab “building, house”
S. barthan [mb-] n. “large building of masonry used as a dwelling”
⚠️G. baur [mb-] n. “house”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
N. baur “need”
⚠️G. †brann n. “dwelling, hall”; see instead:
S. barthan “large building of masonry used as a dwelling”
N. tham “hall, [G.] chamber, room”
N. car(dh) n. “house”
⚠️G. gwast n. “dwelling”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. ind n. “house, abode”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. indos n. “house, hall”; see instead:
N. car(dh) “house”
N. thamas “great hall”
⚠️ᴱN. ormar adj. “houseless”
⚠️G. rû¹ n. “dwelling, house”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. -vran suf. “dwelling”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”

7.122 Home

⚠️G. -bar suf. “dweller; home, -ham”
S., N., ᴱN., G. bâr [mb-] n. “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. bara [mb-] n. “home, cottage”; see instead:
S. bâr “home, house, dwelling; ⚠️[N.] earth”
⚠️G. baravlid [mb-] adj. “homeless”
S. bardh [mb-] n. “home”
S. bardor [mb-] n. “home land, native land”
⚠️G. barod [mb-] adv. “homewards, home”
⚠️G. barthi [mb-] adv. “at home, home”; see instead:
S. bardh “home”
⚠️G. barwen [mb-] n. “homestead”
N. caew n. “lair, resting-place”
⚠️G. in(d)wed adj. “indoors, at home; homely, domesticated”
⚠️G. inna prep. “in home, to its house/its right place”
⚠️G. inni adv. “home, at home, in right place”
S. milbar n. “beloved dwelling, dear home”
⚠️N. terch n. “lair”; see instead:
S. torech “(secret) hole, lair, excavation”

7.13 Hut

ᴺS., G. tump n. “shed”

7.14 Tent

S. echad n. “camp”
S. estolad n. “encampment”

7.15 Yard, Court

ᴺS. [N.] ^pand n. “courtyard”
⚠️N. pann² n. “courtyard”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pand “courtyard”

7.21 Room

S. #sam n. “chamber”
N., G. tham n. “hall, [G.] chamber, room”
N. thamas n. “great hall”
⚠️G. thambros n. “hall”; see instead:
N. thamas “great hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

⚠️ᴺS. !and n. “gate, door”; see instead:
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
⚠️ᴱN., G. ann n. “door”; see instead:
S. fen(n) “door; [N.] threshold”
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
⚠️G. anna n. “door, opening”; see instead:
S. fen(n) “door; [N.] threshold”
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
S., N. annon n. “(great) gate, door”
⚠️ᴱN. ennion n. “porter, doorkeeper”
S., N. fen(n) n. “door; [N.] threshold”
S. fennas n. “doorway, great door”
⚠️ᴱN. orann adj. “doorless”
⚠️ᴱN. ordarn adj. “gateless”
⚠️ᴱN., G. tarn n. “gate”; see instead:
S. annon “(great) gate, door”
⚠️G. tarnon n. “porter”

7.24 Key

ᴺS. !ledil n. “key”
⚠️ᴺS. !padol n. “key”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ledil “key”

7.25 Window

⚠️G. galoth n. “window, (lit.) *light hole”; see instead:
S. henneth “window”
S. henneth n. “window”

7.26 Floor

⚠️G. blath n. “floor”; see instead:
N. talaf “ground, floor”
⚠️G. paga n. “court, paved floor”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pand “courtyard”
N. panas n. “floor”
N. talaf n. “ground, floor”
S., N. talan n. “flet, flat space, platform (in a tree)”
⚠️G. tôg n. “story, floor (of a house)”

7.27 Wall

⚠️G. bant n. “wall”; see instead:
S. ram “wall”
S., N. caras n. “circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks; [N.] city (built above ground)”
ᴺS., G. ostor n. “enclosure, circuit of walls, *town wall”
S. ram n. “wall”
S., N. rammas n. “great wall”
⚠️N. rham n. “wall”; see instead:
S. ram “wall”

7.28 Roof

⚠️N. daedelu n. “canopy”; see instead:
S. esgal “veil, screen, hiding; cast shadow, shade”
N. orthelian “canopy”
N. orthel- v. “to roof, screen above”
N. orthelian n. “canopy”
N. taus n. “thatch”
⚠️G. teglos n. “awning”
⚠️G. teld n. “roof”; see instead:
N. tobas “roofing, roof”
⚠️G. telm n. “roof; sky”; see instead:
N. #ell “sky”
N. telu “dome, high roof”
N. telu n. “dome, high roof”
N. tobas n. “roofing, roof”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

⚠️G. bordd n. “fireplace”; see instead:
S. ruist “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️ᴱN. gorth n. “hearth, fireplace”; see instead:
S. ruist “fireplace, hearth”
S. ruist n. “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️G. tangar n. “hearthgrate, fireplace”; see instead:
S. ruist “fireplace, hearth”
⚠️G. tôn n. “fire (on a hearth)”; see instead:
S. *ûr “fire; ⚠️[ᴱN.] sun”
⚠️G. urm n. “a brazier, grate”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^uru “brazier, grate”
ᴺS. [G.] ^uru n. “brazier, grate”

7.412 Furniture (other)

S. #dim n. “stair”
N. dolt¹ [nd-] n. “round knob, boss”
N. farf n. “?carpet”
N. tharas n. “hassock, footstool”

7.42 Bed

⚠️G. cumli n. “couch”
⚠️G. haus n. “bed”; see instead:
N. haust “bed”
N. haust n. “bed”
ᴺS. [N.] ^nedhu n. “bolster, cushion”
⚠️N. nedhw n. “bolster, cushion”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nedhu “bolster, cushion”
N. pesseg n. “pillow”

7.43 Chair

⚠️S. arahadhw n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
ᴺS. [S.] ^archadhu n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️ᴺS. !archam n. “throne”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
⚠️G. dorn n. “seat”; see instead:
S. hadhu “seat, *chair”
⚠️G. doros n. “throne”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^archadhu “throne, (lit.) high seat”
S. hadhu n. “seat, *chair”
⚠️N. ?hand n. “seat”; see instead:
S. hadhu “seat, *chair”
⚠️N. hanw n. “?chair”; see instead:
S. hadhu “seat, *chair”
⚠️ᴱN. orhod adj. “seatless”

7.44 Table

⚠️G. sard n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thardh “table”
⚠️ᴺS. !talven n. “table”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thardh “table”
ᴺS. [G.] ^thardh n. “table”

7.45 Lamp

S. calar n. “(portable) lamp”
S., N. calardan n. “lampwright”

7.46 Candle

ᴺS. !lîg n. “wax”
ᴺS. !lígu n. “candle”
⚠️G. nith n. “wax”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lîg “wax”
S. †nîth “sister”
N. nîth “youth”
⚠️G. nitha n. “a candle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lígu “candle”
⚠️G. nithla n. “candlestick”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lígu “candle”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.11 Farmer

⚠️G. nandor n. “farmer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !redhor “farmer”
ᴺS. !redhor n. “farmer”

8.12 Field for Cultivation

⚠️G. garw n. and adj. “sown-field; tilled”; see instead:
S. rîdh “sown field, [N.] acre”
⚠️ᴱN. gwas n. “field”; see instead:
S. rîdh “sown field, [N.] acre”
S. haedh n. “fenced enclosure”
S., N. #pêl n. “[N.] fenced field”
S., N. rîdh n. “sown field, [N.] acre”
⚠️G. rust n. “inhabitation; cultivation, tillage”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

S. sant n. “garden, field, yard”
⚠️G. tand n. “enclosure, garden”; see instead:
S. sant “garden, field, yard”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

⚠️G. dol- [nd-] v. “to dig”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sab- “to dig, delve, excavate”
N. rosta- v. “to hollow out, excavate”
ᴺS. !sab- v. “to dig, delve, excavate”
S. #sabar n. “delving”
⚠️G. saptha- v. “to dig, bite into”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sab- “to dig, delve, excavate”
⚠️G. tumla- v. “to excavate, hollow out”; see instead:
N. rosta- “to hollow out, excavate”

8.24 Shovel (n)

⚠️G. sabli n. “spade, shovel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^samp “spade, shovel”
ᴺS. [G.] ^samp n. “spade, shovel”

8.29 Blade, Share

ᴺS., G. cim n. “blade”
N. hathel n. “broadsword-blade, axe-blade”
⚠️G. paltha n. “blade (of swords, knives, oars, etc.); wide flat leaf; page of book”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^palt “wide flat leaf; page of book; ⚠️blade (of swords, knives, oars, etc.)”
N. hathel “broadsword-blade, axe-blade”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

N. eredh n. “seed, germ”
⚠️G. pim n. “bead, any small round thing, seed”; see instead:
N. eredh “seed, germ”
ᴺS. [N.] ^redh- v. “to sow”
⚠️N. #rhedh- v. “to sow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^redh- “to sow”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

N. critha- v. “to reap”
⚠️G. †hanna- v. “to mow, cleave”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^salcha- “to scythe or mow”
N. hasta- “to hack through, *cleave”
⚠️G. salca- v. “to scythe or mow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^salcha- “to scythe or mow”
ᴺS. [G.] ^salcha- v. “to scythe or mow”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

N. cerch n. “sickle”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

⚠️G. gavon n. “harvest (time)”; see instead:
S. iavas “autumn, *harvest”
⚠️G. gavos n. “yield, crop, produce”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^iaust “crop, yield, produce”
ᴺS. [G.] ^iaust n. “crop, yield, produce”
ᴺS. [G.] ^iav- v. “to produce, yield, bear fruit”
⚠️G. thafwen n. “hay, harvest”; see instead:
S. iavas “autumn, *harvest”

8.42 Grain (generic, British Corn)

⚠️G. gaust n. “corn, crop (espec. of cereal)”; see instead:
N. iau¹ “corn, *cereal crop”
ᴺS. ^iaust “crop, yield, produce”
N. iau¹ n. “corn, *cereal crop”

8.43 Wheat

ᴺS., G. bloss [mb-] n. “wheat”
ᴺS. !nelio n. “buckwheat”

8.45 Rye

⚠️G. losc n. “rye”

8.46 Oats

⚠️G. rusg n. “oatcake”
⚠️G. ruthla adj. “oaten”
⚠️G. ruthli n. “oats”

8.51 Grass

⚠️G. flad n. “sward, grass”; see instead:
S. parth “field, enclosed grassland, sward, *meadow”
S. glae n. “grass”
⚠️ᴱN. halb n. “grass, long mowing grass”; see instead:
N. salab “herb”
⚠️G. liscaloth adj. “reedy, reed grown”
S., G. #lisg n. “reed, [G.] sedge”
⚠️G. nethli n. “long lush grass, little meadow”
⚠️G. salc n. “green cut grass, ensilage, *fodder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^salch “green cut grass, ensilage, *fodder”
ᴺS. [G.] ^salch n. “green cut grass, ensilage, *fodder”
N. thâr n. “stiff grass”

8.52 Hay

⚠️G. sirp n. “straw”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thirph “straw”
⚠️G. thaf n. “hay”
ᴺS. [G.] ^thirph n. “straw”

8.53 Plant, Herb

⚠️G. caltha n. “plant, herb”; see instead:
N. galas “plant, growth [of plants]”
N. salab “herb”
⚠️G. côl n. “herb, vegetable, edible plant; wort”
N. galas n. “plant, growth [of plants]”
⚠️G. lauth n. “a plant, herb”; see instead:
N. galas “plant, growth [of plants]”
N. salab “herb”
N. salab n. “herb”

8.54 Root

⚠️N. dum n. “root, foundation”; see instead:
S. thond “root, [N.] base; ⚠️root-word”
N. thonnas “root-word; *foundation; ⚠️base, root”
N. solch n. “root (especially as edible)”
⚠️G. tarc n. “root”; see instead:
S. thond “root, [N.] base; ⚠️root-word”
S., N. thond n. “root, [N.] base; ⚠️root-word”
N. thonnas n. “root-word; *foundation; ⚠️base, root”
⚠️G. tricthon n. “(fibrous fine) root”; see instead:
S. thond “root, [N.] base; ⚠️root-word”

8.55 Branch

⚠️ᴱN. alt n. “bough, branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
⚠️G. clann n. “branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
⚠️G. eilian n. “branch”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
⚠️G. fripthon n. “stalk”; see instead:
ᴺS. thrimp “stalk”
N. golf n. “branch”
⚠️G. ôl¹ n. “forearm; bough”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
ᴺS. ^ranc “arm”
⚠️G. olf(in) n. “branch, wand, stick”; see instead:
N. golf “branch”
N. telch n. “stem”
ᴺS., G. thrimp n. “stalk”
⚠️G. thripthon n. “stem”; see instead:
N. telch “stem”

8.56 Leaf

S. golas n. “foliage, collection of leaves”
S., G. lass n. “leaf; ⚠️[G.] petal”
⚠️N., ᴱN. lhass n. “leaf”; see instead:
S. lass “leaf; ⚠️[G.] petal”
⚠️G. tethlas n. “petal, *(lit.) bud-leaf”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tuilas “petal, (lit.) bud-leaf”
ᴺS. [G.] ^tuilas n. “petal, (lit.) bud-leaf”

8.565 Thorn

⚠️G. aithog adj. “thorny”; see instead:
ᴺS. eitheb “thorny, *(orig.) full of points; ⚠️sharp”
⚠️G. aithos n. “thorn bush”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithos “thorn bush”
⚠️ᴱN., G. aithr² n. “thorn, sword”; see instead:
N. êg “thorn”
ᴺS. ^aith “spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, ⚠️thorn”
⚠️ᴱN. daneitheb adj. “thornless”
N. ech n. “spine”
N. êg n. “thorn”
⚠️G. eg¹ n. “point”; see instead:
S. till “point, spike, (sharp) horn, tine, ending”
N. êg “thorn”
ᴺS., ᴱN. eitheb adj. “thorny, *(orig.) full of points; ⚠️sharp”
ᴺS. [G.] ^eithos n. “thorn bush”

8.57 Flower

S. elloth n. “single flower”
⚠️N. lhoth n. “flower(s)”; see instead:
S. loth “flower, single blossom; ⚠️inflorescence, head of small flowers”
⚠️N. lhothod n. “single flower”; see instead:
S. lotheg “single flower, *floret”
⚠️G. lôs n. “flower”; see instead:
S. loth “flower, single blossom; ⚠️inflorescence, head of small flowers”
S. loth n. “flower, single blossom; ⚠️inflorescence, head of small flowers”
⚠️ᴱN. loth n. “flower, lily”
S. lotheg n. “single flower, *floret”
⚠️G. lothli n. “floret”; see instead:
S. lotheg “single flower, *floret”
⚠️G. tess(il) n. “little flower; †maiden”

8.571 Bloom

⚠️ᴺS. !edlothia- v. “to flower, blossom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^losta-¹ “to bloom, blossom”
⚠️G. glôs n. “flower, best of anything; blooming time, acme, floruit”; see instead:
S. loth “flower, single blossom; ⚠️inflorescence, head of small flowers”
S. gloss “(dazzling) white, [N.] snow-white, [G.] clear white; ⚠️[N.] snow”
S. goloth n. “inflorescence, collection of flowers”
N. gwaloth n. “blossom, collection of flowers”
⚠️G. gwethra- v. “to bloom, flourish”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^losta-¹ “to bloom, blossom”
S. theria- “to be vigorous, flourish”
⚠️G. lost n. “blossom, bloom”; see instead:
S. loth “flower, single blossom; ⚠️inflorescence, head of small flowers”
ᴺS. [G.] ^losta-¹ v. “to bloom, blossom”
ᴺS. !lostad n. “blooming”
⚠️G. lûda- v. “to bloom, grow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^losta-¹ “to bloom, blossom”
S. gala- “to grow”
⚠️G. luis n. “florescence, blooming”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lostad “blooming”
S. goloth “inflorescence, collection of flowers”
⚠️G. luitha- v. “to bloom, blossom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^losta-¹ “to bloom, blossom”
S. lûth n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

⚠️G. altha n. “shoot, sprig, scion, sapling”; see instead:
ᴺS. tuig “shoot, sapling, ⚠️sprout”
N. tui “sprout, bud”
⚠️G. calw n. “green shoot, sapling, sprout”; see instead:
ᴺS. tuig “shoot, sapling, ⚠️sprout”
N. tui “sprout, bud”
⚠️G. teth n. “bud”; see instead:
N. tui “sprout, bud”
⚠️G. tethla- v. “to bud”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
N. tui n. “sprout, bud”
N. tuia- v. “to sprout, spring; to swell”
ᴺS., G. tuig n. “shoot, sapling, ⚠️sprout”
⚠️ᴺS. !tuila- v. “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tuilu- “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
ᴺS. !tuilu- v. “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
⚠️G. tuitha- v. “to sprout, spring, gush”; see instead:
N. tuia- “to sprout, spring; to swell”

8.575 Lily

⚠️G. nâla n. “yellow-lily”
⚠️G. ninion n. “water lily”

8.58 Rose

⚠️N. beril n. “rose”; see instead:
S. meril “rose”
S. meril n. “rose”

8.599 Flower (other)

S. amloth n. “uprising flower”
S. eirien n. “daisy”
S., N. elanor n. “a golden star-shaped flower, (lit.) sun-star”
⚠️G. glonthen n. “dandelion, (lit.) eye of the day”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orchen “dandelion, (lit.) day-eye”
⚠️G. glo(r)nethlin n. “meadow gold, buttercup”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^glorpharth “buttercup, (lit.) meadow gold”
ᴺS. [G.] ^glorpharth n. “buttercup, (lit.) meadow gold”
⚠️G. hetheglon n. “daisy”; see instead:
S. eirien “daisy”
⚠️N. hmâl n. “pollen, yellow powder”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mâl “pollen, yellow powder”
⚠️G. hum(i)los n. “(red) poppy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lurlos “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
S. lissuin n. “a fragrant flower”
ᴺS. !lurlos n. “poppy, (lit.) flower of sleep”
ᴺS. [N.] ^mâl n. “pollen, yellow powder”
S. mallos n. “golden flower”
⚠️G. maloglin n. “yellow song, daffodil”; see instead:
ᴺS. !melillin “daffodil, (orig.) yellow song”
ᴺS., G. malthos n. “butter cup”
ᴺS. !melillin n. “daffodil, (orig.) yellow song”
⚠️G. nalairin n. “iris”
⚠️G. ninconin n. “snowdrop”; see instead:
S. niphredil “white flower (similar to a snowdrop); *(lit.) pale point”
S. ninglor n. “golden water-flower, *yellow iris”
⚠️N. nínim n. “snowdrop”; see instead:
S. niphredil “white flower (similar to a snowdrop); *(lit.) pale point”
S., N. niphredil n. “white flower (similar to a snowdrop); *(lit.) pale point”
ᴺS. [G.] ^orchen n. “dandelion, (lit.) day-eye”
N. palath² n. “iris”
S. pirin n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”
S. uilos n. “flowers like ‘white stars’”

