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S. caul n. “great burden, affliction” (Category: Heavy, Weighty)

S. caul, n. “(great) burden; affliction” (Category: Heavy, Weighty)

A word glossed “great burden, affliction” in notes associated with the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60, derived from ✶kālō based on the root √KOL “bear” (VT39/10). This word appears in discussion of the ancient process of a-fortification, as an example of ancient [o] being fortified to [a͡o] > [ǭ], which Tolkien described as “long ō near ā”.

Possible Etymology: According to PE18/96, ancient [ǭ] became [au] in Noldorin [Sindarin], but became [ā] in Modern Telerin, making primitive ✶kālō difficult to explain. Either (a) this was a slip on Tolkien’s part, perhaps intended to represent modern Telerin *cálo “great burden” or (b) in this document, perhaps Tolkien imagined [ę̄], [ǭ] became [ā] in Ancient rather than Modern Telerin, so that CE. *kǭlō > AT. kālō > OS. kaulo > S. caul.

Conceptual Development: G. gaul “burden” from the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s was similar in form and meaning, derived from the early root ᴱ√DYULU (GL/38).

Reference ✧ VT39/10 ✧ “great burden, affliction”

Element In

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

KOL > kālō > caul [kālō] > [kālo] > [kǭlo] > [kaulo] > [kaul] ✧ VT39/10

G. gaul¹ n. “burden” (Category: Heavy, Weighty)

See S. caul for discussion.

References ✧ GL/38, 43, 62

Glosses

Related

Element In

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ√dyulu > gaul [dʲūl] > [gūl] > [gaul] ✧ GL/38