OS. long final vowels were shortened; [-SV̄] > [-SV̆]

OS. long final vowels were shortened; [-SV̄] > [-SV̆]

Primitive Elvish words often ended in long vowels, but in (Old) Sindarin these vowel were shortened in polysyllables, and later still, these short final vowels vanished. The evidence for these sound changes is so ubiquitous that it is not a question of whether these changes occurred, but when.

In point of fact, this reduction of primitive long final vowels to short vowels occurred not just in Sindarin, but in all Elvish languages, and at every conceptual stage. There is evidence that this change could not have occurred in Primitive Elvish itself, however, since the long final vowels persisted for varying lengths of time in different child languages. For example in Quenya, the accusative case was declined by lengthening the final vowel up through Classical Quenya (vanishing only in Tarquesta or “Modern Quenya”), indicating that long final vowels survived for quite some time in the Quenya branch.

There are examples that indicate a few Sindarin-specific phonetic developments took place before the shortening of long final vowels:

Nevertheless, it is probable that this final-vowel-shortening took place very early. At the minimum, this phonetic development probably took place before the various sound changes associated with long vowels in Sindarin, since there is no evidence such long-vowel sound changes applied to final vowels.

Before [ē] > [ī]: It is very probable that final-vowel-shortening took place before [ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū] in Old Sindarin. Otherwise, the resulting final would have caused i-affection in such words, but there are plenty of examples where this did not happen, such as ✶ornē > S. orn “tree” and not **yrn (Let/426), or ✶kwenedē > S. †penedh “Elf” and not **penidh (PE17/140).

Before [ā] > [ǭ]: It is very probable that final-vowel-shortening took place before [ā] became [ǭ] in Old Sindarin. If it occurred after, the well known phenomenon of a-affection could not have occurred, but the are plenty of cases where it did: ✶dirnā > S. dern “tough” (PE17/154); ✶russā > S. ross “red-haired, copper-coloured” (VT41/10).

An interesting related development is the formation of the Sindarin/Noldorin imperative, which is inflected by adding -o to the end of the verb. Since the primitive imperative particle was ✶ā (WJ/365, PE22/139), the likely origin of this Sindarin inflection was [-ā] > [-ǭ] > [-au] > [-o], since [au] became [o] in polysyllables. At first glance this may seem to contradict the analysis above. However, the imperative particle ✶ā was an independent element in Primitive Elvish, which could appear either before or after the word it modified (PE22/139-140). It seems likely that the independent [ā] first evolved to [ǭ] or even [au] before it was attached to the verb in Sindarin, and only thereafter did it evolve following ordinary phonetic rules, ultimately becoming [-o]. This is hinted at in the phonetic development of the imperative S. avgaro “don’t do it”:

Other later developments: There are a number of examples that point to various other phonetic developments occurring after final-vowel-shortening, in both Sindarin and Noldorin:

There are additional Noldorin examples that show final-vowel-shortening before certain Noldorin-only sound changes, that nevertheless can give an idea of the history of Sindarin phonetic developments based on the timing of analogous Sindarin sound changes.

Possible Late Survival: There is one Sindarin example that hints at a much later survival of long final vowels:

This appears to be a restoration of ᴱN. caifr n. “flea”, which was also derived from ᴱ✶kamp(r)u. If this derivation is accurate, it indicates that long final vowels survived beyond the spirantalization of aspirates. I think, though, that there are other peculiarities with this derivation. For example, the primitive û might represent an over-long final [ū], which could have influenced the survival of the vowel’s length. For now, I am assuming the final-vowel-shortening happened earlier than this.

Possible Final Vowel Transformations: There is one Sindarin example that hints that a long final vowel could transform in ways other than shortening:

This name is an adaptation from Valarin, so other vocalic effects could be in play, however. For example, the adapted [ē] in Arǭmēz could actually have been [ę̄] or [ǣ] instead, something that would not happen for ordinary Primitive Elvish words. It seems unlikely that primitive long final [-ē] > [-a] more generally, since the resulting forms would show a-affection which is not the case: ✶phindē > S. find “tress” (PM/362); ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum “left hand” (Ety/KURÚM).

Conceptual Development: As noted above, there are no long final vowels at any stage of Sindarin’s conceptual history, and thus this sound change applied equally to Sindarin, Noldorin and Gnomish, though it is possible Tolkien adjusted the exact timing of final-vowel-shortening.