8.60 Tree (generic)

⚠️G. †alwen n. “tree”; see instead:
S. galadh “tree”
S., N. galadh n. “tree”
S. galadhremmen adj. “tree-meshed”
⚠️G. galdon n. “tree”; see instead:
S. galadh “tree”
⚠️G. ormagodron n. “a (Spanish) chestnut tree”
S., N., ᴱN., G. orn n. “(tall) tree”

8.61 Oak

N., G. doron n. “oak”
⚠️ᴱN. gorw n. “oak”
⚠️G. grôn n. “oak, oaktree”
⚠️G. grondrui n. “oakwood”
⚠️G. gronduru n. “oakwood (mat)”
⚠️G. grontholas adj. “oakleaved”
⚠️G. gronthorn n. “oaktree”
⚠️G. gronthos n. “oaktree”
⚠️G. gronthos deldrinwed n. “oakleaved beech”
⚠️S. nordh n. “oak”; see instead:
N. doron “oak”

8.62 Beech

⚠️G. deldrinwed [nd-] adj. “beechen”
⚠️G. deldrogod [nd-] n. “beech nut”
⚠️G. deldron [nd-] n. “beech (tree)”; see instead:
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️G. deldron grondolas [nd-] n. “oakleaved beech”
⚠️ᴱN. delian n. “beech-tree”; see instead:
S. neldor “beech”
⚠️G. delmos n. “beech nuts, mast [= fruit of beech, oak, chestnut]”
N. †fêr n. “beech-tree”
S. neldor n. “beech”

8.63 Birch

S., N. brethil¹ n. “silver-birch; [N.] beech”
⚠️G. cwileg n. “alder”
S. hwinn n. “birch”

8.635 Elm

S. alaf n. “elm”
⚠️N. lalf n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️G. lalm n. “elm, elm-wood”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️G. lalmir n. “elm tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^lalorn n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️N. lalven n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️N. lhalorn n. “elm-tree”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”
⚠️ᴱN. ólin n. “elm”; see instead:
S. alaf “elm”

8.64 Pine

⚠️ᴱN., G. aigos n. “pine-tree”; see instead:
S. thôn “pine-tree”
⚠️N. thaun n. “pine-tree”; see instead:
S. thôn “pine-tree”
S. thôn n. “pine-tree”

8.65 Fir

ᴺS. !ecthelorn n. “spruce, fir-tree”

8.655 Tree (other)

⚠️G. blantos n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mablanthas “sycamore”
ᴺS. !collorn n. “laburnum, *(lit.) orange-tree”
⚠️G. cwithwiros n. “poplar”; see instead:
N. tulus “poplar-tree”
S. faran n. “rowan, *ash”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gwennod n. “elder tree; elderberry, *(lit.) maiden berry”
⚠️G. gwindod n. “elder tree; elderberry”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwennod “elder tree; elderberry, *(lit.) maiden berry”
S. huorn n. “?Spirit Tree”
N. lebethras n. “Gondorian tree”
S. lebethron n. “Gondorian hardwood, (lit.) *finger tree”
⚠️ᴱN. loloth n. “poplar-tree”; see instead:
N. tulus “poplar-tree”
⚠️G. mabinos n. “plane tree, sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mablanthas “sycamore”
⚠️G. mabinos gwilbriniol n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mablanthas “sycamore”
ᴺS. [G.] ^mablanthas n. “sycamore”
S., N. mallorn n. “gold tree, yellow tree”
⚠️G. mavlantos n. “sycamore”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mablanthas “sycamore”
⚠️G. omlos n. “(horse) chestnut tree”
⚠️ᴱN. orwadh adj. “barkless”
⚠️G. padhwen n. “bark”; see instead:
S. #rîf “bark”
⚠️G. soros n. “ash-tree”
ᴺS., G. tadhos n. “hawthorn”
S. tathar n. “willow (tree)”
⚠️N. tathor n. “willow-tree”; see instead:
S. tathar “willow (tree)”
S., N. tathren adj. “of willow”
⚠️ᴱN., G. tathrin n. “willow”; see instead:
S. tathar “willow (tree)”
S. tathren “of willow”
N. tulus n. “poplar-tree”

8.66 Acorn

⚠️G. govin(d)riol adj. “long-acorned”
⚠️G. gronoch n. “acorn”
⚠️G. nocha n. “an acorn”
⚠️G. nochinra adj. “long-acorned”

8.67 Vine

ᴺS. [G.] ^edol n. “ivy”
⚠️G. ethl(in) n. “ivy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^edol “ivy”
⚠️G. -liont suf. “*tendril, vine”

8.68 Tobacco

⚠️G. fugla- v. “to smoke (a pipe)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !uitha- “to smoke (trans.)”
⚠️G. fuglas n. “tobacco, *(lit.) smoke leaf”; see instead:
S. galenas “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”
⚠️G. fuglathrod n. “pipe”; see instead:
ᴺS. !galenathrod “[smoking] pipe”
⚠️N. fuilas n. “pipeweed”; see instead:
S. galenas “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”
S., N. galenas n. “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”
ᴺS. !galenathrod n. “[smoking] pipe”
⚠️N. marlas n. “pipeweed”; see instead:
S. galenas “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”
⚠️N. romloth n. “pipeweed”; see instead:
S. galenas “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

⚠️N. chwann n. “sponge, fungus”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hwand “sponge, fungus”
⚠️G. clum(mi) n. “mushroom”; see instead:
ᴺS. !telum “mushroom”
⚠️G. criscolas n. “holly”; see instead:
S. ereg “holly, [N.] holly-tree, ⚠️[S.] thorn”
S., N. ereg n. “holly, [N.] holly-tree, ⚠️[S.] thorn”
N. eregdos n. “holly, holly-tree”
⚠️G. fileg n. “fern”; see instead:
N. fileg “small bird, [Q.] *sparrow”
ᴺS. [N.] ^gaeruil n. “seaweed”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hwand n. “sponge, fungus”
⚠️ᴱN. lhesg n. “sedge”; see instead:
S. #lisg “reed, [G.] sedge”
ᴺS. !loew n. “moss”
⚠️N. oeruil n. “seaweed”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaeruil “seaweed”
⚠️N. *Ogod n. “Ent”; see instead:
S. Onod “Ent”
S. Onod n. “Ent”
⚠️G. pibinaith(ros) n. “hawthorn”
⚠️G. sempios n. “holly”; see instead:
S. ereg “holly, [N.] holly-tree, ⚠️[S.] thorn”
S. seregon n. “plant with red flowers, (lit.) blood of stone”
ᴺS. !telum n. “mushroom”
N. toss n. “bush, low-growing tree”
⚠️G. tuthlos n. “a teazle”
N. uil n. “seaweed”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

S., N., ᴱN. car- v. “to do, make”
⚠️ᴱN. cara- v. “to make, do, perform, act (trans. and abs.)”; see instead:
S. car- “to do, make”
S., N. echad- v. “to form, make, shape, cut out, [N.] fashion; [S.] (lit.) to shape out”
⚠️ᴱN. -garn suf. “*-made”
⚠️G. tab- v. “to cut to shape, fashion”; see instead:
S. echad- “to form, make, shape, cut out, [N.] fashion; [S.] (lit.) to shape out”
⚠️ᴱN. tha- v. “to make, cause to be”

9.112 Doer, Agent

ᴺS. !caron n. “actor, agent, doer, maker”
N. ceredir n. “doer, maker, *crafter (m.)”
N. #-dis suf. “female agent”
⚠️G. #-(n)ir suf. “(feminine) agent”
S., N., G. #-or suf. “agental suffix”
S., N., G. #-(r)on suf. “agental suffix”

9.114 Action

S. athragared n. “interaction”
⚠️G. cara n. “deed, act”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
⚠️ᴱN. carbh n. “deed”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
S. #cared n. “action”
⚠️G. cariod(wen) n. “activity”; see instead:
ᴺS. !carthas “activity”
⚠️G. carm n. “deed, act, exploit”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
⚠️S. #carn n. “deed”; see instead:
S. #carth “deed”
S., N. #carth n. “deed”
ᴺS. !carthas n. “activity”
S. carweg adj. “active; busy”
ᴺS. !caur n. “action, doing, making; verb”
S. úgarol adj. “not now doing or making, idling”

9.12 Work, Labor

ᴺS., G. drab n. “labour, toil, irksome work”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drabol adj. “labouring”
⚠️G. drabri adj. “labouring”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drabol “labouring”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drauthas n. “toil, weariness from labour”
⚠️G. drauthiol adj. “arduous, labourious”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drauthol “arduous, labourious”
ᴺS. [G.] ^drauthol adj. “arduous, labourious”
⚠️G. drauthos n. “toil, weariness from labour”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drauthas “toil, weariness from labour”
⚠️ᴱN. o(r)dhraust adj. “without work, workless”
N. tass n. “labour, task”

9.13 to Work, Toil

ᴺS., G. drab- v. “to labour, work; (impersonal) to irk, annoy”
N. muda- v. “to labour, toil, *work”
⚠️G. urtha- v. “work, wreak, fashion, make, devise”

9.14 to Bend

⚠️G. cam(m)a- v. “to stoop, bend, bow, cower; to submit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !loera- “to stoop, bow, cower; to submit”
⚠️G. caug² adj. “humped, bulging; bent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tomp “humped, bulging”
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
⚠️G. cav- v. “to bend, make stoop”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️ᴱN. crib- v. “to bend”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. crictha- v. “to bend”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️ᴱN. crimtha- v. “to bend (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. crinc adj. and n. “bent and thin; crescent”; see instead:
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
S. “bow; [N.] arch, crescent; ⚠️[G.] waxing or waning moon”
N., G. cûn adj. “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
⚠️G. cuptha- v. “to bend (tr).”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. gwed- v. “to wind, turn, bend (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. gwedhweg adj. “meandering, twisting, winding, intricate”; see instead:
ᴺS. !logeb “meandering, twisting, winding, intricate, (lit.) full of bends”
⚠️G. gwedhwin n. “bend, loop”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lûg “bend, loop, wind, twist; guile, deceit”
⚠️G. gwedhwion adj. “bending, looping”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^logren “curled, curly, *bending, looping”
⚠️G. loctha n. “a twist, tendril, spiral, coil”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loeth “twist, tendril, spiral, coil”
⚠️G. loctha- v. “to curl (tr.), bend, wind, twine, tie knot, tangle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
ᴺS. [G.] ^loeth n. “twist, tendril, spiral, coil”
ᴺS. [G.] ^loetha- v. “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. log- v. “to curl (intr.), bend (intr.), wind (twine round anything), twine”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
ᴺS. !log- “to haul, drag, pull, draw”
ᴺS. !logeb adj. “meandering, twisting, winding, intricate, (lit.) full of bends”
ᴺS. [G.] ^logren adj. “curled, curly, *bending, looping”
⚠️G. logrin adj. “curled, curly”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^logren “curled, curly, *bending, looping”
ᴺS., G. lonc n. “curl”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lûg n. “bend, loop, wind, twist; guile, deceit”
⚠️G. naud adj. “bowed, bent; ashamed, abashed, bashful”; see instead:
N. cûn “bowed, bent, bow-shaped, [G.] concave”
⚠️G. nud- v. “to incline head, bend face down”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nunna- “to incline head, bend face down; to assent, *agree”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nunna- v. “to incline head, bend face down; to assent, *agree”

9.16 to Bind

N. #gwedh- v. “to bind”
⚠️G. heb- v. “to bind, bind round”; see instead:
N. nod-² “to tie, *bind”
S. #heb- “to keep”
N. naud adj. “bound”
N. nod-² v. “to tie, *bind”
N. taetha- v. “to fasten, tie”
⚠️G. ther- v. “to tie”; see instead:
N. nod-² “to tie, *bind”
ᴺS. !únod- v. “to untie, undo, unloose”

9.17 Bond (n)

⚠️ᴱN. gaduin n. “bond, obstacle, hindrance”
N. gwedh n. “bond”
N. nûd n. “bond”

9.18 Chain (n)

⚠️ᴱN. angath n. “fetters”; see instead:
N. angwedh “chain, fetter, (lit.) iron-bond”
N. angwedh n. “chain, fetter, (lit.) iron-bond”
S. nadha n. “fetter”

9.19 Rope, Cord

ᴺS., G. hemp n. “cord; ⚠️band, bond”
S. hithlain n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”
⚠️N. hniof n. “noose, snare”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nŷw “noose, snare”
⚠️G. laim n. “thong, rope”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lath “thong of (?leather)”
S. #raph “?rope, strap”
⚠️G. lind n. “twine”; see instead:
S. #lain “thread, warp, twine”
N. nordh adj. “cord”
ᴺS. [N.] ^nŷw n. “noose, snare”
S. #raph n. “?rope, strap”

9.192 Knot (n)

N. nardh n. “knot”
N. norn adj. “twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted”
⚠️G. thred n. “knot”; see instead:
N. nardh “knot”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

N. batha- v. “to trample”
N., ᴱN. dram n. “heavy stroke, heavy blow”
N. dringa- v. “to beat”
⚠️G. palta- v. “to beat”; see instead:
N. dringa- “to beat”
N. tamma- v. “to knock”
⚠️G. throsta- v. “to beat, splash”; see instead:
ᴺS. !felechia- “to splash”
N. dringa- “to beat”
⚠️G. throth n. “beat”

9.22 to Cut

ᴺS., G. crista- v. “to slash, cut, slice”
⚠️G. fag- v. “to cut”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rista- “to cut; to rend, rip”
⚠️G. fagin adj. “cut”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ristannen “cut”
⚠️G. fanc n. “cut”; see instead:
S. #rest “[N.] cut”
⚠️G. flinc n. “chip”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^techu “chip”
N. #osgar- v. “to cut round, amputate”
S. #rest n. “[N.] cut”
⚠️N. rhest n. “cut”; see instead:
S. #rest “[N.] cut”
⚠️N. rhista- v. “to cut”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rista- “to cut; to rend, rip”
ᴺS., N. [N.] ^rista- v. “to cut; to rend, rip”
ᴺS. !ristannen adj. “cut”
ᴺS. [S.] ^techu n. “chip”
⚠️S. tewch n. “(?chip)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^techu “chip”

9.23 Knife (tool)

⚠️G. crî n. “knife”; see instead:
N. sigil “dagger, knife”
N. sigil n. “dagger, knife”

9.25 Ax

⚠️ᴱN. dail n. “axe (blade)”; see instead:
S. hathol “axe”
N. hathel “broadsword-blade, axe-blade”
S. dail “beautiful, fine, delicate, lovely”
⚠️ᴱN. hant n. “a blow with an axe”; see instead:
N. dram “heavy stroke, heavy blow”
N. hast n. “axe-stroke”
S. hathol n. “axe”
⚠️ᴱN., G. peleg n. “axe”; see instead:
S. hathol “axe”

9.26 to Break

⚠️ᴱN. orthanc adj. “unbroken, without break or cleavage, united, continuous; masked”
⚠️G. ractha- v. “to shatter”; see instead:
ᴺS. rag- “to break asunder, burst, *break, shatter”
⚠️G. ractha n. “breach”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raeth² “breach, *burst”
ᴺS. [G.] ^raeth² n. “breach, *burst”
ᴺS., G. rag- v. “to break asunder, burst, *break, shatter”
ᴺS. !ragui adj. “fragile, breakable”
⚠️G. ranc n. “a burst, breach”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raeth² “breach, *burst”
ᴺS. ^ranc “arm”

9.27 to Split

⚠️ᴱN. daila- v. “to cleave”; see instead:
N. hasta- “to hack through, *cleave”
N. hasta- v. “to hack through, *cleave”
S. riss adj. and n. “cleft, cloven, separate; cleft”
S., N., ᴱN. #thanc adj. and n. “forked, [N.] cleft, split, [ᴱN.] divided, cloven, bifurcated; [ᴱN.] cleft, break, breach”

9.28 to Tear

N. narcha- v. “to rend”
ᴺS., G. ruv- v. “to tear”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

⚠️G. dauth(r)a- v. “to strip, flay”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
⚠️ᴱN. gwath- v. “to strip”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
N. heltha- v. “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
⚠️G. pasta- v. “to skin, peel, flay”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”

9.31 to Rub

ᴺS., G. gratha- v. “to rub, scratch, fray”
ᴺS. !run- v. “to rub, grind”

9.32 to Stretch

ᴺS. !lad- v. “to stretch, extend (in length)”
⚠️G. lenu- v. “to stretch, extend in length, trail”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lad- “to stretch, extend (in length)”
N. pelia- v. “to spread”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

⚠️G. cilt n. “jerk”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rinc “twitch, jerk, sudden move”
⚠️G. ciltha- v. “to tug, jerk (out)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS. !etholtha- v. “to extract, make come out”
⚠️G. hal(a)- v. “to drag, draw, pull”; see instead:
ᴺS. !log- “to haul, drag, pull, draw”
⚠️G. halcha- v. “to drag on ground (roughly)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !log- “to haul, drag, pull, draw”
⚠️G. halm n. “draught, draft, drawing (of fishes etc.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !loged “draught, draft, drawing (of fishes etc.)”
ᴺS. !log- v. “to haul, drag, pull, draw”
ᴺS. !loged n. “draught, draft, drawing (of fishes etc.)”
⚠️N. rhinc n. “twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rinc “twitch, jerk, sudden move”
⚠️N. rhitha- v. “to jerk, twitch, snatch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rinc n. “twitch, jerk, sudden move”
⚠️ᴺS. !ritha- v. “to jerk, twitch, snatch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rítha-¹ v. “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS. !thag- v. “to draw, pull”
ᴺS. !thagel adj. “pulling, luring”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

