S. caul n. “great burden, affliction” (Category: Heavy, Weighty)
A word glossed “great burden, affliction” in notes associated with the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60, derived from ✶kālō based on the root √KOL “bear” (VT39/10). This word appears in discussion of the ancient process of a-fortification, as an example of ancient [o] being fortified to [a͡o] > [ǭ], which Tolkien described as “long ō near ā”.
Possible Etymology: According to PE18/96, ancient [ǭ] became [au] in Noldorin [Sindarin], but became [ā] in Modern Telerin, making primitive ✶kālō difficult to explain. Either (a) this was a slip on Tolkien’s part, perhaps intended to represent modern Telerin *cálo “great burden” or (b) in this document, perhaps Tolkien imagined [ę̄], [ǭ] became [ā] in Ancient rather than Modern Telerin, so that CE. *kǭlō > AT. kālō > OS. kaulo > S. caul.
Reference ✧ VT39/10 ✧ “great burden, affliction”
|√KOL > kālō > caul||[kālō] > [kālo] > [kǭlo] > [kaulo] > [kaul]||✧ VT39/10|
References ✧ GL/38, 43, 62
|ᴱ√dyulu > gaul||[dʲūl] > [gūl] > [gaul]||✧ GL/38|