Order (01700)

After 00100 final i-diphthongs became long [ī] in polysyllables Ossai > ossī > ussi > S. yssı̯ WJ/400
After 01600 medial [s] became [x] before [j], [w] lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich PE17/148
Before 01800 [z] vanished before [d] lengthening preceding vowel ᴹ✶EZDĒ > Ezde > Eide > ON. Īde Ety/EZDĒ
Before 02000 [ā] became [ǭ] kānā > S. caun PM/362
Before 02300 [oi], [ǭi] became [ui], [oi] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY
Before 02400 voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s] mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth PE17/104
Before 03200 intervocalic [s] became [h] ᴹ✶barasā́ > barasa > ON. baraha Ety/BARAS
Before 03500 [ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū] kyelepē > S. celeb Let/426

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Sī] > [-Sĭ]
[-Sē] > [-Sĕ]
[-Sā] > [-Să]
[-Sō] > [-Sŏ]
[-Sū] > [-Sŭ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aklaripā > aklaripa -Sā > -Să aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
ambartā > ambarta -Sā > -Să mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth ✧ PE17/104
ambartā > ambarta -Sā > -Să mbartā > ṃbartā > S. amartha- ✧ PE17/104
andā > anda -Sā > -Să andā > S. ann- ✧ PE17/90
aŋgā > aŋga -Sā > -Să angā > S. ang ✧ PM/347
annā > anna -Sā > -Să annā > S. ann ✧ PE17/90
arātā > arāta -Sā > -Să arātā > S. arod ✧ PM/363
atʰajā > atʰaja -Sā > -Să aþayā > S. athae ✧ PE17/49
balanjā > balanja -Sā > -Să Balaniā > S. **Belain ✧ Let/427
benjā > benja -Sā > -Să gwenyā > bein > S. bain ✧ PE17/191
branda > branda -Sā > -Să BARAT > S. brand ✧ PE17/22
delkā > delka -Sā > -Să delkā > S. delch ✧ PE17/17
dērā > dēra -Sā > -Să dērā > S. dîr ✧ PE17/154
dirnā > dirna -Sā > -Să dirnā > S. dern ✧ PE17/154
edelā > edela -Sā > -Să edelā > S. eðel ✧ PE17/139
edelā > edela -Sā > -Să edelā > S. edhel ✧ PE17/151
edelā > edela -Sā > -Să edelā > S. eðel ✧ PE17/152
eklanā > eklana -Sā > -Să heklanā > S. Eglan ✧ WJ/365
ektā > ekta -Sā > -Să ek-tā > S. eitha- ✧ WJ/365
eldā > elda -Sā > -Să eldā > S. ell ✧ PE17/141
eldā > elda -Sā > -Să eldā > S. Ell- ✧ WJ/363
eledā > eleda -Sā > -Să eledā > S. †eledh ✧ Let/281
eledā > eleda -Sā > -Să eledā > S. eleð ✧ PE17/140
elenā > elena -Sā > -Să elenā > S. Elen ✧ WJ/363
elenjā > elenja -Sā > -Să elenyā > S. †elein ✧ PE17/139
eripā > eripa -Sā > -Să erikwa > S. ereb ✧ VT42/10
erjā > erja -Sā > -Să eryā > eir > S. air ✧ PE17/28
erja > erja -Sā > -Să eryā > erı̯a > erı̯ > irı̯ > S. îr ✧ VT50/18
etlendā > etlenda -Sā > -Să et-lendā > S. edlen(n) ✧ PE17/51
gairā > gaira -Sā > -Să gairā > S. #gaer ✧ WJ/400
gājā > gāja -Sā > -Să gāyā > S. goe ✧ PM/363
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galadh ✧ Let/426
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galadh ✧ PE17/25
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galadh ✧ PE17/50
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galadh ✧ PE17/63
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > galaða > galað > S. galadh ✧ PE17/136
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā́ > S. galað ✧ PE17/153
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galað ✧ PE17/153
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să galadā > S. galadh ✧ UT/267