⚠️G. rictha- v. “to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”

9.342 to Press

ᴺS., G. gweltha- v. “to squeeze, press”

9.35 to Pour

⚠️G. gulta- v. “to pour out (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ol-¹ “to pour”
ᴺS. !ol-¹ v. “to pour”
⚠️G. ultha- v. “to pour out (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ol-¹ “to pour”

9.36 to Wash

⚠️G. fas- v. “to wash”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puida- “to clean, tidy, cleanse, ⚠️purify”
ᴺS. ^saw- “to wash, bathe, ⚠️clean”
⚠️G. fôs n. “bath”; see instead:
ᴺS. !saun “bath”
⚠️ᴱN. lhuv- v. “to wash”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puida- “to clean, tidy, cleanse, ⚠️purify”
ᴺS. ^saw- “to wash, bathe, ⚠️clean”
ᴺS. !puidh n. “wash, cleaning”
⚠️G. puidra- v. “to wash, cleanse, soap”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^puida- “to clean, tidy, cleanse, ⚠️purify”
ᴺS. !saun n. “bath”
ᴺS. [G.] ^saw- v. “to wash, bathe, ⚠️clean”
⚠️G. sô- v. “to wash, clean, bathe”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^saw- “to wash, bathe, ⚠️clean”
⚠️G. soth n. “bath”; see instead:
ᴺS. !saun “bath”

9.37 to Sweep

⚠️G. fwegra- v. “to sweep”

9.38 Broom

⚠️G. fweg n. “broom”

9.41 Craft, Trade

⚠️G. aurin adj. “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tavnen¹ “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”
S., N., ᴱN., G. curu n. “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
⚠️G. fimli n. “skill”; see instead:
S. curu “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
⚠️G. fimlios n. “skilfulness”
⚠️G. mabol adj. “skillful”; see instead:
S. maed² “handy, skillful, [N.] skilled”
S. maed² adj. “handy, skillful, [N.] skilled”
N. maen adj. “skilled, clever”
N. maenas n. “craft, handicraft, art”
⚠️N. moed adj. “handy, skilled”; see instead:
S. maed² “handy, skillful, [N.] skilled”
S. ravaed adj. “skillful”
⚠️G. sôn² n. “craft, skill”; see instead:
S. curu “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability; [N.] cunning; [ᴱN.] magic”
S. tavn n. “a thing made by handicraft”
ᴺS. !tavnen¹ adj. “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

⚠️ᴱN. hont n. “trumpet, trumpeting noise”
⚠️G. ligin n. “curved horn, trump”; see instead:
S. rom “horn, trumpet”
⚠️G. ligindon n. “blare of trumps”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^romru “sound of horns”
⚠️N. rhom n. “horn, trumpet”; see instead:
S. rom “horn, trumpet”
⚠️N. rhomru n. “sound of horns”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^romru “sound of horns”
⚠️N. †rhû n. “loud sound, trumpet-sound”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ “loud sound, trumpet-sound”
S. rom n. “horn, trumpet”
ᴺS. [N.] ^romru n. “sound of horns”
ᴺS. [N.] ^ n. “loud sound, trumpet-sound”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ᴺS. !ceredis n. “crafter (f.)”
⚠️G. finweg n. “craftsman, man of skill”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maenor “craftsman”
ᴺS. !maenor n. “craftsman”
S., N. #tân n. “builder, smith, wright, artificer”

9.422 Tool

ᴺS. !carf n. “tool, implement, weapon”
⚠️G. gaig n. “weapon, tool”; see instead:
ᴺS. !carf “tool, implement, weapon”
N. gaud n. “device, contrivance, machine”

9.423 to Use

N. iuith n. “use”
N. iuitha- v. “to employ”
S. maetha- v. “to handle, manage, wield, use, treat, deal with”
N. tortha- v. “to wield, control”

9.43 Carpenter

N. thavron n. “carpenter, wright, builder”

9.44 to Build

ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^adaba- v. “to build, establish”
⚠️ᴱN. adag- v. “to build, establish”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adaba- “to build, establish”
⚠️G. bada- v. “to build”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adaba- “to build, establish”
⚠️G. benn² n. “shape, cut, fashion, shapeliness”; see instead:
S. #cant “shape; [N.] outline”
S. #rest “[N.] cut”
⚠️G. bentha- v. “to cut, fashion, shape”; see instead:
S. echad- “to form, make, shape, cut out, [N.] fashion; [S.] (lit.) to shape out”
⚠️ᴱN. edebion n. “builder”; see instead:
N. thavron “carpenter, wright, builder”
⚠️ᴱN. edengion n. “builder”; see instead:
N. thavron “carpenter, wright, builder”
ᴺS., G. tag- v. “to fix, make firm, construct”
⚠️G. tôb(a) n. “shape, cut, fashion”; see instead:
S. #cant “shape; [N.] outline”

9.45 to Hew

N. drava- v. “to hew”
ᴺS. [N.] ^dravn n. “hewn log”
⚠️G. flig- v. “to hew”; see instead:
N. drava- “to hew”
⚠️G. pelectha- v. “to hew”; see instead:
N. drava- “to hew”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

⚠️G. aitha- v. “to prick, sting”; see instead:
S. eitha-¹ “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”
S. eitha-¹ v. “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”
⚠️ᴱN. eithra- v. “to prick, stab”; see instead:
S. eitha-¹ “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”
⚠️G. elta- v. “to draw, tug, lug; to thrust, dig, poke (inward)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !log- “to haul, drag, pull, draw”
N. nasta- “to prick, point, stick, thrust”
N. erch n. “prickle”
N. ercha- v. “to prick”
⚠️G. ilta- v. “to stick in, prod, prick”; see instead:
N. nasta- “to prick, point, stick, thrust”
ᴺS., G. irtha- v. “to peck”
N. nasta- v. “to prick, point, stick, thrust”
⚠️G. piectha- v. “to pin, prick”
⚠️G. pieg n. “pin”
⚠️G. tigla- v. “to prick”

9.48 Saw (n)

ᴺS., G. thar- v. “to saw (up)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^tharf n. “saw”
⚠️G. tharm n. “saw”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tharf “saw”
⚠️G. thathri n. “shavings, sawdust”

9.49 Hammer (n)

N. dam [nd-] n. “hammer”
N. damma- [nd-] v. “to hammer”
S., N. #dring n. “hammer, *beater”
⚠️G. odrum n. “hammer”; see instead:
N. dam “hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

N. taes n. “nail”
N. taew n. “holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple”

9.51 Beam

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. bang n. “staff”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gonnoth n. “pillar, stele, memorial”
⚠️G. gontha¹ n. “pillar, stele, memorial”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gonnoth “pillar, stele, memorial”
⚠️ᴱN. orvang adj. “staffless”
S. #tagol n. “post, mark”
⚠️ᴱN. taichr n. “prop, support”; see instead:
N. tulu “support, prop”
⚠️G. talp¹ n. “prop, support”; see instead:
N. tulu “support, prop”
⚠️G. talpon n. “a slender pillar”
⚠️G. taul n. “pillar”
⚠️N. thafn n. “post, wooden pillar”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thavn “post, wooden pillar”
ᴺS. [N.] ^thavn n. “post, wooden pillar”
N. tulu n. “support, prop”

9.52 Board

N. pân n. “plank, fixed board (especially in a floor)”
⚠️G. thrad n. “a plank, board, shelf”; see instead:
N. pân “plank, fixed board (especially in a floor)”

9.54 Brick

⚠️ᴱN. teiar n. “brick”

9.60 Smith

⚠️ᴱN. taglon n. “smith”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tagron “smith”
⚠️G. †tagor n. “smith”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tagron “smith”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^tagron n. “smith”
⚠️G. tagros n. “smith”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tagron “smith”
⚠️G. ûr n. “smith”; see instead:
S. #tân “builder, smith, wright, artificer”
S. *ûr “fire; ⚠️[ᴱN.] sun”

9.61 to Forge

ᴺS. !maga- v. “to forge metal”

9.635 Metal

S. galvorn n. “type of dark metal devised by Eöl, (lit.) *shining-black”
⚠️G. ger n. “ore, metal”; see instead:
N. tinc “metal”
⚠️G. gerin adj. “metallic”; see instead:
ᴺS. !tingen “metallic”
⚠️G. giltha n. “white metal”; see instead:
S. celeb “silver”
S. mithril “Moria-silver, true-silver”
⚠️S. #raud² n. “metal”; see instead:
N. tinc “metal”
⚠️N. rhaud n. “metal”; see instead:
N. tinc “metal”
⚠️N. †rhoss² n. “polished metal”; see instead:
S. ross² “red-haired, copper-coloured”
⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^†ross n. “polished metal”; see instead:
S. ross² “red-haired, copper-coloured”
N. tinc n. “metal”
ᴺS. !tingen adj. “metallic”

9.64 Gold

⚠️G. †culu n. “gold”; see instead:
S. malt “gold (as metal)”
⚠️G. culwin adj. “golden”; see instead:
S. #glóriel “golden”
S. mallen “golden, [N.] of gold”
S., N. glaur n. “gold [light or colour]”
S., N. glawar n. “gold (light or colour); [N.] sunlight, radiance (of Laurelin)”
⚠️ᴱN., G. glôr n. “gold”; see instead:
S. glaur “gold [light or colour]”
S., N. #glóriel adj. “golden”
S., G. #glórin adj. “golden, ⚠️[G.] of gold”
⚠️G. glôriol adj. “golden, like gold”; see instead:
S. #glóriel “golden”
S., N. mallen adj. “golden, [N.] of gold”
S., N. malt n. “gold (as metal)”
N. malthen adj. “of gold”

9.65 Silver

⚠️ᴱN. celaith adj. “of silver”; see instead:
N. celevon “*of silver”
S., N., ᴱN., G. celeb n. “silver”
⚠️N., ᴱN. celebren adj. “of silver, like silver”; see instead:
S. celebrin “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
S., G. celebrin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
⚠️G. celebriol adj. “like silver”; see instead:
S. celebrin “like silver (in hue or worth), ⚠️[G.] of silver”
⚠️G. celeptha adj. “silvern”; see instead:
N. celevon “*of silver”
N. celevon adj. “*of silver”
⚠️N. erceleb n. “*true-silver”; see instead:
S. mithril “Moria-silver, true-silver”
S., N. mithril n. “Moria-silver, true-silver”
⚠️N. thilevril n. “*true-silver”; see instead:
S. mithril “Moria-silver, true-silver”
⚠️ᴱN. urgeleb adj. “without silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

S. rust n. “copper”
ᴺS. !rustren adj. “like copper”
S. rustui adj. “copper, *of copper, like copperx”
⚠️G. tam n. “copper”; see instead:
S. rust “copper”
⚠️G. tambin adj. “of copper”; see instead:
S. rustui “copper, *of copper, like copperx”
⚠️G. tambrin adj. “like copper”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rustren “like copper”
⚠️ᴺS. !urun n. “copper”; see instead:
S. rust “copper”

9.67 Iron

S., N., ᴱN., G. ang n. “iron”
⚠️ᴱN. angeb adj. “like iron”
S., N., ᴱN. angren adj. “of iron”
⚠️G. angrin adj. “of iron, iron”; see instead:
S. angren “of iron”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gaes n. “steel”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gaesen adj. “of steel”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gaethren adj. “like steel”
⚠️G. gais n. “steel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaes “steel”
⚠️G. gaisin adj. “of steel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaesen “of steel”
⚠️G. gaithrin adj. “like steel”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gaethren “like steel”
ᴺS. !thornang n. “steel”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

ᴺS., G. ladog n. “tin (metal)”
⚠️ᴺS. !thint n. “tin (metal)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ladog “tin (metal)”

9.71 Potter

⚠️G. arin(g) n. “kiln”
N. cennan n. “potter”
N. cevnas n. “earthenware”
⚠️N. cevnor n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

S. [Ilk.] ?bril n. “glass, crystal”
⚠️ᴱN. brin n. “dwarf-glass”
⚠️G. brin(in) n. “glassy substance”
⚠️G. celc n. “glass, a glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️ᴱN. celch n. “glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️G. celchin adj. “of glass”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”
⚠️G. celchwed adj. “glassy”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”
⚠️G. †celeg n. “glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
⚠️G. celegrin adj. “glassy, like glass”; see instead:
ᴺS. !heledhren “glassy, like glass, of glass”
S. glathralvas n. “flashing glass/crystal, *heliograph”
⚠️G. glint n. “crystal”; see instead:
S. silef “(white) crystal; [N.] silver, shining white”
⚠️N. hele n. “glass”; see instead:
S. heledh “glass”
S. heledh n. “glass”
ᴺS. !heledhren adj. “glassy, like glass, of glass”
S., N. silef n. and adj. “(white) crystal; [N.] silver, shining white”
⚠️G. sincli n. “crystal”; see instead:
S. silef “(white) crystal; [N.] silver, shining white”

9.76 Basket

ᴺS., G. [G.] ^colch n. “box, chest”
⚠️ᴱN. côn n. “box”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^colch “box, chest”
ᴺS. !pôg n. “bag”

9.81 to Carve

ᴺS. [N.] ^rhib- v. “to scratch”
ᴺS., G. rimp n. “shred, slice, sliver”
⚠️G. thas- v. “to shave”
⚠️G. thasc adj. “shaven”
⚠️G. thasgim n. “*razor, (lit.) shave-blade”
⚠️G. thast n. “shaving”
⚠️G. thastril n. “razor”
⚠️N. thrib- v. “to scratch”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rhib- “to scratch”

9.87 Painting, Picture

ᴺS. !em n. “picture, image”
ᴺS. !mínem n. “movie, motion picture”

9.90 Thing

⚠️G. cith n. “affair, matter, thing”
N., ᴱN., G. nad n. “thing”
⚠️G. nath n. “thing, affair, matter”; see instead:
N. nad “thing”
N. nath “web”

9.91 Be

S., G. #na- v. “to be”
ᴺS., G. nast n. “being (abstract); being (creature)”
ᴺS. !nî- v. “was”

9.92 Become

ᴺS. !ol-² v. “to become”
S. tho- v. “?to become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

N. baur [mb-] n. “need”
ᴺS. !baura- [mb-] v. “to need, require”
ᴺS. [N.] ^boe [mb-] v. “I must”
⚠️N. bui [mb-] v. “I must”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^boe “I must”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

ᴺS. !camma- v. “to make fit, suit, accommodate, adapt”
⚠️G. tauga adj. “suitable, fitting, convenient”

9.95 Can, May

⚠️G. og- v. “to be able, can”
⚠️G. ogra prep. “able to”
⚠️G. ogriol adj. “possible”
ᴺS. !pol- v. “can, to be able to”
ᴺS. !poltha- v. “to (physically) enable”
⚠️G. sana- v. “can; to know how to; to have knowledge, craft or skill”; see instead:
N. ista- “to have knowledge, [G.] know, ⚠️be aware, perceive, feel”
ᴺS. !pol- “can, to be able to”
⚠️G. tur- v. “can, to have power to”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pol- “can, to be able to”

9.96 Easy

S. ath- pref. “easily”
S. athgar adj. “easy (easy to do)”
⚠️S. rhae adj. “easy”; see instead:
S. athgar “easy (easy to do)”
S. rhanc “awkward, hard”
ᴺS. [G.] ^trog adj. “easy to handle; convenient, tractable, docile”
⚠️G. trug adj. “easy to handle; convenient, tractable, docile”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^trog “easy to handle; convenient, tractable, docile”

9.97 Difficult

⚠️ᴱN. amvenn adj. and adv. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”; see instead:
N. amben “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. archod n. “difficulty”; see instead:
N. tarias “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”
S. dîr² adj. “hard, difficult”
S. dirbedui adj. “hard to utter, difficult to pronounce”
⚠️G. diriol adj. “tedious”
S. gor-¹ pref. “hard, difficult”
S. gordh¹ adj. “difficult, laborious”
S. rhanc adj. “awkward, hard”
N. tarias n. “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”

9.98 to Try

S. dev- [nd-] v. “to try, *experiment, test”
⚠️S. raitha- v. “to try, strive”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rig- “to try, strive”
ᴺS. !rig- v. “to try, strive”
⚠️ᴺS. ^rítha-² v. “to try, strive”; see instead:
ᴺS. !rig- “to try, strive”
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS. !tasta- v. “to (put to the) test, *verify”

9.99 Try

ᴺS. !rîth n. “effort, endeavour”
ᴺS. !tastaith n. “test”

9.993 to Happen

⚠️ᴱN. garadros n. “opportunity”
ᴺS. !hída- v. “to (come to) pass, happen”
⚠️G. in n. “a go, a move, turn, occasion”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lúda- v. “to pass (of time); to come to pass, occur”
⚠️G. lûtha- v. “to pass (of time); to come to pass, occur”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lúda- “to pass (of time); to come to pass, occur”
ᴺS., G. tunc n. “chance, occurrence; ⚠️arrival; hit at shooting; luck”

9.999 Physical Material (other)

⚠️G. taudha n. “phosphorous”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.11 to Move

ᴺS. !mîn n. “motion”

10.12 to Turn

ᴺS. [G.] ^drinna- v. “to turn, twist”
ᴺS., G. drint n. “twist, wrench, turn”
⚠️G. drintha- v. “to turn (tr.), twist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^drinna- “to turn, twist”
⚠️ᴺS. !per- v. “to turn”; see instead:
ᴺS. !perna- “to turn”
ᴺS. !perna- v. “to turn”