galadarembinā > galadarembina -Sā > -Să galad(a)rembinā > S. galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
gardā > garda -Sā > -Să gardā > S. gardh ✧ WJ/402
giljā > gilja -Sā > -Să gilyā > geil > S. gail ✧ PE17/152
glossōjā > glossōja -Sā > -Să LOS > S. glosui ✧ PE17/161
gōrikubā > gōrikuba -Sā > -Să gōr(i)kubā > S. gurgof ✧ PE22/155
grotā > grota -Sā > -Să (g)rotā > S. grod ✧ WJ/414
grottā > grotta -Sā > -Să grottā > S. groth ✧ WJ/415
gurdā > gurda -Sā > -Să GUR > S. gorð ✧ PE17/154
gurnā > gurna -Sā > -Să GUR > S. gorn ✧ PE17/154
immā > imma -Sā > -Să immā > S. im ✧ VT47/14
-ipā > -ipa -Sā > -Să ikwā > -ipā > S. -eb ✧ WJ/412
ītā > īta -Sā > -Să IT > S. íd ✧ PE17/112
-ittā > -itta -Sā > -Să -ittā > S. -eth ✧ PM/345
jagā > jaga -Sā > -Să yagā > S. ✧ Let/383
jagā > jaga -Sā > -Să YAG > S. ✧ PE17/35
jānā > jāna -Sā > -Să yānā > S. -ı̯aun ✧ PE17/42
jānā > jāna -Sā > -Să yānā > S. iaun ✧ PE17/42
jāna > jǭna -Sā > -Să yānā > S. -ı̯aun ✧ PE17/42
julmā > julma -Sā > -Să julmā > S. ylf ✧ WJ/416
kalinā > kalina -Sā > -Să KAL > S. calen ✧ PE17/153
kalinā > kalina -Sā > -Să KAL > S. calen ✧ PE17/153
kalinā > kalina -Sā > -Să kal- > S. calen ✧ SA/calen
kalinā > kalina -Sā > -Să kal- > S. calen ✧ SA/kal
kambā > kamba -Sā > -Să kambā > S. cam ✧ SA/cam
kānā > kāna -Sā > -Să kānā > S. caun ✧ PM/362
kegjā > kegja -Sā > -Să kegyā > S. cai ✧ UT/282
kelekā > keleka -Sā > -Să kelekā > S. celeg ✧ VT41/10
keurā > keura -Sā > -Să keu-rā > S. cŷr ✧ VT48/8
keurānā > keurāna -Sā > -Să keu̯rānā > cýrawn > S. cýron ✧ VT48/7
kēwā > kēwa -Sā > -Să kēwā > S. cîw ✧ VT48/8
kirtā > kirta -Sā > -Să kirtē > S. certh ✧ WJ/396
kuldā > kulda -Sā > -Să kuldā > S. coll ✧ WJ/414
kʰaidā > kʰaida -Sā > -Să khagdā > S. haeð ✧ PE19/91
kʰaudā > kʰauda -Sā > -Să khabdā > S. haudh ✧ PE19/91
kʰaudā > kʰauda -Sā > -Să KHAWAD > S. haudh ✧ PE19/91
kʰaudā > kʰauda -Sā > -Să KHAW > S. hauð ✧ PE19/92
kʰinā > kʰina -Sā > -Să khīnā/khinā > S. hên ✧ WJ/403
laikā > laika -Sā > -Să laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282
laipā > laipa -Sā > -Să laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153
lambā > lamba -Sā > -Să lambā > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
lāmina > lāmina -Sā > -Să lāmina > lǭ́m̃en > S. loven ✧ PE17/133
leukā > leuka -Sā > -Să LEWEK > S. lýg ✧ PE17/160
lindānā > lindāna -Sā > -Să Lindānā > S. Lindon ✧ WJ/385
lixjā > lixja -Sā > -Să lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich ✧ PE17/148
magā > maga -Sā > -Să MAGA > magā > S. ma ✧ PE17/162
magrā > magra -Sā > -Să MAG > S. maer ✧ PE17/172
maikā > maika -Sā > -Să maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337
mainā > maina -Sā > -Să MAY > S. maen ✧ PE17/163
mairā > maira -Sā > -Să MAY > S. maer ✧ PE17/162
mantinā > mantina -Sā > -Să mantinā > manthen > S. mannen ✧ PE17/131
mapā > mapa -Sā > -Să makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/6
mapā > mapa -Sā > -Să makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/7
mapā > mapa -Sā > -Să makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/19
matwā > matwa -Sā > -Să matwā > madw̯ > S. maud ✧ PE17/148
matwā > matwa -Sā > -Să matwā > madw̯ > S. madu ✧ PE17/148
maxtā > maxta -Sā > -Să maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/6
mbelektā > mbelekta -Sā > -Să mbelek > S. belaith ✧ PE17/115
mellā > mella -Sā > -Să melnā > S. mell ✧ PE17/41
mikrā > mikra -Sā > -Să mikrā > S. megr ✧ WJ/337
minjā > minja -Sā > -Să minya > mein > S. main ✧ VT42/25
mornā > morna -Sā > -Să mornā > S. morn ✧ Let/382
mornā > morna -Sā > -Să mornā > S. morn- ✧ WJ/362
nābā > nāba -Sā > -Să nābā > nauv > S. naw ✧ WJ/414
nairā > naira -Sā > -Să NAY > S. naer ✧ PE17/151
nābā > nāta -Sā > -Să nābā > nǭv > North S. nōf ✧ WJ/414
naukā > nauka -Sā > -Să naukā > S. naug ✧ WJ/413
nazgā > nazga -Sā > -Să nazg- > S. nadha ✧ PE19/101
ndūrā > ndūra -Sā > -Să (n)dūrā > S. Dûr ✧ PE17/152
nebā > neba -Sā > -Să nebā > S. nef ✧ PE17/27
nēnā > nēna -Sā > -Să nēnā > S. nîn ✧ PE17/52
nētʰā > nētʰa -Sā > -Să nēthā > S. nîth ✧ VT47/14
ŋgalatā > ŋgalata -Sā > -Să ñalatā > S. galad ✧ PM/347
ŋgornā > ŋgorna -Sā > -Să ñgornā > S. gorn ✧ PE17/113
nipinā > nipina -Sā > -Să nip > nipinā > S. niben ✧ VT48/18
nuktā- > nukta- -Sā > -Să nuktā- > S. nuitha- ✧ WJ/413
-ōjā > -ōja -Sā > -Să ō-yā > S. -ui ✧ VT42/25
oklā > okla -Sā > -Să oklā > S. ogol ✧ PE17/170
otsōjā > otsōja -Sā > -Să otsōyā > S. othui ✧ VT42/25
paktā > pakta -Sā > -Să PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126
pendā > penda -Sā > -Să pendā > pend > S. penn ✧ PE17/173
pettā > petta -Sā > -Să QUET > S. peth ✧ PE17/46
platā > plata -Sā > -Să palátā > S. plad ✧ VT47/9
pʰailā > pʰaila -Sā > -Să PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352
pʰanā > pʰana -Sā > -Să FAN > S. fân ✧ PE17/26
pʰanā > pʰana -Sā > -Să FAN > S. Fân ✧ PE17/26
pʰanā > pʰana -Sā > -Să phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/173
pʰanā > pʰana -Sā > -Să phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/174
pʰanā > pʰana -Sā > -Să Fana- > S. fân ✧ RGEO/66
pʰanājā > pʰanāja -Sā > -Să FAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/26
pʰanjā > pʰanja -Sā > -Să FAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/26
pʰanjā > pʰanja -Sā > -Să phanyā > S. fain ✧ PE17/174
pʰanjā > pʰanja -Sā > -Să PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/179
pʰelgā > pʰelga -Sā > -Să phelgā > S. fela ✧ PE17/118
pʰerjā > pʰerja -Sā > -Să pheryā > feir > S. fair ✧ PE17/181
pʰiniŋgornā > pʰiniŋgorna -Sā > -Să Phiniñgornā > S. Fingorn ✧ PE17/113
pʰīripā > pʰīripa -Sā > -Să PHIRI > S. Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
rātā > rāta -Sā > -Să (a)rātā > S. raud ✧ PE17/49
rātā > rāta -Sā > -Să áratā > (a)rā́tā > S. raud ✧ PE17/118
rembinā > rembina -Sā > -Să rembinā > S. remmen ✧ PE17/26
rezdā > rezda -Sā > -Să reddā > rezdā > S. rîdh ✧ PE19/91
rīgā > rīga -Sā > -Să rīgā > S. ✧ PM/347
rombā > romba -Sā > -Să rom > S. rom ✧ WJ/400
-rottā > -rotta -Sā > -Să ROT > S. -roth/rod ✧ PE17/49
russā > russa -Sā > -Să russā > S. ross ✧ PM/366
satrā > satra -Sā > -Să satrā > S. sador ✧ PE17/183
saurā > saura -Sā > -Să SAWA > S. saur ✧ PE17/183
sawā > sawa -Sā > -Să sawā > S. saw ✧ PE17/183
silimā > silima -Sā > -Să silimā > S. silef ✧ PE17/23
sinā > sina -Sā > -Să sĭna > S. sen ✧ PE17/44
siriānā > siriāna -Sā > -Să siriānā > S. Sirion ✧ PE17/42
ṣkalā > ṣkala -Sā > -Să skalā > S. esgal ✧ PE17/184
spanā > spana -Sā > -Să SPAN > S. fân ✧ PE17/36
spanājā > spanāja -Sā > -Să SPAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/36
spanjā > spanja -Sā > -Să SPAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/36