10.13 to Turn Around

⚠️G. gwer- v. “to wind, turn, bend (tr.); to weave”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwir- “to weave”
ᴺS. ^loetha- “to curl, bend, wind, twine, ⚠️tie knot, tangle”
⚠️G. gwerb(e)lin n. “top, whirligig, *(lit.) wind-unwind”
⚠️G. gweron adj. “spun, rounded, cylindrical”; see instead:
ᴺS. !piren “spun, rounded, cylindrical”
⚠️G. gwert n. “a twist”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lûg “bend, loop, wind, twist; guile, deceit”
ᴺS. !ostol- v. “to circumnavigate, come around”
N. pelthaes n. “pivot”
⚠️G. ponta- v. “to turn round, turn back, retrace”
⚠️G. rig- v. “to twist, contort”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rítha-¹ “to jerk, twitch, snatch; [G.] to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”
ᴺS., G. rin- v. “to revolve, ⚠️return, come back; to do again”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

ᴺS., G. cang adj. and n. “tangled, confused, mixed up, awry; tangle, confusion, mêllay”
ᴺS., G. canga- v. “to tangle; *to go wrong”
N. gonathra- v. “to entangle, enmesh”
N. gonathras n. “entanglement”
N. gwaeda- v. “to enfold”
ᴺS. !gwaef n. “wrap, binding”
⚠️N. gwî n. “net, web”; see instead:
N. nath “web”
S. rem “mesh, net (for catching)”
⚠️G. gwith n. “net”; see instead:
S. rem “mesh, net (for catching)”
S. raef n. “net”
S. raen¹ adj. “netted, enlaced”
S. rem n. “mesh, net (for catching)”
S. remmen adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”
N. ui² n. “envelope”

10.15 to Roll

⚠️G. thol- v. “to roll”

10.21 to Rise

⚠️ᴱN., G. amra- v. “*to rise; [G.] to go up and down, live in the mountains, wander”; see instead:
N. eria- “to rise”
ᴺS. ^renia-¹ “to stray, wander”
⚠️ᴱN. amros adj. “rising, soaring, lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
S. brasta- v. “to tower up, loom”
N. eria- v. “to rise”
ᴺS. !eriad n. “rising”
⚠️G. oros n. “rising”; see instead:
ᴺS. !eriad “rising”
⚠️ᴱN. orost n. “?rising”; see instead:
ᴺS. !eriad “rising”
S. reth n. “*climber”
⚠️ᴱN. rhó- v. “to arise”; see instead:
N. eria- “to rise”
⚠️ᴱN. rhosta- v. “*to rise”; see instead:
N. eria- “to rise”
⚠️G. rosta n. “ascent, uprising, rising”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

N. hal- v. “to lift”
S., N. #ortha- v. “to raise”
S. orthad n. “*raising”
N. orthannen adj. “raised”

10.225 to Hang, Dangle

N. gling- v. “to hang, dangle”

10.23 to Fall

ᴺS. !adlannas n. “downfall, ruin”
S. danna- v. “to fall”
ᴺS. !dannad n. “falling”
N. dannen adj. “fallen”
⚠️N. dant- v. “to fall”; see instead:
S. danna- “to fall”
S., N. dant n. “*fall”
⚠️ᴱN. dathanc adj. “unsteady”
⚠️G. dodri n. “falling”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dannad “falling”
⚠️G. dont n. “fall, bump, drop”; see instead:
S. dant “*fall”
S. dúnad n. “descent”
⚠️G. iltanc adj. “unsteady”
⚠️G. lantha- v. “to fall onto, settle on, alight”; see instead:
S. danna- “to fall”
S. penna- v. “to come down (in a slant), fall”
N. talt adj. “slipping, falling, insecure”
ᴺS. !taltha- v. “to slip (down), collapse, fall in ruin”

10.24 to Drop

ᴺS., G. dod- v. “to drop, ⚠️fall down”
ᴺS. !dúda- [nd-] v. “to lower [something]”
⚠️G. lib- v. “to drip”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^liv- “to drip”
⚠️G. libli n. “small glass; small drop”; see instead:
ᴺS. limig “[small] drop, ⚠️drop of water”
ᴺS. [G.] ^liv- v. “to drip”

10.25 to Throw

N., G. had- v. “to hurl, *fling; [G.] throw at, ⚠️aim at”
N. hador n. “thrower (of spears and darts)”
N. hadron n. “thrower (of spears and darts)”
ᴺS., G. hant n. “throw, cast; turn or move in games”
⚠️G. hantha- v. “to fling, hurl, aim at, direct”; see instead:
N. had- “to hurl, *fling; [G.] throw at, ⚠️aim at”
ᴺS. ^meitha- “to aim at, *have as a goal; ⚠️to intend, mean”
ᴺS. !hedril n. “thrower (f.)”

10.26 to Shake

⚠️G. cwas- v. “to shake, wag, nod, flap”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pasta- “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
⚠️G. cwast adj. “shaking”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^past “shaking”
⚠️G. cwathra- v. “to shake (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pasta- “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
S., N. #gir- v. “to shudder”
S., N. girith n. “shuddering; [N.] horror”
⚠️ᴱN. gobab- v. “to shake”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pasta- “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
⚠️G. paptha- v. “to tremble, quiver”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^potha- “to tremble, quiver”
ᴺS. [G.] ^past adj. “shaking”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pasta- v. “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
ᴺS. [G.] ^potha- v. “to tremble, quiver”
N. prestannen adj. “affected (of vowels), mutated”
N. prestanneth n. “affection (of vowels), mutation”

10.31 to Boil (intrans.)

ᴺS., G. gwel- v. “to boil, bubble (intr.)”
⚠️G. gwelaith n. “boil, bubble”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gweleth “boil, bubble”
⚠️G. gwelc n. “bubble”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwelch “bubble”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gwelch n. “bubble”
ᴺS., G. [G.] ^gweleth n. “boil, bubble”

10.32 to Flow

ᴺS. !cell adj. “flowing”
⚠️G. celu- v. “to trickle”
S. dannen [nd-] n. “ebb, lowtide”
ᴺS. !ethiria- v. “to flow out”
⚠️G. golaudri n. “deluge, flood”; see instead:
S. duinen “flood, high tide”
⚠️G. gul- v. “to ooze, trickle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^olla- “to ooze, *trickle”
S., N., G. (h)lô n. “flood, fenland; ⚠️[G.] pool, lake”
⚠️G. laud n. “flood; high tide; tide, motion of the sea”; see instead:
S. duinen “flood, high tide”
⚠️G. lud- v. “to flow, stream, float”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loda- “to float”
ᴺS. [G.] ^olla- v. “to ooze, *trickle”
⚠️G. olod n. “tide, motion of the sea”; see instead:
S. duinen “flood, high tide”
⚠️N. rhib- v. “to flow like a (?torrent)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rib- “to flow like a (?torrent)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rib- v. “to flow like a (?torrent)”
N. siria- v. “to flow”
ᴺS., G. siriol adj. “flowing, fluent, liquid, melliflous”
S. sirith n. “flowing”
ᴺS. [Ilk.] ?thalos n. “torrent”
N. thórod n. “torrent”
⚠️G. ulna- v. “to ooze”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^olla- “to ooze, *trickle”
⚠️G. ûtha- v. “to emit; to issue”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^eithela- “to spring, well forth, *issue forth”

10.33 to Sink

⚠️G. cavra- v. “to stoop, cower”; see instead:
ᴺS. !loera- “to stoop, bow, cower; to submit”
ᴺS. !cov- v. “to bow”
⚠️ᴱN. dadnuin adj. “sinking (down)”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
⚠️ᴱN. dadnuv- v. “*to sink, go down”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. !duia- [nd-] v. “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. !loera- v. “to stoop, bow, cower; to submit”
⚠️G. nalos n. “sinking, setting, descent, a slope”; see instead:
S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined”
⚠️ᴱN. nuin² n. “sinking, going down; west”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
⚠️G. num- v. “to sink, decline, slope down, descend”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. ^adlanna- “to slope, slant”
⚠️ᴱN. #nuv- v. “to sink, set”; see instead:
ᴺS. !duia- “to descend, sink, set [of sun]”
ᴺS. !somma- v. “to dive, duck”

10.34 to Float

⚠️ᴱN. lhid- v. “to float, sail”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loda- “to float”
⚠️N. lhoda- v. “to float”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^loda- “to float”
ᴺS. [N.] ^loda- v. “to float”

10.36 to Sail

ᴺS. [N.] ^renia-² v. “to sail, fly”
⚠️ᴺS. ^revia- v. “to fly, sail”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renia-² “to sail, fly”
⚠️N. rhenia-² v. “to fly, sail”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renia-² “to sail, fly”

10.37 to Fly

⚠️G. biltha- v. “to flutter, flit”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwilwa- “to flutter, flit”
⚠️G. duil¹ n. “flight, power of flight; having power of flight, fledged”
⚠️G. duila- v. “to fly”
⚠️G. duileg adj. “having power of flight, fledged”
ᴺS., G. gwil- v. “to fly, ⚠️sail, float”
ᴺS. !gwilwa- v. “to flutter, flit”

10.38 to Blow

⚠️G. faf- v. “to puff, blow, pant”; see instead:
ᴺS. !faw- “to puff, blow, pant”
S. faw n. “*breath, puff of breath”
ᴺS. !faw- v. “to puff, blow, pant”
ᴺS. [G.] ^súda- v. “to blow (of wind)”
⚠️G. sûtha- v. “to blow (of wind)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^súda- “to blow (of wind)”
S. thos n. “puff (of air)”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

S., G. #cab- v. “to leap, [G.] jump”
⚠️ᴱN. hab- v. “to jump”; see instead:
S. #cab- “to leap, [G.] jump”
S. #laba- v. “to hop”
N. thôr¹ adj. “swooping, leaping down”

10.432 Leaping

S. cabed n. “leap”
⚠️ᴱN. cais n. “leap”; see instead:
S. cabed “leap”
⚠️G. camp n. “leap”; see instead:
S. cabed “leap”

10.44 to Dance

⚠️G. lalt n. “dance”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lilt “dance”
⚠️G. laltha- v. “to dance”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^liltha- “to dance”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lilt n. “dance”
ᴺS. [G.] ^liltha- v. “to dance”
⚠️G. tanta n. “a dance”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lilt “dance”
⚠️G. tinta- v. “to dance”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^liltha- “to dance”

10.45 to Walk

⚠️G. bactha- v. “to walk”; see instead:
N. batha- “to trample”
S. padra- “to walk”
S. pad- v. “to step, walk”
S., G. padra- v. “to walk”
N. #trevad- v. “to traverse”

10.46 to Run

ᴺS., G. lob- v. “to gallop, *lope, ⚠️[G.] run”
ᴺS., G. lobrob n. “gallop; sound of horse’s feet”
S., N., G. nor- v. “to run (or leap) of animals or men; [G.] to roll [of vehicles]”
ᴺS. !norweg adj. “often running”

10.47 to Go

N., G. *bad- v. “*to tread, ⚠️[G.] travel”
⚠️S. †ban- v. “?to go”; see instead:
S. #gwae- “to go [depart]”
S. #men- “to go”
⚠️ᴺS. !bannen adj. “gone”; see instead:
S. gwanwen “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
⚠️ᴱN. gar v. “?to go”
S. #glenna- v. “*to travel”
⚠️G. haitha- v. “to hie, go, fare, walk”; see instead:
S. #men- “to go”
S. padra- “to walk”
⚠️G. intha-² v. “to go (indefinite), fare, proceed”
N. #ledh- v. “to go, *travel, journey”
ᴺS. !lîdh n. “journey”
S. #men- v. “to go”

10.48 to Come

⚠️S. dadwen- [nd-] v. “to return, go back”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dammen- “to return, go back”
ᴺS. [S.] ^dammen- [nd-] v. “to return, go back”
S. dandol- [nd-] v. “to return, come back”
⚠️G. len adj. “come, arrived”; see instead:
ᴺS. !túliel “come, arrived”
⚠️G. lendriol adj. “coming, approaching”; see instead:
ᴺS. !anglennol “approaching, coming”
⚠️G. lentha- v. “to come towards speaker, approach, draw near”; see instead:
S. #anglenna- “to approach”
⚠️G. lenthos n. “coming, arrival”; see instead:
ᴺS. !toled “coming, arrival”
S., N. #tol- v. “to come”
ᴺS. !toled n. “coming, arrival”
ᴺS. !túliel adj. “come, arrived”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

S. #gwae- v. “to go [depart]”
S. gwanwen adj. “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
⚠️G. hai³ interj. “go!, hence, begone, away”; see instead:
S. ego “be off!”
⚠️G. haithin adj. “gone, departed, lost”; see instead:
S. gwanwen “departed, *gone, lost [to time], past”
⚠️G. haiva interj. “hence!, begone, be off; (as av.) away, hence, off”; see instead:
S. ego “be off!”
⚠️G. lith- v. “to go, depart, be over, finish, end, die”; see instead:
N. gwanna- “to depart, die”
⚠️G. lithin adj. “bygone, ended”
⚠️G. mútha- v. “depart, go, leave; (c. gen.) leave the place of/time of/speaker, go forward”
⚠️G. us- v. “to leave, depart”; see instead:
S. #gwae- “to go [depart]”

10.50 to Fade

S. #pel- v. “to fade, wane”
S. #peleth n. “waning, *fading”
⚠️N. #pelin n. “*fading”; see instead:
S. #peleth “waning, *fading”
N. thinna- v. “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”

10.51 to Flee

S. #drega- v. “to flee”

10.52 to Follow

S. aphad- v. “to follow”
ᴺS. !aphadol adj. “following”
S. #echil n. “follower”
⚠️ᴺS. !hil- v. “to follow”; see instead:
S. aphad- “to follow”
⚠️G. obra- v. “to follow; to succeed”; see instead:
S. aphad- “to follow”

10.54 to Overtake

⚠️G. croctha- v. “to catch, snare, trap”; see instead:
N. gad- “to catch”
N. gad- v. “to catch”
ᴺS. !gadas n. “trap”
S. raeda- v. “to catch in a net”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^raeth¹ n. “extent, reach; region, sphere, district, scope”
ᴺS. [G.] ^raetha- v. “to reach at, reach for; to reach, extend (intr.)”
⚠️ᴱN., G. raith n. “[G.] extent, reach; region, sphere, district, scope”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raeth¹ “extent, reach; region, sphere, district, scope”
⚠️G. raitha- v. “to reach at, reach for; to reach, extend (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raetha- “to reach at, reach for; to reach, extend (intr.)”

10.56 to Approach

S. #anglenna- v. “to approach”
ᴺS. !anglennol adj. “approaching, coming”
⚠️G. artha- v. “to approach”; see instead:
S. #anglenna- “to approach”

10.57 to Enter

S., N. minna- v. “to go in, enter”
N. #neledh- v. “*to go in, enter”
N. #nestag- v. “to insert, stick in”
N. tre- pref. “through”
N. trî prep. “through”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

ᴺS. !col- v. “to bear, carry, wear”
ᴺS. !colron n. “bearer”
⚠️ᴺS. !cyll n. “bearer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !colron “bearer”
⚠️G. -iof suf. “-bearing”
⚠️G. tultha- v. “to lift, carry”

10.62 to Bring

N. tog- v. “to bring”
N. toltha- v. “to fetch”
⚠️G. tul- v. “to bring; to come to; †to support”; see instead:
S. #tol- “to come”

10.63 to Send

ᴺS. !menna- v. “to send, (lit.) make go”

10.64 to Lead

ᴺS. !ethog- v. “to lead out, *bring out”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

⚠️G. amraith n. “nomand, wanderer (f.)”; see instead:
S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
⚠️G. amrod adj. “wandering, living in wilds”
⚠️G. amrog n. “nomand, wanderer”; see instead:
S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
⚠️G. amrog-dorn n. “brown wanderer, gipsy”
⚠️G. gwada- v. “to wander, roam, travel (far)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renia-¹ “to stray, wander”
⚠️G. gwadath(wen) n. “wandering, journey”
N. mist n. “error, wandering”
N. mista- v. “to stray about”
N. mistrad n. “straying, error”
S. rain n. “erratic wandering”
ᴺS. !ran- v. “to wander”
S. randir n. “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
ᴺS. !randis n. “wanderer (f.)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^raun adj. “errant”
ᴺS. [N.] ^renia-¹ v. “to stray, wander”
⚠️N. rhandir n. “wanderer, pilgrim”; see instead:
S. randir “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”
⚠️N. rhaun adj. “errant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raun “errant”
⚠️N. rhenia-¹ v. “to stray, wander”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^renia-¹ “to stray, wander”

10.66 to Ride

S. north n. “riding, race (of people running), charge or gallop”
S., G. northa- v. “to make run, *ride; [G.] to send rolling [as a vehicle], speed”
S. rochben n. “rider”
S. #talraph n. “stirrup”

10.71 Road

⚠️G. adhwen n. “approach, avenue”
ᴺS. !goven n. “crossroads”
⚠️G. haig n. “way, road, path”; see instead:
S. #râd “path, pass, [N.] track”
S. men² “road, way; ⚠️[N.] *place”
⚠️G. mal¹ n. “paved way, road”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othlonn “paved way”
S., N. men² n. “road, way; ⚠️[N.] *place”
⚠️N. othlon n. “paved way”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othlonn “paved way”
ᴺS. [N.] ^othlonn n. “paved way”
S., N., G. pâd n. “a step (action); track, road; ford; [N.] way”

10.72 Path

N., ᴱN., G. bâd n. “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”
⚠️G. dronn [nd-] n. “race, course, track”; see instead:
S. north “riding, race (of people running), charge or gallop”
S. rant “course, water-channel; lode, [N.] vein”
N. bâd “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”
S. ? n. “path”
⚠️G. int¹ n. “way, path, track”; see instead:
S. #râd “path, pass, [N.] track”
N. iôr n. “course”
⚠️ᴱN. lhant n. “path”; see instead:
S. #râd “path, pass, [N.] track”
⚠️ᴱN. mailt n. “a path”; see instead:
S. #râd “path, pass, [N.] track”
S., N. #râd n. “path, pass, [N.] track”
⚠️G. rada n. “track, path, way”; see instead:
S. #râd “path, pass, [N.] track”
S., N. rant n. “course, water-channel; lode, [N.] vein”
⚠️ᴱN. rhód n. “course, running; way, method”
⚠️G. taleg n. “(foot)path”; see instead:
ᴺS. !talvad “footpath”
ᴺS. !talvad n. “footpath”

10.73 Street

⚠️G. lant n. “(high) road, level way, street”; see instead:
S. men² “road, way; ⚠️[N.] *place”
⚠️N. ostrad n. “street”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othrad “street”
ᴺS. [N.] ^othrad n. “street”
S., N. rath n. “street; [N.] course, river-bed”

10.74 Bridge

S. iant n. “bridge”
⚠️N. ianw n. “bridge”; see instead:
S. iant “bridge”
⚠️G. rantha n. “arch, bridge”; see instead:
S. iant “bridge”
⚠️G. tram n. “bridge”; see instead:
S. iant “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

⚠️G. brada n. “wain, waggon, cart”; see instead:
S. rasg “wain, *wagon, cart”
⚠️G. drogla n. “cart”; see instead:
S. rasg “wain, *wagon, cart”
S. rasg n. “wain, *wagon, cart”

10.76 Wheel

⚠️G. drô n. “wheel track, rut”; see instead:
N. bâd “beaten track, pathway, [ᴱN.] way, [G.] path”
ᴺS., ᴱN., G. norn n. “[G.] wheel”
ᴺS. [G.] ^piruin n. “spinning wheel”

10.77 Axle

⚠️G. tholos¹ n. “axle of a wheel”

10.78 Yoke

⚠️G. galt n. “yoke”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ialt “yoke”
ᴺS. [N.] ^ialt n. “yoke”
⚠️N. iant n. “yoke”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ialt “yoke”

10.81 Ship

S., ᴱN. cair n. “ship”
⚠️N. ceir n. “ship”; see instead:
S. cair “ship”
S., N. círdan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”
⚠️N. ciriaeth n. “shipwright”; see instead:
S. círdan “shipbuilder, shipwright”

10.82 Sailor

ᴺS. !cirion n. “sailor, shipman”

10.83 Boat

⚠️G. bent n. “small boat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lunt “boat”
⚠️N. lhunt n. “boat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lunt “boat”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lunt n. “boat”
⚠️G. lunta n. “ship”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lunt “boat”
⚠️G. saib n. “boat”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lunt “boat”

10.85 Oar

ᴺS., G. plador n. “oar”

10.88 Sail (n)

ᴺS., ᴱN., G. belon n. “sail”

10.90 Port, Harbor

⚠️N. cirban n. “haven”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^círbann “haven”
ᴺS. [N.] ^círbann n. “haven”
⚠️G. gobos n. “haven”; see instead:
N. hobas “harbourage”
N. hobas n. “harbourage”
⚠️N. lhorn¹ n. “haven, quiet water, anchorage, harbour”; see instead:
S. lond “(land-locked) haven; [N.] narrow path, strait, pass”
S. lond n. “(land-locked) haven; [N.] narrow path, strait, pass”
S. #lonnas n. “harbourage”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

S. #sav- v. “to have”

11.12 to Own, Possess

ᴺS. !garnen adj. “own, held, possessed”
⚠️G. gôtha- v. “to possess, have, hold”; see instead:
N. gar- “to hold, have, *possess”
⚠️G. guin² adj. “own, held, possessed”; see instead:
ᴺS. !garnen “own, held, possessed”
⚠️G. guinoth n. “property”; see instead:
N. garn “‘own’, property”
⚠️G. guira- v. “to possess”; see instead:
N. gar- “to hold, have, *possess”

11.13 to Take

ᴺS., G. nab- v. “to take, lay hold of”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

⚠️G. clamfa- v. “to grab, claw at”
⚠️G. gen n. “closed hand, grip”
⚠️G. gentha- v. “to grip, seize, lay hold of”
ᴺS. [ON.] ^mab- v. “to seize, *grasp, grab; ⚠️to take away by force”
⚠️G. manc n. “grip, grasp, hold”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mauth “grip, grasp, hold”
⚠️G. manca- v. “to grab, seize”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mab- “to seize, *grasp, grab; ⚠️to take away by force”
ᴺS. !mauth n. “grip, grasp, hold”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nabas v. “seizure”
⚠️G. nabos n. “seizure”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nabas “seizure”
⚠️G. naptha- v. “to seize”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^mab- “to seize, *grasp, grab; ⚠️to take away by force”

11.15 to Hold

⚠️ᴱN., G. bail n. “sheath, [G.] case, cover; pod”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwael “sheath, case, cover; pod”
⚠️G. fâ- v. “to have, hold, possess”; see instead:
N. gar- “to hold, have, *possess”
N. gar- v. “to hold, have, *possess”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^gwael n. “sheath, case, cover; pod”
⚠️G. halthi n. “sheath”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwael “sheath, case, cover; pod”
⚠️G. rôn¹ n. “embrace, clasp”
⚠️G. rôtha- n. “embrace”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

ᴺS. !cav- v. “to receive, *accept”
ᴺS. !cavren adj. “acceptable”
⚠️ᴱN. ? “[unglossed]”
⚠️G. tû- v. “to get, receive, take; to become”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cav- “to receive, *accept”
⚠️G. tuvrin adj. “acceptable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !cavren “acceptable”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

S. #heb- v. “to keep”

11.21 to Give

S. ann¹ n. “gift”
S., N. #anna- v. “to give, †add to”
ᴺS. !anneth n. “(act of) giving”
⚠️N. ant n. “gift”; see instead:
S. ann¹ “gift”
⚠️G. antha- v. “to give”; see instead:
S. #anna- “to give, †add to”
⚠️G. ôn² n. “gift”; see instead:
S. ann¹ “gift”
S. oneth n. “*giving”

11.22 to Return, Give Back

⚠️G. abod adv. “again; in return, in exchange; back”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
ᴺS. !dananna- [nd-] v. “to give back, return [something]”
⚠️G. had- pref. “for-, in return for, back, instead of”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
ᴺS. !radh- v. “to return (intransitive)”
⚠️G. raina- v. “to return”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dammen- “to return, go back”
ᴺS. !redhia- v. “*to return (transitive)”
⚠️G. rinta- v. “*to return”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^dammen- “to return, go back”

11.23 to Restore

⚠️ᴱN. bodamros adj. “that lives again, renewed, renovated”; see instead:
S. cŷr “renewed”
S. cŷl n. “*renewal”
S. cŷr adj. “renewed”
S. cýra- v. “to renew”
⚠️G. lauthra- v. “to refresh; to revive (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !laeda- “to refresh, revive”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

⚠️ᴱN. alaith n. “shielding, warding off, protect(ion)”
⚠️ᴱN. alanc adj. “*shielded, protected”
ᴺS. !barn¹ adj. “safe, protected, secure”
N. beria- v. “to protect”
⚠️ᴱN. elaig- v. “to shield, ward off, protect”
ᴺS., N. gartha- v. “to defend, ⚠️keep”
⚠️G. gretha- v. “to save, rescue, preserve”; see instead:
ᴺS. !reitha- “to rescue, save (from ruin, peril, loss)”
S. natha- “to bring help to, save, rescue”
⚠️G. grethron n. “saviour”; see instead:
ᴺS. !reithron “rescuer, saviour”
⚠️G. gwareth n. “watch, guard, ward; vigilance”
⚠️G. gwarieg n. “watchman, warden”
⚠️G. muin¹ adj. “safe, secure”; see instead:
ᴺS. !barn¹ “safe, protected, secure”
⚠️G. muinos n. “security”
ᴺS., G. osta- v. “to surround with walls, build up, fortify, protect; to surround”
⚠️G. rest¹ n. “aid, support, help”; see instead:
ᴺS. grest “aid, support, help, succour, ⚠️salvation”
⚠️G. uchirin adj. “secure”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

S. edraith n. “rescue, saving”
S. natha- v. “to bring help to, save, rescue”
ᴺS. !reitha- v. “to rescue, save (from ruin, peril, loss)”
ᴺS. !reithron n. “rescuer, saviour”

11.27 to Destroy

S. dangar- [nd-] v. “to undo”
⚠️G. fectha- v. “to destroy, ruin, spoil”; see instead:
ᴺS. tertha- “to destroy, *ruin, †(orig.) to make pierced; ⚠️to devour”
⚠️G. †fecthir n. “destroyer, slayer; bane”; see instead:
S. dagnir “slayer, bane”
⚠️G. teraith n. “waste, ruin, destruction”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^terthaith “waste, ruin, destruction”
ᴺS., G. tertha- v. “to destroy, *ruin, †(orig.) to make pierced; ⚠️to devour”
ᴺS. [G.] ^terthaith n. “waste, ruin, destruction”

11.29 to Spoil

⚠️G. cwel- v. “to fade, wither”; see instead:
S. #pel- “to fade, wane”
⚠️G. cweloth n. “fading”; see instead:
S. #peleth “waning, *fading”
⚠️G. drib- [nd-] v. “to rot, decay, wear out”
⚠️G. faltha- v. “to strip, despoil, rob, make bare”; see instead:
N. heltha- “to strip, *flay, peel skin; *to despoil, make bare”
⚠️G. hesc adj. “withered, dead; chilled, chill”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hesg “withered, ⚠️dead; chilled, chill”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hesg adj. “withered, ⚠️dead; chilled, chill”
⚠️G. narcos n. “rot, decay”
⚠️G. narp adj. “rotten, decayed, corrupt; overripe”; see instead:
N. thaw “corrupt, rotten”
S. saur adj. “bad (of food), putrid”
N. thaw adj. “corrupt, rotten”

11.31 to Seek

⚠️ᴱN. #argen- v. “?to search over”
ᴺS. !cesta- v. “to seek, search for, look for”
ᴺS. !cestaed adj. “curious, seeking, inquisitive”
ᴺS. !cestaedas n. “curiousity”
ᴺS. !ceth- v. “to examine, search, interrogate”

11.32 to Find

ᴺS. !hir- v. “to find, *light on, chance on”
N. rada- v. “to make a way, find a way”
⚠️ᴺS. !tov- v. “to find”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hir- “to find, *light on, chance on”
⚠️G. tug- v. “to hit, reach mark; to light on, chance on, find; to arrive; to chance, occur; to suit, fit, be convenient, ‘do’”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hir- “to find, *light on, chance on”
N. tog- “to bring”

11.33 to Lose

ᴺS. [G.] ^laeth adj. “lost”
ᴺS. [G.] ^laetha- v. “to let slip, lose, mislay; (intr.) to be lost; ⚠️forget”
⚠️G. #laith² adj. “*lost”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laeth “lost”
⚠️G. laith(r)a- v. “to let slip, lose, mislay, forget; (intr.) to be lost”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laetha- “to let slip, lose, mislay; (intr.) to be lost; ⚠️forget”
⚠️G. laithra adj. “dead and gone, over, former, of yore, forgotten”

11.34 to Release

⚠️N. †#adleg- v. “*to release”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️N. adleitha- v. “*to release”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️N. adleithian n. “*release, freeing”; see instead:
S. leithian “release from bondage, [N.] release, freeing”
⚠️G. blid- v. “to free, rid”
⚠️G. botheb- v. “to untie, undo, unloose”; see instead:
ᴺS. !únod- “to untie, undo, unloose”
N. breitha- v. “to break out suddenly”
⚠️G. labra adj. “loose, lax, flapping; weak”
⚠️G. laptha- v. “to relax, loosen”
S., ᴱN., N. #leithia- v. “to release, [N.] set free”
S., ᴱN., N. leithian n. “release from bondage, [N.] release, freeing”
⚠️N. lheithia- v. “to release, set free”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️N. lheithian n. “release from bondage, release, freeing”; see instead:
S. leithian “release from bondage, [N.] release, freeing”
ᴺS. [G.] ^othra- v. “to get away, escape”
⚠️ᴱN. rhoidia- v. “to let go”
⚠️G. usfeg- v. “to release”; see instead:
S. #leithia- “to release, [N.] set free”
⚠️G. uthra- v. “to get away, escape”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^othra- “to get away, escape”
ᴺS., G. uthwen n. “escape, way out, exit”

11.41 Property

N. garn n. “‘own’, property”
⚠️G. guig n. “piece of property”; see instead:
N. garn “‘own’, property”
⚠️ᴱN. moir n. “goods”
S. said adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

S. maelig n. “wealth, abundance”
⚠️G. sâd n. “riches, wealth”; see instead:
S. maelig “wealth, abundance”

11.43 Money

S. mirian n. “Gondorian coin”
ᴺS., ᴱN. pant n. “money”

11.44 Coin

⚠️ᴱN. panthig n. “coin”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pennig “coin”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^pennig n. “coin”

11.46 Treasure

⚠️G. fô(tha) n. “hoard”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mírad “treasury, hoard”
⚠️G. fuis n. “hoard”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mírad “treasury, hoard”
⚠️G. fûn n. “hoard”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mírad “treasury, hoard”
⚠️G. fund n. “hoard”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mírad “treasury, hoard”
⚠️G. idri n. “treasure, thing of great worth, jewel”; see instead:
S. mîr “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
S. maen n. “a treasure”
ᴺS. !mírad n. “treasury, hoard”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^nabor v. “booty”
⚠️ᴱN. nabru n. “booty”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nabor “booty”
⚠️ᴱN. naud n. “treasure”

11.48 Heir

S. advir n. “heirloom”
⚠️ᴺS. !dŷr [nd] n. “successor”; see instead:
S. dŷr “mistaken, off point, not right”
S. #hîl “heir”
S. #hîl n. “heir”
⚠️G. hilming n. “inheritance, heritage”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hilvias “inheritance, heritage”
⚠️G. hilmir n. “heir (m. or f.)”; see instead:
S. #hîl “heir”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hilvias n. “inheritance, heritage”

11.51 Rich

⚠️G. ausin adj. and n. “rich; fortune”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”
S. maelig “wealth, abundance”
⚠️ᴱN. awes adj. “rich”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”
ᴺS. !maeligeb adj. “wealthy, rich”
⚠️G. malc¹ adj. “rich, powerful”; see instead:
ᴺS. !maeligeb “wealthy, rich”
⚠️G. modron¹ adj. “rich man”

11.56 to Steal

⚠️G. er(e)tha- v. “to isolate, rob, deprive”; see instead:
S. #ertha- “to unite”
S. #neitha- “to wrong, deprive”
⚠️G. nig- v. “to steal, creep, do or go by stealth”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhig- “to creep, sneak, do or go by stealth”
⚠️G. nigla- v. “to thieve, pilfer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pil- “to steal, rob, thieve”
ᴺS. !pil- v. “to steal, rob, thieve”
ᴺS. !pilu n. “stealing, robbery, theft”
ᴺS. !raph- v. “to snatch, seize, steal”

11.57 Thief

ᴺS. !pil n. “robber, thief”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

S. #genedia- v. “to reckon”
S. genediad n. “reckoning”
N., ᴱN. gonod- v. “to count (up)”
ᴺS. !gonoded n. “counting, accounting; ⚠️reckoning”
S. gornodui adj. “hard to count”

11.73 Gain, Profit

⚠️G. gam(m)a- v. “to gain, profit, increase; to be profitable, bring in revenue”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ganna- “to gain, profit, increase; to be profitable, bring in revenue”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ganna- v. “to gain, profit, increase; to be profitable, bring in revenue”

11.79 to Earn

ᴺS. !ammuia- v. “to work (hard) for, to earn”

11.82 to Sell

⚠️ᴱN., G. bag- v. “to sell, trade”; see instead:
N. banga- “to trade, *sell”

11.83 to Trade

⚠️ᴱN. bagod n. “trade, trading”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangad “trade, trading”
⚠️G. banc n. “trade”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangad “trade, trading”
N. banga- [mb-] v. “to trade, *sell”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bangad n. “trade, trading”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

N. bachor [mb-] n. “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️G. badweg n. “traveller; pedlar”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️G. bagron n. “trader”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”
⚠️ᴱN. be(i)gion n. “trader”; see instead:
N. bachor “pedlar, *trader, merchant”

11.85 Market (place)

N. bach [mb-] n. “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴱN. bagarth n. “market”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangath “market”
⚠️G. bageth n. “market”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bangath “market”
⚠️G. bagri n. “wares”; see instead:
N. bach “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
⚠️ᴱN. bagru n. “wares”; see instead:
N. bach “article (for exchange), ware, thing”
ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bangath n. “market”

11.87 Price

ᴺS. [ᴱN.] ^bauch n. “price, cost”
⚠️ᴱN. bog n. “price, cost”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^bauch “price, cost”
⚠️ᴱN. orvog adj. “priceless”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

⚠️G. bâl adj. “worthy, important; great, mighty”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ball “worthy, important; ⚠️great, mighty”
ᴺS. !baladh n. “worth, importance”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ball adj. “worthy, important; ⚠️great, mighty”
ᴺS. !balla- v. “to matter; to be of significance, worth, moment”
⚠️ᴱN. bogodog adj. “dear, *expensive”
ᴺS. !coltha- v. “to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; ⚠️to endure”
⚠️G. idra- v. “to value, prize”
⚠️G. idra adj. “dear, valued, precious”; see instead:
ᴺS. !mair “precious”
N. muin¹ “dear”
⚠️G. idreth n. “value, dearness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !meiras “value, preciousness”
ᴺS. !mair adj. “precious”
ᴺS. !meiras n. “value, preciousness”
ᴺS. !meru adj. “valuable, worthy”

11.89 Cheap

⚠️ᴱN. bogligen adj. “cheap”
⚠️ᴱN. dammog adj. “valueless”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

⚠️ᴱN., G. garth n. “place, [G.] district”; see instead:
S. sad “place, spot”
S. gardh “region”
N. garth “fort, fortress”
⚠️ᴱN. garthad n. “open place, square”; see instead:
S. sad “place, spot”
ᴺS. !canthil “square”
⚠️G. n. “space, room, place”; see instead:
S. sad “place, spot”
N. tham “hall, [G.] chamber, room”
ᴺS. !osgaef n. “surroundings, environs, milieu”
S., N. sad n. “place, spot”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