spindilā > spindila -Sā > -Să spindilā > S. †findel ✧ PE17/17
taŋklā > taŋkla -Sā > -Să tanklā > tankla > tachl > ᴸN. tachol ✧ PE18/100
tawinā > tawina -Sā > -Să tawĭnā > S. tawen ✧ PE17/115
tegmā > tegma -Sā > -Să tekmā > tegmā > teŋw > S. tēw ✧ PE17/43
tegmā > tegma -Sā > -Să tek-mā > S. tew ✧ PE17/44
tegmā > tegma -Sā > -Să tekma > teŋ̃ma > S. tēw ✧ PE17/44
tektā > tekta -Sā > -Să tek-tā > teith > S. taith ✧ PE17/43
telerjā > telerja -Sā > -Să teleryā > S. teleir ✧ PE17/139
teŋmā > teŋma -Sā > -Să teŋmā > teŋwā > tēwa > S. tîw ✧ PE22/149
texwā > texwa -Sā > -Să teswā > teχwā > teχw̯ > S. tewch ✧ PE17/148
turukundā > turukunda -Sā > -Să Turukundā > S. Turgond- ✧ PE17/112
tʰandā > tʰanda -Sā > -Să thandā > S. #Than- ✧ UT/281
tʰaurā > tʰaura -Sā > -Să SAWA > S. thaur ✧ PE17/172
tʰindā > tʰinda -Sā > -Să þindā > S. thin(n) ✧ PE17/72
ugrā > ugra -Sā > -Să ugrā > ogra > S. oer ✧ PE22/160
-ūjā > -ūja -Sā > -Să ū-yā > S. -ui ✧ VT42/25
urkā > urka -Sā > -Să urkā > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
wajā > waja -Sā > -Să WAYA > S. gwae ✧ PE17/33
wājā > wāja -Sā > -Să wāyā > gwoe > S. gwae ✧ PE17/34
wajā > waja -Sā > -Să WAYA > S. Gwae ✧ PE17/189
-wekā > -weka -Sā > -Să WEK > S. weg ✧ PE17/190
-wekā > -weka -Sā > -Să WE > wekā > S. weg ✧ PE17/190
winjā > winja -Sā > -Să WIN > S. gwein ✧ PE17/191
agālē > agāle -Sē > -Sĕ agālē > ãlē > S. aul ✧ PE17/131
andūnē > andūne -Sē > -Sĕ NDŪ > S. Annûn ✧ PE17/64
arāmē > arāme -Sē > -Sĕ Val. Arǭmēz > arāmē/arǭmæ > araum(a) > araum̌/arauv > S. Araw ✧ WJ/400
artaurē > artaure -Sē > -Sĕ artaurē > S. Arthor ✧ PE17/28
brandē > brande -Sē > -Sĕ BARAT > S. brand ✧ PE17/22
brassē > brasse -Sē > -Sĕ BARAS > S. brass ✧ PE17/23
deulē > deule -Sē > -Sĕ deulē > S. dýl ✧ PE17/151
duinē > duine -Sē > -Sĕ duinē > S. duin ✧ RC/765
dōmē > dūme -Sē > -Sĕ dōmē > S. ✧ PE17/152
dōmē > dūme -Sē > -Sĕ dōmē > S. ✧ SA/dú
edēwē > edēwe -Sē > -Sĕ DEWE > S. edíw ✧ PE17/151
ekkantē > ekkante -Sē > -Sĕ et-kantē > S. echant ✧ PE17/42
etlandorē > etlandore -Sē > -Sĕ etlā-ndōrē > Eglannor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
etlandorē > etlandore -Sē > -Sĕ etla-ndore > Eglandor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
ezdē > ezde -Sē > -Sĕ Ezdē > S. Íð ✧ PE19/92
ezdē > ezde -Sē > -Sĕ ezdē > S. îdh ✧ PE19/91
ezdē > ezde -Sē > -Sĕ ezdē > S. îdh ✧ WJ/403
gondolindē > gondolinde -Sē > -Sĕ Gondō̆-lindē > Gondolind > Gond-lind > Gondlind/Gonglind > S. **Gonlin/Gonglin ✧ PE17/133
-jandē > -jande -Sē > -Sĕ yandē > S. -iand ✧ PE17/42
kairē > kaire -Sē > -Sĕ KAYA > S. caer ✧ PE17/101
kaunē > kaune -Sē > -Sĕ kjau̯nē > S. cawn ✧ PE22/152
keglē > kegle -Sē > -Sĕ keglē > S. cail ✧ UT/282
kelepē > kelepe -Sē > -Sĕ kyelepē > S. celeb ✧ Let/426
kelepē > kelepe -Sē > -Sĕ kelep/kyelep > S. celeb ✧ PE17/36
kelepē > kelepe -Sē > -Sĕ kyelep- > S. celeb ✧ UT/266
keulē > keule -Sē > -Sĕ keule > S. cŷl ✧ VT48/8
kʰītʰilōmē > kʰītʰilōme -Sē > -Sĕ χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ ✧ PE17/133
lambē > lambe -Sē > -Sĕ lambē > S. lam(m) ✧ VT39/15
lambē > lambe -Sē > -Sĕ lambē > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
laudē > laude -Sē > -Sĕ labdē > S. lauð ✧ PE19/92
ledmembassē > ledmembasse -Sē > -Sĕ ledme-mbassē > S. lembas ✧ PE17/51
lindē > linde -Sē > -Sĕ LIN > S. lind ✧ PE17/27
lindē > linde -Sē > -Sĕ linde > S. #lin(d) ✧ WJ/309
londē > londe -Sē > -Sĕ LON > lond > S. lonn ✧ VT42/10
lossē > losse -Sē > -Sĕ LŎS > S. los ✧ PE17/26
lossē > losse -Sē > -Sĕ lossē > S. loss ✧ PE17/161
lossē > losse -Sē > -Sĕ los > S. loss ✧ RGEO/62
lossē > losse -Sē > -Sĕ los > S. loss ✧ SA/los
lossē > losse -Sē > -Sĕ (G)LOS > S. loss ✧ VT42/18
magē > mage -Sē > -Sĕ măgē > S. mae ✧ PE17/16
mbāmē > mbāme -Sē > -Sĕ ñgwām > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
mbaumē > mbaume -Sē > -Sĕ ñgwaum- > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
minipē > minipe -Sē > -Sĕ min(i)k(e)we > minikwē̆ > S. minib ✧ VT48/7
minipē > minipe -Sē > -Sĕ min(i)kewe > minikwē > S. minib ✧ VT48/8
mizdē > mizde -Sē > -Sĕ mizdē > S. míð ✧ PE19/101
-ndorē > -ndore -Sē > -Sĕ ndor > S. -dor ✧ PE17/164
ndorē > ndore -Sē > -Sĕ ndor > S. dôr ✧ SA/dôr
ndorē > ndore -Sē > -Sĕ ndorē > S. dôr ✧ WJ/413
-ndorē > -ndore -Sē > -Sĕ ndorē > -ndor > S. -nor/-nnor ✧ WJ/413
neidē > neide -Sē > -Sĕ negdē > S. nîdh ✧ PE19/91
nektē > nekte -Sē > -Sĕ nek-tē > neith > S. naith ✧ PE17/55
nortē > norte -Sē > -Sĕ NOR > S. north ✧ PE17/168
ōrē > ōre -Sē > -Sĕ ʒorē > S. gûr ✧ VT41/11
ornē > orne -Sē > -Sĕ ornē > S. orn ✧ Let/426
ornē > orne -Sē > -Sĕ ornē > S. †orn ✧ UT/267
oromē > orome -Sē > -Sĕ Oromē > Orom̆ > Orow̯ > S. Araw ✧ PE17/99
orǭmē > orǭme -Sē > -Sĕ Orǭmē > Oraúmh > Araúv > S. Áraw ✧ PE17/153
oronjē > oronje -Sē > -Sĕ oronyē > S. eryn ✧ PE17/119
pārē > pāre -Sē > -Sĕ kwārē > S. paur ✧ PE17/42
penedē > penede -Sē > -Sĕ kwenedē > S. peneð ✧ PE17/140
pindē > pinde -Sē > -Sĕ kwinde > S. †pinn ✧ PE17/24
pindē > pinde -Sē > -Sĕ KWIN > pind > S. pinn ✧ PE17/173
pʰindē > pʰinde -Sē > -Sĕ phindē > S. find ✧ PM/362
ratʰē > ratʰē -Sē > -Sĕ rath- > S. rath ✧ UT/255
rembē > rembe -Sē > -Sĕ REM > S. rem(m) ✧ VT42/12
rēnē > rēne -Sē > -Sĕ rēnē > S. rîn ✧ PM/372
rūtʰē > rūtʰē -Sē > -Sĕ RUTH > S. rúth ✧ PE17/183
rūtʰē > rūtʰē -Sē > -Sĕ (U)RUÞ > S. rûth ✧ PE17/188
snaidē > snaide -Sē > -Sĕ snagdē > S. naeð ✧ PE19/91
spindē > spinde -Sē > -Sĕ spindē > S. find ✧ PE17/17
spindelē > spindele -Sē > -Sĕ espin-delē > findel > S. finnel ✧ PE17/17
sraitē > sraite -Sē > -Sĕ raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185
stīrē > stīre -Sē > -Sĕ stīrē > S. þîr ✧ VT41/10
taurē > taure -Sē > -Sĕ tau-rē > S. taur ✧ PE17/115
tʰūsē > tʰūse -Sē > -Sĕ thūsē > S. thû ✧ PE17/183
wektē > wekte -Sē > -Sĕ weg-tē > S. gwaith ✧ PE17/190
abarī > abari -Sī > -Sĭ Abarī > S. †Evair ✧ WJ/380
baratʰī > baratʰi -Sī > -Sĭ barathī(e) > S. bereth ✧ PE17/23
dombī > dombi -Sī > -Sĭ DOM > S. dym ✧ PE22/153
dornī > dorni -Sī > -Sĭ DOR > S. Dyrn ✧ PE17/181
edelī > edeli -Sī > -Sĭ edelō > S. Edhil ✧ WJ/364
eledī > eledi -Sī > -Sĭ eledā > S. elidh ✧ Let/281
elembarathī > elembarathi -Sī > -Sĭ elen-barathi > elmbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ MR/387
elembarathī > elembarathi -Sī > -Sĭ elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ PE17/22
elenī > eleni -Sī > -Sĭ elenā > S. Elin ✧ WJ/363
elenī > eleni -Sī > -Sĭ elenī > S. elin ✧ PE22/150
-iondī > -iondi -Sī > -Sĭ (ĭ)ondī > S. -ien ✧ PE17/170
-jandī > -jandi -Sī > -Sĭ yandē > S. iend ✧ PE17/42
kertī > kerti -Sī > -Sĭ KER > S. cirth ✧ PE22/150
kʰerūnī > kʰerūni -Sī > -Sĭ herūnī > S. heruin ✧ PE17/97