⚠️ᴱN. gartha- v. “to set, put in position, appoint”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pan- “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
ᴺS. gartha- “to defend, ⚠️keep”
⚠️G. pâ- v. “to put”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pan- “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pan- v. “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
ᴺS. !pannen adj. “arranged, settled, done”
⚠️G. panta- v. “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pan- “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
N. panna- “to open, enlarge”
ᴺS. !panu n. “arrangement, plan; structure, ordering; (musical) theme”
ᴺS. [ON.] ^partha- v. “to arrange, compose”
N. penia- v. “to fix, set”
⚠️G. sam- v. “to arrange, put together, adjust, settle, reconcile”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pan- “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
⚠️G. samin adj. “arranged, settled, done”; see instead:
ᴺS. !pannen “arranged, settled, done”
⚠️ᴺS. !sasta- v. “to put, place”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pan- “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
ᴺS. !sesta- v. “to set, (lit.) to make rest (on)”

12.13 to Sit

ᴺS., N. hadh- v. “to sit”
S. hadhwa- v. “to seat”
⚠️N. haf- v. “to sit”; see instead:
ᴺS. hadh- “to sit”
⚠️G. hag- v. “to sit, sit down”; see instead:
ᴺS. hadh- “to sit”
⚠️G. hagra adj. “seated”; see instead:
ᴺS. !hannen “seated”
ᴺS. !hannen adj. “seated”
⚠️ᴱN. haud n. “seat”; see instead:
S. hadhu “seat, *chair”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

ᴺS. [N.] ^adlanna- v. “to slope, slant”
ᴺS. [N.] ^adlod adj. “sloping, tilted”
⚠️N. atlanna- v. “to slope, slant”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^adlanna- “to slope, slant”
ᴺS. !caeda- v. “to lie; to lay (down)”
⚠️G. cum- v. “to lie (down)”; see instead:
ᴺS. haw- “to lie”
ᴺS. !dov- v. “to lie heavy”
⚠️G. hautha- v. “to lay, stretch out, lay flat on ground”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hoda- “to lay, stretch out, lay flat on ground; *to lay to rest, bury (person)”
ᴺS., G. haw- v. “to lie”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hoda- v. “to lay, stretch out, lay flat on ground; *to lay to rest, bury (person)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^noden adj. “prone, face down”
⚠️G. nûda adj. “prone, face down”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^noden “prone, face down”
⚠️G. nudin adj. “prone”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^noden “prone, face down”

12.15 to Stand

⚠️G. daltha- v. “to erect, set up”
⚠️G. fast² n. “holder, stand”
⚠️G. talc adj. “upright”
ᴺS. !tar- v. “to stand”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

N. dartha- v. “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”
⚠️G. hadha- v. “to cling, cleave to; to wait on, wait for, abide with patience”; see instead:
N. dartha- “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”
ᴺS. !hinia- “to stick to, adhere, cleave to, abide by”
S. reth- v. “to remain in same place”
⚠️G. rô- v. “to remain, stay, stand; to endure”; see instead:
N. dartha- “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”
⚠️G. rô¹ adj. “enduring, long suffering; quiet, gentle, docile”; see instead:
ᴺS. !andrethui “patient, long suffering”
ᴺS. muig² “soft, gentle”
ᴺS. !sedh- v. “to rest”
S. #send n. “?rest”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

N. awarth n. “abandonment”
N. awartha- v. “to forsake”
S. ego interj. “be off!”
ᴺS. !levn adj. “left behind”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

⚠️G. cwîl adj. “quiet, peaceful, gentle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^pell “still, quiet, hushed”
ᴺS. !sídheb “peaceful, full of peace”
ᴺS. muig² “soft, gentle”
S. dîn n. and adj. “silence; silent, quiet”
S., N. dínen adj. “silent”
⚠️G. gwîl n. “cessation, quiescence, leaving off; peace”; see instead:
ᴺS. !postad “stopping, cessation, leaving off”
⚠️G. gwilb adj. “quiet, peaceful, full of peace”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sídheb “peaceful, full of peace”
⚠️G. gwilm n. “peace, quiet, rest; cessation”; see instead:
S. îdh “rest, repose, peace, tranquility”
⚠️G. ilrimog adj. “uneasy”
⚠️G. maug adj. “silent”; see instead:
S. dínen “silent”
⚠️G. mugol adj. “taciturn”
⚠️G. munc n. “shut mouth, silence, secretiveness; (aj.) mum”
ᴺS. [G.] ^pell adj. “still, quiet, hushed”
⚠️G. rim² n. and adj. “peace, quietness, calm; quiet, calm, peaceful”
⚠️G. rimin² adj. “quiet, calm, peaceful”
⚠️G. susc adj. “hushed, quiet; abashed”
⚠️G. suss¹ interj. “hush”
⚠️G. suss² n. “hush, sudden quiet”

12.195 Whisper

⚠️G. cwira- v. “to rustle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️G. cwitha- v. “to murmur, whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️G. cwithri n. “whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhoss
⚠️N. floss n. “whispering or rustling sound”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhoss
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhoss n.
ᴺS. !lhossa- v. “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️ᴱN. pis- v. “to whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️G. rui n. “whisper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhoss
ᴺS. ^rui “hunt, hunting, *chase”
⚠️G. ruitha- v. “to whisper, rustle”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhossa- “to whisper, rustle”
⚠️N. thross n. “whispering or rustling sound”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhoss

12.21 to Gather, Collect

⚠️G. crib- v. “to gather, pluck”; see instead:
ᴺS. hosta- “to gather, collect”
ᴺS. leb- “to pick, pluck, take or feel or touch with fingers, cull”
⚠️G. golesta- v. “to gather (intr.)”; see instead:
S. cova- “to come together, meet; to gather, assemble”
ᴺS., G. hosta- v. “to gather, collect”
⚠️G. lactha- v. “(tr.) gather together, collect, amass”; see instead:
ᴺS. hosta- “to gather, collect”
⚠️G. lag- v. “to gather, pick up, get”; see instead:
ᴺS. hosta- “to gather, collect”
⚠️G. lesta- v. “to gather, assemble, meet (intr.)”; see instead:
S. cova- “to come together, meet; to gather, assemble”
⚠️G. lim² n. “a sheaf, bundle”

12.22 to Join, Unite

S. #adertha- v. “to reunite”
S., N. aderthad n. “reuniting”
⚠️G. arthaid- v. “to join”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ianna- “to join, connect”
S. #ertha- v. “to unite”
ᴺS. !erthad n. “union, uniting”
⚠️G. fedhra- v. “to unite in a band”; see instead:
S. #ertha- “to unite”
⚠️G. gad(a) n. “joint, link; small lane, track; isthmus”; see instead:
S. #lîf “link, *joint”
⚠️G. gada- v. “to join, connect, unite”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ianna- “to join, connect”
S. #ertha- “to unite”
⚠️G. gadr n. “joint, link of chain”; see instead:
S. #lîf “link, *joint”
⚠️G. gadu adj. “joined, connected”; see instead:
ᴺS. !iannen “joined, connected”
⚠️G. gadweth n. “union, joining; wedding”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bestad “wedding, (lit.) marrying”
⚠️G. gôd n. “joint, link of chain”; see instead:
S. #lîf “link, *joint”
⚠️G. godra adj. “joined, united, joint”; see instead:
ᴺS. !iannen “joined, connected”
⚠️G. gofedhin adj. “united, allied, ‘friends’”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwedhen “oath-bound, allied”
⚠️G. gofedhra- v. “to unite in a band”; see instead:
S. #ertha- “to unite”
ᴺS. !goianna- v. “to join with, add to”
ᴺS. !golain n. “connection, relation, context, (lit.) threadage”
ᴺS. [G.] ^ialtha- v. “to yoke, ⚠️join”
ᴺS. !ianna- v. “to join, connect”
ᴺS. !iannen adj. “joined, connected”
⚠️G. ilt- v. “to yoke, join”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ialtha- “to yoke, ⚠️join”
ᴺS. !ianna- “to join, connect”
S. #lîf n. “link, *joint”

12.221 Together

⚠️G. carpa adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”
⚠️G. criptha adj. and adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”
S., N., ᴱN., G. go- pref. “together, co-, com-”
⚠️N. godrebh adv. “abreast; *together-through”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^godref “abreast; *together-through”
ᴺS. [N.] ^godref adv. “abreast; *together-through”
⚠️G. gomintha adv. “together”
⚠️G. mintha adj. “ūna, in one place, together”

12.222 And

S., N. conj. “and; †by, near, beside”

12.223 Also

⚠️ᴺS. !aich adv. “also”; see instead:
S. eithro “*also”
⚠️G. arthi adv. “also, as well, besides, too”; see instead:
S. eithro “*also”
S. eithro adv. “*also”

12.23 to Separate

S. edregol adv. “in especial, *especially”
⚠️G. far- v. “to separate, sever, divide; to depart, leave”
⚠️G. fartha- v. “to divide (tr.)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lhid- v. “to sort out, sift, sieve, discriminate”
ᴺS. [G.] ^lhîd n. “sieve”
S. seidia- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”
⚠️G. thlid- v. “to sort out, sift, sieve, discriminate”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhid- “to sort out, sift, sieve, discriminate”
⚠️G. thlid n. “sieve”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhîd “sieve”

12.24 to Open

ᴺS. [G.] ^belen adj. “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”
⚠️G. belin adj. “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^belen “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”
ᴺS., G. beltha- v. “to open out (transitive), expand, unroll, set sail”
⚠️G. belu- v. “to unroll, unfurl (intransitively), belly (of sails), swell”; see instead:
ᴺS. beltha- “to open out (transitive), expand, unroll, set sail”
S., N. edra- v. “to open (out)”
N. panna- v. “to open, enlarge”

12.25 to Shut, Close

⚠️N. forn(en) adj. “closed”; see instead:
S. hollen “closed, shut”
S. #hol- v. “to close, shut”
S. hollen adj. “closed, shut”

12.26 to Cover

⚠️G. muthra- v. “to veil”
ᴺS., G. telt n. “lid”
⚠️G. teltha- v. “cover in”; see instead:
N. toba- “to cover, roof over”
⚠️G. telthion adj. “roofed in, sheltered, protected”
N. toba- v. “to cover, roof over”
⚠️G. tub- v. “to cover”; see instead:
N. toba- “to cover, roof over”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

N. delia- v. “to conceal”
N. doltha- v. “to conceal”
S. *fanna- v. “to veil, cloak”
⚠️G. fuitha-¹ v. “to hide (tr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tobla- “to hide”
N. haltha- v. “to screen”
⚠️ᴺS. !hauda- v. “to cover up, hide away, lay in store; to hoard, save, record; to bury”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hoda- “to lay, stretch out, lay flat on ground; *to lay to rest, bury (person)”
ᴺS. !lhig- v. “to creep, sneak, do or go by stealth”
ᴺS. [G.] ^tobla- v. “to hide”
⚠️G. tubla- v. “to hide (intr.)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tobla- “to hide”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

S., N. dolen adj. “hidden, [N.] secret”
⚠️G. furion adj. “secret, concealed, hidden”; see instead:
S. thurin “secret, hidden”
N. hall¹ adj. “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
ᴺS. [G.] ^nigren adj. “stealthy, (orig.) mouse-like”
⚠️G. nigrin adj. “stealthy”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nigren “stealthy, (orig.) mouse-like”
⚠️S. torn² adj. “hidden, secret”; see instead:
S. dolen “hidden, [N.] secret”
S. thurin “secret, hidden”
⚠️G. tubrin adj. “hidden”; see instead:
S. dolen “hidden, [N.] secret”

12.31 High

⚠️ᴱN. aig adj. “high, steep”; see instead:
S. #aeg “sharp, [N.] pointed, piercing”
N. baradh “steep”
⚠️G. alw(eg) adj. “lofty (of living things, trees, men)”; see instead:
S. *alu “wholesome”
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. annor(in) adj. “lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. anthor(in) adj. “lofty (of mountains)”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️ᴱN., G. adj. “high”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
⚠️G. dara adj. “lofty”; see instead:
S. taer “lofty, *high”
N. hall² adj. “exalted, high”
ᴺS. !hallas n. “height”
⚠️G. ôl² n. “height, stature”
⚠️G. ront adj. “high, steep”; see instead:
N. baradh “steep”
S. taer adj. “lofty, *high”

12.32 Low

⚠️G. hamra adj. “lowly, lowlying; base”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tovn “lowlying, deep, low”
ᴺS., G. haug adj. “low”
⚠️G. haugrin adj. “lowly, humble, mean”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hogren “lowly, humble, mean”
ᴺS. [G.] ^hogren adj. “lowly, humble, mean”
⚠️N. tofn adj. “lowlying, deep, low”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tovn “lowlying, deep, low”
ᴺS. [N.] ^tovn adj. “lowlying, deep, low”
⚠️G. um² adj. “lowlying”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tovn “lowlying, deep, low”

12.33 Top

⚠️ᴱN. n. “top”; see instead:
N. caw “top”
N. caw n. “top”
⚠️G. ôn¹ n. “crown of head, top”

12.34 Bottom

⚠️G. clib- v. “to uphold, support; to lean”
⚠️G. fod n. “end, butt, bottom”; see instead:
S. methed “end”
S. tâl “foot; [lower] end”
⚠️G. hôm n. “ground, base, bottom, seabed”; see instead:
N. talaf “ground, floor”
S. thond “root, [N.] base; ⚠️root-word”
S. tâl “foot; [lower] end”
⚠️G. hum adv. “(right) down, (lit.) to bottom”; see instead:
N. dad “down”

12.35 End

ᴺS., G. laph n. “loose-end, end of rope, hem of robe”
S. methed n. “end”

12.352 Point

N. #caraes n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”
N. carag n. “spike, tooth of rock”
S., N. ceber n. “stake, spike; ⚠️[N.] ?limestone, -rock”
⚠️ᴱN., G. daroth n. “top, peak, point, tip, spike, [G.] summit”; see instead:
N. taen¹ “height, summit of high mountain”
ᴺS. ^aegas “mountain peak”
⚠️N. ecthel n. “?point (of spear)”; see instead:
N. thela “point (of spear)”
S. naith “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”
N. ment n. “point”
N. nass n. “point, (sharp) end; angle, corner”
⚠️G. nel n. “point, end, tip, jutting end”
⚠️G. pleg n. “hedge-stake, stake”; see instead:
S. ceber “stake, spike; ⚠️[N.] ?limestone, -rock”
⚠️G. teb n. “point, nib, neb, nose”
⚠️G. teg n. “point, dot, spot”; see instead:
N. peg “dot, small spot”
S., N. till n. “point, spike, (sharp) horn, tine, ending”
S. trunc n. “great stake”

12.353 Edge

⚠️ᴱN. cant n. “edge”; see instead:
S. #cant “shape; [N.] outline”
S. lanc¹ “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
S. glân² “hem, border”
⚠️G. cilm n. “rim, brink, edge”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rîw “brink, brim”
S. glân² n. “hem, border”
S. lanc¹ n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”
⚠️G. raim n. “edge, border-line”
ᴺS., N. rhîf n. “brink, brim”
⚠️ᴺS. ^rîw n. “brink, brim”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhîf “brink, brim”
ᴺS., G. tast n. “border, fringe”

12.37 Middle

⚠️S. enaid adj. “central, middle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^enaidh “central, middle”
ᴺS. [S.] ^enaidh adj. “central, middle”
S., N. enedh n. “centre, middle; [N.] core”
ᴺS. !enedhren adj. “central, essential”
N. nedh- pref. “mid-”
ᴺS. !nepheg n. “mid-point, (lit.) mid-spot”
⚠️G. seg n. “point, middle point”; see instead:
ᴺS. !nepheg “mid-point, (lit.) mid-spot”
⚠️G. segrin adj. “middle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^enaidh “central, middle”
⚠️G. segron adj. “midmost”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^enaidh “central, middle”

12.371 Between

S. im² prep. “between”
ᴺS. !mîg prep. “among”
S. mîn n. “[thing] between; gap, space, barrier; anything intervening between two other things”

12.38 Center

⚠️ᴱN. gir n. “interior, inwards, centre, inner parts, inside, heart”
N. nest n. “?heart, core”
⚠️G. sectha n. and adj. “centre”; see instead:
S. enedh “centre, middle; [N.] core”

12.391 In, Inside

⚠️G. a(d) prep. “into”; see instead:
ᴺS. ! “(to the) inside; into”
⚠️G. ba prep. “in”; see instead:
S. mi “*in”
⚠️G. bi prep. “in”; see instead:
S. mi “*in”
⚠️G. bir prep. “in, within, inside”
S. mi prep. “*in”
ᴺS. ! adv. and prep. “(to the) inside; into”
N. #ne- pref. “in”

12.392 Out, Outside

S., N. ed¹ prep. and pref. “out, out of, [N.] forth”
⚠️G. edh prep. “outside, near borders of, near, hard by, beside”; see instead:
S. ed¹ “out, out of, [N.] forth”
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
ᴺS. !edren adj. “outer”
ᴺS. !eth n. “outside”
⚠️G. uf¹ prep. “out of, forth, from”; see instead:
S. ed¹ “out, out of, [N.] forth”
⚠️G. ufra adj. “outer”; see instead:
ᴺS. !edren “outer”
⚠️G. ûthi n. “outside”; see instead:
ᴺS. !eth “outside”

12.393 Across, Athwart

⚠️N. ad prep. “*against”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. adr prep. and adv. “across, athwart”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️G. adr(a) adj. “lying athwart; situated on far side”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️G. adros n. “crossing, ford”; see instead:
S. athrad “ford, crossing”
⚠️N. ath- pref. “on both sides, across”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
S. athra-¹ v. “to cross (to and fro)”
S., N. athrad n. “ford, crossing”
N. athrada- v. “to cross, traverse”
ᴺS. !dadhren adj. “opposing, facing, opposite”
⚠️G. had prep. “facing, opposite, over against; (c. allative) against, instead of, in return for, for, as”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. hadra- v. “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhra- “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”
⚠️G. hadra adj. “opposing, facing, opposite; equivalent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhren “opposing, facing, opposite”
⚠️G. hadron prep. and adv. “opposite”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhren “opposing, facing, opposite”
N. hadron “thrower (of spears and darts)”
S. #iach n. “ford”
⚠️N. iath prep. “across”; see instead:
S. thar “across, athwart, over”
⚠️N. iathrad n. “crossing, ford”; see instead:
S. athrad “ford, crossing”
S., N. thar prep. and pref. “across, athwart, over”
⚠️G. trath n. “passage, ford”; see instead:
S. athrad “ford, crossing”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