kʰerunī > kʰeruni -Sī > -Sĭ herūnī > S. heryn ✧ PE17/97
kʰinī > kʰini -Sī > -Sĭ khīnā/khinā > S. hîn ✧ WJ/403
leperī > leperi -Sī > -Sĭ leper- > S. lebir ✧ VT47/10
leperī > leperi -Sī > -Sĭ leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT47/24
leperi > leperi -Sī > -Sĭ leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT48/5
mbarī > mbari -Sī > -Sĭ mbā̆r > S. bair ✧ PE17/164
oronī > oroni -Sī > -Sĭ oronī > S. Eryn ✧ PE17/33
ossī > ossi -Sī > -Sĭ Ossai > ossī > ussi > S. yssı̯ ✧ WJ/400
rembinī > rembini -Sī > -Sĭ rembinī > S. remmin ✧ PE17/26
satarī > satari -Sī > -Sĭ satarŏ > S. sedair ✧ PE17/183
tainakollī > tainakolli -Sī > -Sĭ tana > S. Taengyl ✧ MR/385
tannakollī > tannakolli -Sī > -Sĭ tana > S. Tengyl ✧ MR/385
tarkʰildī > tarkʰildi -Sī > -Sĭ tarkhildī > S. **terchil ✧ PE17/101
tegmī > tegmi -Sī > -Sĭ tekmāi > tekmī > tiŋw > S. tīw ✧ PE17/43
tegmī > tegmi -Sī > -Sĭ teñmi > tiñm(i) > S. tîw ✧ PE17/44
tʰānī > tʰāni -Sī > -Sĭ thānĭ- > S. thoen ✧ PE17/81
urkī > urki -Sī > -Sĭ urkō > S. Yrch ✧ WJ/390
aŋgolodo > aŋgolodō -Sō > -Sŏ Ñgolodō > S. Angoloð ✧ PM/360
asamarō > asamaro -Sō > -Sŏ asmarō > S. ahamar ✧ VT48/20
buzbō > buzbo -Sō > -Sŏ buzbō > S. buðu ✧ PE19/101
edelō > edelo -Sō > -Sŏ edelō > S. eðel ✧ PE17/141
edelō > edelo -Sō > -Sŏ edelō > S. Edhel ✧ WJ/364
gondō > gondo -Sō > -Sŏ gōn/gon- > S. gŏn- ✧ PE17/28
immō > immo -Sō > -Sŏ immō > S. im ✧ VT47/14
-iondō > -iondo -Sō > -Sŏ -(i)ŏn/-(ĭ)ondo > S. -(i)on ✧ PE17/170
kālō > kālo -Sō > -Sŏ KOL > kālō > S. caul ✧ VT39/10
-kānō > -kāno -Sō > -Sŏ -kānō > S. -gon ✧ PM/352
laŋgō > laŋgo -Sō > -Sŏ langō > S. lang ✧ PE17/92
mazgō > mazgo -Sō > -Sŏ mazgō/ŭ > S. maða ✧ PE19/101
mbandō > mbando -Sō > -Sŏ mbandō > S. band ✧ MR/350
mbartanō > mbartano -Sō > -Sŏ mbartanō > S. Barthan ✧ LT1A/Talka Marda
nektanō > nektano -Sō > -Sŏ NEK > S. neithan ✧ PE17/167
ŋgaurō > ŋgauro -Sō > -Sŏ ÑGAW > S. gaur ✧ PE17/39
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ngolodō > S. golodh ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/153
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ Ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PM/360
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ñgolodō > S. Golodh ✧ WJ/364
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ngolodõ > S. golodh ✧ MR/470
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/139
ŋgolodō > ŋgolodo -Sō > -Sŏ ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/140
ŋgorotʰūsō > ŋgorotʰūso -Sō > -Sŏ ñgor(o)-thūsō > Gorthu > S. Gorthaur ✧ PE17/183
ostō > osto -Sō > -Sŏ ostō > S. ost ✧ WJ/414
otʰlō > otʰlo -Sō > -Sŏ Oþlō > S. Othol ✧ PE17/141
pentrō > pentro -Sō > -Sŏ kwentrō > pentro > ᴸN. pethro-n ✧ PE18/100
pʰindarātō > pʰindarāto -Sō > -Sŏ findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
rokkō > rokko -Sō > -Sŏ rokkō > S. roch ✧ Let/282
rondō > rondo -Sō > -Sŏ rondō > S. rond ✧ WJ/414
slōkō > slōko -Sō > -Sŏ (s)lōkō > S. lhûg ✧ PE17/160
turukondō > turukondo -Sō > -Sŏ Turukondō > S. Turgond ✧ PE17/113
urkō > urko -Sō > -Sŏ urkō > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
wegō > wego -Sō > -Sŏ wegō(n) > S. gwê ✧ PE17/189
kamprū > kampru -Sū > -Sŭ camprû > camfrū > S. cāfru ✧ PE17/131
kʰērū > kʰēru -Sū > -Sŭ kherū > S. hir ✧ Let/282
ŋgurū > ŋguru -Sū > -Sŭ ngurū > S. guru ✧ PE17/87