S., N., ᴱN., G. #am adv. “up, [G.] upwards, ⚠️towards head of, above”
N. amben adj. and adv. “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. amon² adv. “uphill, against stream”; see instead:
N. amben “uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome”
⚠️G. antha adj. “upper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orth “upper”
⚠️G. anthos adv. “up, above”; see instead:
N. or “above; [G.] onto, ⚠️on top, on”
S. bo prep. “*on”
⚠️ᴱN. han n. “above”
⚠️ᴱN. oga prep. “above, on top of”; see instead:
N. or “above; [G.] onto, ⚠️on top, on”
N., G. or prep. “above; [G.] onto, ⚠️on top, on”
⚠️G. or- pref. “on, onto, up, in addition to”; see instead:
N. or “above; [G.] onto, ⚠️on top, on”
ᴺS. [G.] ^orth adj. “upper”
⚠️G. ortha adj. “upper”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^orth “upper”
⚠️G. orthi adv. “up”; see instead:
S. #am “up, [G.] upwards, ⚠️towards head of, above”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

N., ᴱN. dad adv. “down”
N. dadben adj. and adv. “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
⚠️ᴱN. dadvenn adj. and adv. “downhill; (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”; see instead:
N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
⚠️ᴱN. dadvinn n. “downhill slope; rash course, impetus, path to destruction”; see instead:
N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone; [ᴱN.] (figuratively) easy-going, easy, not arduous”
S., N. di¹ [nd-] prep. “beneath, under; ⚠️[N.] in”
⚠️G. nal² adv. “down, downwards”; see instead:
N. dad “down”
⚠️G. naldron adj. “lower down”; see instead:
N. dad “down”
⚠️G. naltha adj. “downward, lower, lower-down; (av.) below, beneath”; see instead:
N. dad “down”
S. nu “under”
⚠️N. no prep. “under”; see instead:
S. nu “under”
⚠️ᴱN. nofn adj. “down, set”; see instead:
N. dad “down”
S. nu prep. “under”
⚠️G. nunthi adv. “downward”; see instead:
N. dad “down”

12.3955 In Front

⚠️ᴱN., G. ant n. “face, front, forward surface; [G.] cheek”; see instead:
N. nîf “front, face”
N. crann “ruddy (of face); face, blush, the cheeks”
N. ant “gift”
⚠️G. gwintha- v. “to face”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nevra- “to face, go forward”
ᴺS. [Ilk.] ^nevra- v. “to face, go forward”
N. nîf n. “front, face”
⚠️G. nod adv. “forward, on, in advance”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

⚠️G. abont adv. “back; backwards”
N. adel prep. “behind, in rear (of)”
⚠️ᴱN. bod adv. “back”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. bod adv. “behind, back, of time ago, ‘a while back’”; see instead:
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️ᴱN., G. bod- pref. “back, [G.] again; un- (= backwards)”; see instead:
S. #ad- “back, again, re-”
S. dan “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”
⚠️G. bodra adj. “back(ward), hinder, rear”
⚠️G. bodron adv. “behind, further back”
⚠️ᴱN. bôn n. “back”
⚠️G. bont adv. “back(wards)”
⚠️G. obra adj. “close behind (of place), following, succeeding, next behind or after (time or place)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !aphadol “following”
⚠️ᴱN. poi n. “aft (on a ship)”
⚠️ᴱN. poiant n. “stern”
N. tele n. “end, rear, hindmost part”

12.397 Beyond

⚠️G. adron adv. “further, beyond, over; on other side”; see instead:
N. athan “beyond”
N. athan prep. “beyond”

12.398 To, Towards

⚠️G. ar¹ prep. “at; to, towards”
⚠️ᴱN. athra- v. “to face, look in a certain direction, oppose”; see instead:
ᴺS. !dadhra- “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”
ᴺS. ^nevra- “to face, go forward”
S. athra-¹ “to cross (to and fro)”
⚠️G. cint adv. “hither”; see instead:
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
⚠️G. hant¹ adv. “thither”; see instead:
S. taw² “thither”
S. na¹ prep. “to, towards, at”
⚠️ᴱN. ven n. “toward”

12.399 From, Away

⚠️G. prep. “from”; see instead:
S. o “from, of”
⚠️G. adv. “away, off”
⚠️G. baron [mb-] adv. “from home, out, away, abroad”; see instead:
S. palan “afar, abroad, far and wide”
N. #gwa-² pref. “*away”
ᴺS. [S.] ^gwachae adj. “far away”
⚠️S., N. #gwahae adj. “*far away”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gwachae “far away”
⚠️ᴱN. hin prep. “from”
⚠️G. mu¹ prep. “from”
⚠️G. restu adj. “out of land, abroad, away from home”; see instead:
S. palan “afar, abroad, far and wide”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

⚠️N. feir² adj. “right (hand)”; see instead:
ᴺS. fuir “[N.] right (hand); ⚠️north”
⚠️G. fim adj. “clever, right hand”; see instead:
N. maen “skilled, clever”
⚠️N. forgam adj. “righthanded”; see instead:
S. forvo “right hand, right side”
S. forvo n. “right hand, right side”
ᴺS., S. fuir adj. “[N.] right (hand); ⚠️north”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

⚠️N. crom adj. “left”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hair “left (hand)”
⚠️N. crum n. “left hand”; see instead:
S. harvo “left hand, left side”
⚠️N. crumui adj. “left-handed”; see instead:
N. harwed “left-handed”
ᴺS. [N.] ^hair n. and adj. “left (hand)”
⚠️N. hargam adj. “left-handed”; see instead:
S. harvo “left hand, left side”
S. harvo n. “left hand, left side”
⚠️N. harwed adj. “left-handed”; see instead:
S. harvo “left hand, left side”
⚠️N. heir n. and adj. “left (hand)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^hair “left (hand)”

12.43 Near (adj)

S., N., G. ar- pref. “[N.] outside; [S.] without; ⚠️by, beside, [G.] along with, compared with”
⚠️G. art adv. “beside, along side of”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
⚠️G. artha prep. “alongside (of)”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
⚠️G. adv. “here”
⚠️G. ed prep. “close by”; see instead:
S. ed¹ “out, out of, [N.] forth”
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
⚠️G. edhos prep. “just without, close by”; see instead:
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
⚠️G. hath- pref. “close to, by, beside, touching”
⚠️G. lent adv. “near, close to, up by, along side of; (c. dat.) at, towards, up to side of; therewith, with it, withal”; see instead:
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
ᴺS. !sa² “beside, along side, next (to)”
S. na¹ “to, towards, at”
ᴺS. !nabant adv. “almost, (lit.) towards full”
⚠️ᴱN. neb adv. “near”; see instead:
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
S. nef prep. “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”
⚠️ᴱN. neibio adv. “nearly, almost”
ᴺS. !nevui adj. “nearly”
S., G. adv. “here, in this place (of speaker)”
⚠️G. sith adv. “hither”; see instead:
S. nef “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]; *near”

12.44 Far (adj)

⚠️G. annai adv. “far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️ᴱN. ech adv. “far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️ᴱN., G. eg adv. “far, †wide; [G.] far away, wide, distant, far off”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️G. egiont adj. “further, farther”
⚠️ᴱN. egos n. “distance”; see instead:
S. haered “remoteness, (remote) distance”
⚠️G. egra adj. “distant, far away”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”
⚠️ᴱN. egren adj. “distant”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”
⚠️G. egros adv. “distant, far away”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️G. egwed adj. “far, distant”; see instead:
S. haer “remote, *distant”
S. ennas adv. “there”
⚠️G. entha adv. “there by you, thither”
S., N. hae adj. and adv. “far, (very) far away”
S. haer adj. “remote, *distant”
S. haered n. “remoteness, (remote) distance”
S. haeron adj. “*distant”
⚠️G. hai¹ adv. “there (by him)”
⚠️G. lenc adj. and adv. “far, distant”; see instead:
S. hae “far, (very) far away”
⚠️G. lenchos n. “distance”; see instead:
S. haered “remoteness, (remote) distance”
S. palan adv. “afar, abroad, far and wide”
S. palan-díriel n. “far-gazer”
S. taw² adv. “thither”

12.45 East

⚠️N. †rhufen adj. “east”; see instead:
S. rhúnen “eastern”
S., N. rhûn n. “east, [N.] eastern; †rising”
S. rhúnen adj. “eastern”

12.46 West

S. annui adj. “west[ern]”
S., N. annûn n. “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
S., N. dûn [nd-] n. “west”
⚠️N. dúven [nd-] n. “*western”; see instead:
S. annui “west[ern]”
⚠️G. nûmin adj. “the west, sinking”; see instead:
S. annûn “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
⚠️ᴱN. #núnad- v. “to wester”
⚠️ᴱN. núnadol n. “westering”

12.47 North

⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^fervain adj. “northern”; see instead:
N. forodren “northern”
⚠️N. fervein adj. “northern”; see instead:
N. forodren “northern”
S., N. forn adj. “north, [N.] right”
S., N. forod n. “north”
N. forodren adj. “northern”
⚠️N. forven n. “north”; see instead:
S. forod “north”

12.48 South

S., N. harad n. “south”
N. haradren adj. “southern”
⚠️N. harfen n. “*south-region”; see instead:
S. harad “south”
S., N., ᴱN. harn adj. “south, southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

⚠️ᴱN. cadog adj. “?shapely”; see instead:
N. cadwor “shapely”
ᴺS. [N.] ^cadu adj. “shaped, formed”
⚠️N. cadw adj. “shaped, formed”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^cadu “shaped, formed”
N. cadwor adj. “shapely”
S. #cannas n. “[abstract] shape”
S., N. #cant n. “shape; [N.] outline”

12.53 to Grow

⚠️G. altha- v. “to shoot up, grow (high)”
⚠️G. calon adj. “grown (of plants), budd[ing], in blade (of corn)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galen “grown (esp. of plants)”
⚠️G. caltha- v. “to wax, grow, flourish”; see instead:
S. gala- “to grow”
S. theria- “to be vigorous, flourish”
⚠️G. calwed adj. “flourishing, adolescent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !theriol “flourishing”
ᴺS. !gwidhren “adolescent, pre-adult”
S., N. gala- v. “to grow”
ᴺS. [G.] ^galen adj. “grown (esp. of plants)”
ᴺS. [G.] ^gannan adj. “waxen, grown big, grown up, adult, [originally?] large”
⚠️G. ganthan adj. “waxen, grown big, grown up, adult, [originally?] large”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^gannan “waxen, grown big, grown up, adult, [originally?] large”
⚠️G. -loth suf. “-grown”
S. theria- v. “to be vigorous, flourish”
ᴺS. !theriol adj. “flourishing”

12.54 to Measure

S. daur n. “league; †stop, pause”
⚠️N. daur adj. “great, large”; see instead:
S. daer¹ “great, large”
S. daur “league; †stop, pause”
⚠️G. modra- v. “count, measure”
⚠️G. modri n. “measurement”
ᴺS. [N.] ^raew n. “fathom”
⚠️N. rhaew n. “fathom”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raew “fathom”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

S., N., ᴱN., G. beleg adj. “great, mighty; large, big, [ᴱN.] huge”
S. daer¹ adj. “great, large”
⚠️G. gwen(n) adj. “big, large; fine”; see instead:
S. daer¹ “great, large”
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️G. ûmi adj. “large”

12.56 Small, Little

⚠️G. inc adj. “little”; see instead:
S. #pîn “little”
⚠️G. inig adj. “small”; see instead:
S. #pîn “little”
N. mîw adj. “small, tiny, frail”
ᴺS. !nítha-² v. “to reduce, make small”
ᴺS. !níthannen v. “reduced, minor”
N. pigen adj. “tiny”
S. #pîn adj. “little”
⚠️G. pinig adj. “tiny, little”; see instead:
N. pigen “tiny”
S. #pîn “little”
N. tithen adj. “little, tiny”

12.565 Bit, Small Thing

N. peg n. “dot, small spot”
⚠️G. n. “anything very small, a bit, mote”; see instead:
N. peg “dot, small spot”

12.57 Long

S., N. anann adv. “(for) long”
S. and adj. “long”
ᴺS. !annas n. “length”
⚠️G. dîr adj. “long (of time)”
⚠️G. in(d)ra adj. “long (also used of time)”; see instead:
S. and “long”
⚠️G. lenwi n. “length, distance”; see instead:
ᴺS. !annas “length”
⚠️G. sûr adj. “long, trailing”
N. taen² adj. “long (and thin)”

12.58 Tall

N. baradh adj. “steep”
S. brand¹ adj. “towering, tall and massive, [N.] high; lofty, noble, fine”
S., N. orchal adj. “tall; [N.] superior, eminent, lofty”
ᴺS. [Ilk.] ?thall adj. “steep, falling steeply (of river)”
ᴺS. [N.] ^tond adj. “tall”
⚠️N. tonn adj. “tall”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^tond “tall”

12.59 Short

S. esten(t) adj. “short”
ᴺS. !thennas n. “shortness”
S., N. thent adj. “short”
⚠️N. thinnas n. “shortness, shortening”; see instead:
ᴺS. !thennas “shortness”

12.61 Wide, Broad

⚠️ᴱN. egall adj. “very broad”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️ᴱN. eglann adj. “very wide”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️G. egrin adj. “wide, vast, broad; far”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
⚠️ᴱN. gall adj. “wide, broad”; see instead:
S. #land “wide, broad; [N.] open space, level”
S. iaun adj. “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
S., G. #land adj. “wide, broad; [N.] open space, level”
⚠️N., ᴱN. lhann adj. “wide, [ᴱN.] broad”; see instead:
S. #land “wide, broad; [N.] open space, level”
N. pann¹ adj. “wide”
⚠️N. ûr² adj. “wide”; see instead:
S. iaun “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
S. *ûr “fire; ⚠️[ᴱN.] sun”

12.62 Narrow

N. agor adj. “narrow”
⚠️G. fing adj. “narrow”; see instead:
N. agor “narrow”
S. fing “lock of hair”
⚠️G. fingli n. “narrow place, straits, sound, pass in mountains”; see instead:
S. cirith “cleft, ravine, defile, [N.] pass”
S. úlan(n) adj. “narrow, (lit.) not broad”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

⚠️ᴱN. dolch adj. “stout, thick”; see instead:
N. tûg “thick, fat”
⚠️G. fabwed adj. “corpulent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !túgomui “corpulent, (lit.) having a fat belly”
⚠️G. lubi adj. “corpulent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !túgomui “corpulent, (lit.) having a fat belly”
⚠️G. polc adj. “thick, fat”; see instead:
N. tûg “thick, fat”
N. tûg adj. “thick, fat”
ᴺS. !túgom adj. “fat-bellied”
ᴺS. !túgomui adj. “corpulent, (lit.) having a fat belly”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

ᴺS., S. delch [nd-] adj. “dense”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

S. fim adj. “slender, slim”
⚠️G. glen(d)rin adj. “slender”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhind “fine, slender”
⚠️G. glen(d)rinios n. “slenderness”
⚠️G. glen(n) adj. “thin, fine, slender”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhind “fine, slender”
⚠️G. glenweth n. “thinness”; see instead:
ᴺS. !lhinnas “slenderness, thinness”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lhind adj. “fine, slender”
ᴺS. !lhinnas n. “slenderness, thinness”
⚠️ᴱN. minedh adj. “fine, slender, thin, small”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nind “slender”
ᴺS. [N.] ^nind adj. “slender”
⚠️N. ninn adj. “slender”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^nind “slender”
⚠️N., G. thlinn adj. “fine, slender”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhind “fine, slender”
ᴺS. [G.] ^thriben adj. “lean”
⚠️G. thribin adj. “lean”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^thriben “lean”
⚠️ᴱN. tlui adj. “slender”; see instead:
N. trîw “fine, very slender”
N. trîw adj. “fine, very slender”

12.66 Thin (in Density)

ᴺS. [N.] ^lhain adj. “lean, thin, meagre”
⚠️N. thlein adj. “lean, thin, meagre”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lhain “lean, thin, meagre”

12.67 Deep

⚠️G. dolc [nd-] adj. “deep”; see instead:
N. nûr² “deep”
N. nûr² adj. “deep”

12.71 Flat

⚠️G. amlad n. “surface”; see instead:
N. palath¹ “surface”
⚠️G. blant adj. “flat, open, expansive, candid, blunt (of words)”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^plant “candid, blunt (of words); †flat, open, expansive”
⚠️N. dalw adj. “flat”; see instead:
S. #laden “flat, wide, *level; [N.] open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”
⚠️G. engri n. “flat surface, level, plane”; see instead:
N. palath¹ “surface”
S., N. #laden adj. “flat, wide, *level; [N.] open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”
⚠️G. ladin adj. “level, smooth; fair, equitable”; see instead:
S. #laden “flat, wide, *level; [N.] open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”
N. path “smooth”
S. fael² “fair-minded, just, generous”
⚠️N., ᴱN. lhaden adj. “flat (and wide); open, cleared; [ᴱN.] smooth”; see instead:
S. #laden “flat, wide, *level; [N.] open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”
N. palath¹ n. “surface”
⚠️ᴺS. [N.] ^talu adj. “flat”; see instead:
S. #laden “flat, wide, *level; [N.] open, cleared; [G.] fair, equitable; ⚠️[ᴱN.] smooth”
⚠️ᴱN. thain adj. “level, even”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

S. coll² adj. “hollow”
⚠️G. cub adj. “hollow”; see instead:
S. coll² “hollow”
⚠️G. dûl [nd-] adj. “hollow”; see instead:
S. coll² “hollow”
S. †naw adj. “hollow”
ᴺS. [N.] ^raudh adj. “hollow, cavernous”
⚠️N. rhaudh adj. “hollow, cavernous”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raudh “hollow, cavernous”
⚠️G. rothrin adj. “hollow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raudh “hollow, cavernous”
⚠️G. rûdin adj. “hollow, cavernous”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raudh “hollow, cavernous”
⚠️G. tum n. “hollow”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raudh “hollow, cavernous”
⚠️G. tumbol adj. “valley-like, hollow, excavated”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raudh “hollow, cavernous”

12.73 Straight

N. taer adj. “straight”
⚠️ᴱN. tain² adj. “straight”; see instead:
N. taer “straight”
N., G. tîr adj. “straight, right; [G.] upright, honest; esteem, regard, honour”

12.74 Crooked

⚠️G. craig adj. “crooked”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhaen “crooked”
⚠️G. fant adj. “crooked, bent, bowed”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhaen “crooked”
⚠️ᴱN. gaug adj. “crooked”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhaen “crooked”
⚠️G. gwegla adj. “crooked”; see instead:
ᴺS. rhaen “crooked”
ᴺS., N. rhaen adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

⚠️G. crog n. “hook”; see instead:
S. gamp “hook, crook; [N.] claw”
⚠️G. crogin adj. “hooked”
S., N. gamp n. “hook, crook; [N.] claw”

12.76 Angle, Corner

N. bennas n. “angle”
S., N. naith n. “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”
N. nelthil n. “triangle”
⚠️G. og² n. “sharp corner”

12.77 Cross (n)

ᴺS., G. taru n. “cross, *crucifix; ⚠️crossing”
⚠️G. tranc adj. “criss-cross, crossed; cross, at cross purpose, perverse”
⚠️G. trantha- v. “to cross (tr. & intr.); to mark with a cross”; see instead:
S. athra-¹ “to cross (to and fro)”
⚠️G. †trôn n. “a cross; a crossing”; see instead:
ᴺS. taru “cross, *crucifix; ⚠️crossing”

12.78 Square (n)

ᴺS. !canthil n. “square”
⚠️G. cantrib n. “square”; see instead:
ᴺS. !canthil “square”

12.81 Round (adj)

N. corn adj. “round, globed”
⚠️G. corol adj. “round, circular; rolling”; see instead:
N. corn “round, globed”
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️ᴱN. crigen adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️G. crithog adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️ᴱN. crithui adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
⚠️G. crôl adj. “round”; see instead:
N. corn “round, globed”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rend adj. “circular”
⚠️N. rhenn adj. “circular”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”

12.82 Circle

S. cor n. “ring, circle”
⚠️G. corm n. “ring, circle, disc”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️ᴱN. craith n. “circle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rind “circle”
⚠️G. crithla- v. “to encircle; to circle, go round”
⚠️ᴱN., G. crithos n. “ring; [G.] circle”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️G. †drinn n. “ring, disc”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
S. echor n. and adj. “outer circle; encircling”
⚠️G. gorin n. “circle of trees”; see instead:
S. cerin “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”
⚠️G. grail n. “ring, circle, circlet”; see instead:
S. cor “ring, circle”
⚠️G. grileg adj. “ringed, hooped shape”
⚠️ᴱN. gwerin n. “enclosure”; see instead:
S. cerin “circular mound, artificial hill; [N.] round enclosure”
⚠️ᴱN. rhim n. “ring, circle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rind “circle”
⚠️N. rhingorn n. “circle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ringorn “circle”
⚠️N. rhinn n. “circle”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rind “circle”
⚠️G. rinc adj. and n. “circular; disc, rondure”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rend “circular”
ᴺS. ^rind “circle”
ᴺS. ^rinc “twitch, jerk, sudden move”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rind n. “circle”
ᴺS. [N.] ^ringorn n. “circle”
ᴺS., G. rod n. “tube, stem, *pipe”

12.83 Sphere

⚠️ᴱN. corn¹ n. “round ball”; see instead:
N. coron “globe, ball”
N. corn “round, globed”
⚠️G. cross n. “ball”; see instead:
S. coron “mound; [N.] globe, ball”
⚠️G. crost n. “lump, ball, cake”; see instead:
S. coron “mound; [N.] globe, ball”
N. basgorn “loaf, [G.] loaf of bread, [ᴱN.] round loaf, cake”

12.84 Line

⚠️N. lhîr¹ n. “row”; see instead:
S. #lîr “line, [N.] row”
S. #lîr n. “line, [N.] row”
ᴺS. [G.] ^raeb adj. “scored, striped”
⚠️G. raib adj. “scored, striped”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^raeb “scored, striped”
ᴺS., G. rib n. “stripe, line; ⚠️shore; border, fringe”
ᴺS., G. ribin adj. “striped, edged”
⚠️G. rimin¹ adj. “striped, edged”
N., G. n. “line, way, ⚠️[G.] track, path; mark”
⚠️G. tion n. “a straight line”; see instead:
N. “line, row; ⚠️[G.] straight”

12.85 Hole

N. dath n. “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”
⚠️G. dolm [nd-] n. “pit”; see instead:
N. dath “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”
N. gas n. “hole, gap”
⚠️G. ôth n. “hole, opening”; see instead:
N. gas “hole, gap”
⚠️G. sauth n. “a hole, tunnel”; see instead:
N. dath “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”
S. fela “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den; ⚠️[N.] cave”
N. tess n. “fine pierced hole”
⚠️ᴱN. tonn n. “(bored) hole, perforation”
⚠️ᴱN. tunneb adj. “full of holes, riddles”

12.91 Equal, Alike

⚠️ᴺS. !aif adj. “same”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ain “same, identical”
ᴺS. !ain adj. “same, identical”
⚠️G. argulthion adj. “equal, equivalent”; see instead:
ᴺS. !asgolui “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
ᴺS. !asgolui adj. “equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able”
ᴺS. !bíleb adj. “equal”
ᴺS. !bilebra- v. “to equal”
ᴺS. !bilebren adj. “equable”
ᴺS. !bileutha- v. “to make equal, equalize”
⚠️G. felectha- v. “to make equal, equalize”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bileutha- “to make equal, equalize”
⚠️G. feleg adj. “equal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bíleb “equal”
S. feleg “cave, mine, underground dwelling”
⚠️G. felegra- v. “to equal”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilebra- “to equal”
⚠️G. felegrin adj. “equable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilebren “equable”
⚠️G. felweg n. “one’s fellow or equal, rival”
⚠️G. gofel adj. and adv. “exactly alike”; see instead:
ᴺS. !govai “alike, similar”
⚠️G. gofelthi n. “exact similarity”
⚠️G. gofelweg n. “one’s fellow or equal, rival”
⚠️G. inco pron. “the same, the identical”; see instead:
ᴺS. !ain “same, identical”
S. im¹ “I, I myself; reflexive, self(same)”
⚠️G. ladinios n. “equity”; see instead:
ᴺS. !faelas “fairness, equity”

12.92 Like, Similar

⚠️ᴱN. a prep. “like”; see instead:
S. #be “as, like; ⚠️in”
S. #be prep. “as, like; ⚠️in”
ᴺS. !bída- v. “to compare, liken”
ᴺS. !bîl n. “likeness, similarity”
ᴺS. !bilthadren adj. “probable”
⚠️G. fel prep. and adv. “like; (as av.) as, like”; see instead:
S. #be “as, like; ⚠️in”
ᴺS. !bîl “likeness, similarity”
⚠️G. feltha adj. “similar, like”; see instead:
ᴺS. !govai “alike, similar”
⚠️G. felthadrin adj. “probable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !bilthadren “probable”
⚠️G. gofeltha adj. “*similar, like”; see instead:
ᴺS. !govai “alike, similar”
⚠️ᴱN. goneb adj. “similar”; see instead:
ᴺS. !govai “alike, similar”
⚠️ᴺS. !gothiol adj. “similar”; see instead:
ᴺS. !govai “alike, similar”
ᴺS. !govai adj. and adv. “alike, similar”

12.925 Different, Other

ᴺS. !egel adj. “other”
ᴺS. !egelren adj. “different, strange”
ᴺS. [G.] ^egol adv. and n. “else, something else”
⚠️ᴺS. !eithor adj. “other, another”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egel “other”
⚠️G. elc adv. and n. “else, something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^egol “else, something else”
⚠️ᴺS. [G.] ^elch adv. and n. “else, something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^egol “else, something else”
⚠️ᴺS., G. eleg adj. “other, else”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egel “other”
⚠️ᴺS. [G.] ^elegren adj. “different, strange”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. elegrin adj. “different, strange”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. elfel adj. “different, like something else”; see instead:
ᴺS. !egelren “different, strange”
⚠️G. prind n. “distinction”
S. sennui adv. “?rather, instead”

12.93 to Change

⚠️G. bart¹ n. “change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwist “change”
⚠️G. bartha- v. “to change, exchange, alter”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”
N. bartha- “to doom”
⚠️G. bridol adj. “changing, varying, variable”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwistol “changing, varying, variable”
⚠️G. brigla- v. “to change, vary”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”
⚠️G. brigli n. “variation”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwistanneth “alteration, variation”
⚠️G. elt¹ n. “change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwist “change”
⚠️G. eltha- v. “to alter, change”; see instead:
ᴺS. !gwista- “to change, alter, vary”
ᴺS. !gwist n. “change”
ᴺS. !gwista- v. “to change, alter, vary”
ᴺS. !gwistanneth n. “alteration, variation”
ᴺS. !gwistol adj. “changing, varying, variable”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

S., N. arnediad adj. “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
S., N. †arnoediad adj. “unnumbered, without reckoning”
⚠️N. aronoded adj. “innumerable, countless, endless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️ᴱN. inathui adj. “innumerable”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
S., N. #nedia- v. “to count”
S., N., ᴱN. #nod- v. “to count”
⚠️ᴱN. ornoth adj. “innumerable, without number, countless, numberless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
S. pennod adj. “without count”
S. pennoediad adj. “innumerable”
⚠️G. tast² n. “total, amount”
⚠️G. tath- v. “to count”; see instead:
S. #nedia- “to count”
⚠️G. tathna- v. “to number, count, reckon”; see instead:
S. #nedia- “to count”
⚠️G. udathnarol adj. “countless, innumerable”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
⚠️G. udathriol adj. “countless”; see instead:
S. arnediad “unnumbered, [N.] without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
S. únodui adj. “countless”

13.12 Number

N. gwanod n. “number, ⚠️tale”
⚠️G. mod n. “a number, figure”
⚠️G. modwen adj. “a large number”
⚠️ᴱN. noth n. “number”; see instead:
N. gwanod “number, ⚠️tale”
⚠️ᴺS. !noth n. “number”; see instead:
N. gwanod “number, ⚠️tale”
ᴺS. !núdef adj. “some, few, several”
⚠️G. tant n. “a number”; see instead:
N. gwanod “number, ⚠️tale”
⚠️G. tathn n. “number”; see instead:
N. gwanod “number, ⚠️tale”

13.14 All, Every

⚠️G. gôr adj. “each, all”
⚠️G. gor-¹ [ng-] pref. “all, altogether, quite”
S. il adj. “*all”
ᴺS. !ilhad pron. “everywhere”
ᴺS. !illad n. “everything”
ᴺS. !ilnad pron. “everything”
ᴺS. !ilphen pron. “everyone”
S. #pân adj. “all”

13.15 Much, Many

⚠️G. egriol adj. “excessive”
ᴺS. [N.] ^lae n. “great number”
ᴺS. [N.] ^laew adj. “frequent, many”
⚠️N. lhae n. “great number”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lae “great number”
⚠️N. lhaew adj. “frequent, many”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^laew “frequent, many”
⚠️ᴱN. lhî n. “many, a number”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^lae “great number”
⚠️G. lim¹ adj. “many”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️ᴱN. odog adj. “much, abundant; large in quantity”
⚠️G. odog adj. “mighty, great; violent, excessive, exceeding, very”
⚠️G. odrim adj. “(very) many”
ᴺS. !othovor adj. “too much, (lit.) abundant in a bad way”
N. ovor adj. “abundant”
N. ovra- v. “to abound”
ᴺS. [N.] ^rem adj. “frequent, numerous”
⚠️N. rhem adj. “frequent, numerous”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^rem “frequent, numerous”

13.16 More

ᴺS. !am adv. and adj. “more”
ᴺS., N. dae adv. “very”
⚠️G. dai² adv. “very, exceedingly”; see instead:
ᴺS. dae “very”
⚠️ᴱN. diant adv. “most”
⚠️G. ga- pref. “very, more”; see instead:
ᴺS. gant “larger, greater, more, (lit.) increased”
⚠️G. gaid adv. “more”; see instead:
ᴺS. gant “larger, greater, more, (lit.) increased”
ᴺS., G. gant adv. “larger, greater, more, (lit.) increased”
⚠️G. gantha adv. “more”; see instead:
ᴺS. gant “larger, greater, more, (lit.) increased”
⚠️ᴱN. goriad adj. “greater”
⚠️S. íd adv. “extremely, very”; see instead:
ᴺS. dae “very”
⚠️G. odra adv. “very”
S. ro- pref. “*superlative”

13.165 to Add, Increase

ᴺS. [N.] ^galu n. “increase, growth; ⚠️good fortune, blessedness, blessings”
⚠️N. galw n. “?increase, growth”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^galu “increase, growth; ⚠️good fortune, blessedness, blessings”
ᴺS. !alvar “(good) luck, fortune”
⚠️G. intha-¹ v. “to join to (intr.), add, increase, add to”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^ganna- “to gain, profit, increase; to be profitable, bring in revenue”
S. #anna- “to give, †add to”

13.17 Few, Little

⚠️G. -(a)vlid suf. “less”; see instead:
S. pen¹ “without, lacking, -less”
⚠️G. inthi adv. “less”
⚠️ᴱN. lhigen adj. “small, few, little”; see instead:
N. tithen “little, tiny”
⚠️ᴱN. mig adj. “little (of amount)”; see instead:
N. mîw “small, tiny, frail”
⚠️G. migin adj. “little”; see instead:
N. mîw “small, tiny, frail”
⚠️G. miginthi n. “littleness”

13.18 Enough

⚠️G. fad adv. “enough”; see instead:
N. far “sufficient, enough, quite”
⚠️G. fadin adj. “sated, saturated”; see instead:
ᴺS. !farthannen “sated, satisfied”
⚠️G. fadra- v. “to sate, weary, ‘feed up’”; see instead:
ᴺS. !fartha- “to sate, satisfy”
N. far adj. and adv. “sufficient, enough, quite”
N. farn adj. “enough”
⚠️ᴱN. farn ? “[unglossed]”
ᴺS. !farthannen v. “sated, satisfied”
⚠️ᴱN. garadren adj. “having room for, convenient, adequate, opportune”

13.181 Sufficiency

⚠️G. fadrin adj. “sufficient”; see instead:
N. far “sufficient, enough, quite”
ᴺS. !farthas n. “satiety, satisfaction”

13.182 to Suffice

ᴺS. !fartha- v. “to sate, satisfy”
N. feira- v. “to suffice”
⚠️ᴱN. gair- v. “there is room (for)”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

⚠️ᴱN. drim n. “host, countless number”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️G. glest [ng-] n. “moot, gathering, concourse, assembly”; see instead:
N. hûd “assembly, *gathering, moot”
⚠️G. grim n. “host, folk”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️N., G. gweith n. “manhood; man-power, troop of able bodied men, host, regiment”; see instead:
S. gwaith “people, [ᴱN.] men, folk; [N.] manhood; man-power, troop of able bodied men, host, regiment; [S.] region”
S., N., ᴱN., G. hoth n. “host, horde, ⚠️[N.] crowd; group plural; [ᴱN.] folk, [G.] people; †army”
N. hûd n. “assembly, *gathering, moot”
⚠️G. hûs n. “crowd, heap, pile; very great number”; see instead:
N. ovras “crowd, heap”
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
⚠️G. lest n. “gathering, assembly, concourse, moot”; see instead:
N. hûd “assembly, *gathering, moot”
N. ovras n. “crowd, heap”
⚠️N. rhim¹ n. “crowd, host”; see instead:
S. rim “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”
S. rim n. “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin), [N.] crowd”

13.192 Other Collective Words

⚠️G. carp n. “bundle, bunch”
ᴺS., G. pan n. “arrangement, settlement, *grouping; ⚠️place, spot”

13.21 Full

⚠️ᴺS. !adbanna- v. “to refill”; see instead:
ᴺS. !adbannad(a)- “to refill”
ᴺS. !adbannad(a)- v. “to refill”
⚠️G. cwant adj. “the whole, all the (with article); full”; see instead:
S. #pant “full; [G.] (with article) the whole, all the”
⚠️G. cwintha- v. “to fill”; see instead:
N. pathra- “to fill (intrans.)”
N. #pannad(a)- v. “to fill (trans.)”
S., N. #pant adj. “full; [G.] (with article) the whole, all the”
N. pathra- v. “to fill (intrans.)”
N. pathred n. “fullness”

13.22 Empty

⚠️N. caun² n. “empty, void”; see instead:
ᴺS. ^covn “empty, void”
ᴺS. [N.] ^covn n. “empty, void”
ᴺS. !covra- v. “to empty”
⚠️G. fôr n. “gulf, gap”; see instead:
S. “chasm, pit; void, abyss; [N.] gulf”
N. gaw n. “void”
ᴺS. !lad n. “nothing, zero”
⚠️N. lhost adj. “empty”; see instead:
S. #lost “empty”
S. #lost adj. “empty”
⚠️G. nil adj. “empty”
⚠️G. nilta- v. “to empty (tr.)”
ᴺS., G. unt n. “nothing”

13.23 Part (n)

ᴺS. !sath n. “part”

13.24 Half

⚠️G. elef n. “half, half a ...”; see instead:
N. perin “half”
⚠️G. elfeg adj. “half”; see instead:
N. perin “half”
⚠️G. lemfin adj. “halved, in half”
⚠️G. lemp² n. “half”; see instead:
N. perin “half”
S., N. #per- pref. “half”
S., N. Perian n. “Halfling, Hobbit”
N. perin