ON. long final vowels were shortened; [-SV̄] > [-SV̆]

Order (02300)

Before 02400 [z] became [i] before [d], [g] and [u] before [b] ᴹ✶EZDĒ > Ezde > Eide > ON. Īde Ety/EZDĒ
Before 03400 [oi], [ǭi] became [ui] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY
Before 04000 medial [s] assimilated to following nasal or liquid ᴹ✶gaisrā > gǣsra > ON. gērrha Ety/GÁYAS
Before 04100 intervocalic [s] became [h] ᴹ✶barasā́ > barasa > ON. baraha Ety/BARAS
Before 04200 initial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] ᴹ✶slaiwā > slaiwa > ON. thlaiwa Ety/SLIW

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Sī] > [-Sĭ]
[-Sē] > [-Sĕ]
[-Sā] > [-Să]
[-Sō] > [-Sŏ]
[-Sū] > [-Sŭ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

akrā > akra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor ✧ Ety/AK
alpā > alpa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶alk-wā > ON. alpha ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
ambarenjā > ambarenja -Sā > -Să ᴹ√MBAR > Emerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
andā > anda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶andā > and > N. ann ✧ Ety/ÁNAD
andambundā > andambunda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
aŋgā > aŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ√ANGĀ > N. ang ✧ Ety/ANGĀ
aŋkā > aŋka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶an-kā́ > N. anc ✧ Ety/NAK
apparkā > apparka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶apparkā > ON. appharkha ✧ EtyAC/A
aramā > arama -Sā > -Să ᴹ√ƷARAM > N. araf ✧ Ety/ƷARAM
askarā > askara -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶askarā > ascar > N. asgar ✧ Ety/SKAR
-attā > -atta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶-atta > N. -ath ✧ PE21/57
balā > bala -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶bálā > ON. Bala ✧ Ety/BAL
banā > bana -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶bánā > ON. Bana ✧ Ety/BAN
banjā > banja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶bányā > N. bein ✧ Ety/BAN
baradā > barada -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶barádā > ON. barada ✧ Ety/BARÁD
barasā > barasa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶barasā́ > barasa > ON. baraha ✧ Ety/BARAS
batā > bata -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶bátā̆ > ON. bata ✧ Ety/BAT
belekā > beleka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶bélekā > ON. beleka ✧ Ety/BEL
brandā > branda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶b’randā > ON. branda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
brekjā > brekja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig ✧ Ety/MERÉK
bretʰā > bretʰa -Sā > -Să ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. breth ✧ EtyAC/NEL
brūnā > brūna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶b’rōnā > ON. brūna ✧ Ety/BORÓN
daiā > daia -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶daiā > N. Dae ✧ EtyAC/DAY
dārā > dāra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶daʒrā > N. daur ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ
dattā > datta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶dattā > N. dath ✧ Ety/DAT
daudā > dauda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶dagdā > N. dauð ✧ EtyAC/DAG
dunnā > dunna -Sā > -Să ᴹ√DUN > N. donn ✧ Ety/DUN
edelā > edela -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶edēlā > N. eðel ✧ EtyAC/EDE
edenā > edena -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶edenā > N. eðen ✧ EtyAC/EDE
gairā > gaira -Sā > -Să ᴹ√GAIRĀ > N. gaer ✧ EtyAC/GAIRĀ
gaisrā > gaisra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶gaisrā > gǣsra > ON. gērrha ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
galadā > galada -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶galadā > N. galað ✧ SD/302
galjā > galja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶galyā > N. gail ✧ Ety/KAL
gassā > gassa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶gassā > N. gas ✧ Ety/GAS
gattā > gatta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶gattā > N. gath ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
gembā > gemba -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > gemb > N. gem ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
gernā > gerna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶gyernā > N. gern ✧ Ety/GYER
golbā > golba -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶golbā > N. golf ✧ Ety/GÓLOB
istājā > istāja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶istāyā > N. istui ✧ Ety/IS
jānā > jāna -Sā > -Să ᴹ√YAN > N. iaun ✧ Ety/YAN
jantā > janta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶yantā > N. iant ✧ Ety/YAT
kalarjā > kalarja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kalaryā > N. celeir ✧ Ety/KAL
kalinā > kalina -Sā > -Să ᴹ√KAL > N. calen ✧ Ety/KAL
kandā > kanda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kandā > N. cann ✧ Ety/KAN
katwārā > katwāra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶katwārā > N. cadwor ✧ Ety/KAT
kornā > korna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kornā > N. corn ✧ Ety/KOR
krandā > kranda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶k’randā > crand > N. crann ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN
kranna > kranna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶k’rannā > N. crann ✧ Ety/KARÁN
krumba > krumba -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM
kugnā > kugna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kuʒnā > N. cûn ✧ Ety/KUƷ
kukūwā > kukūwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kukūwā > ON. kukua ✧ Ety/KŪ
kuldā > kulda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kuldā > N. coll ✧ Ety/KUL
kʰalatirnō > kʰalatirno -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > N. heledirn ✧ Ety/TIR
kʰallā > kʰalla -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶khalnā́ > ON. khalla ✧ Ety/KHAL²
kʰaustā > kʰausta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶khau̯-stā > N. haust ✧ Ety/KHAW
kʰīmā > kʰīma -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶khīmā > N. hiw ✧ Ety/KHIM
laikā > laika -Sā > -Să ᴹ√LAIK > ON. laika ✧ EtyAC/LAIK
laudā > lauda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶labdā > N. lauð ✧ PE19/45
lebnā > lebna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶lebnā > N. lhevon ✧ Ety/LEB
lindā > linda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶LINDĀ > N. lhend ✧ Ety/LIND
luŋgā > luŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶lungā > N. lhong ✧ Ety/LUG¹
māgā > māga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶māgā > N. maw ✧ Ety/SMAG
magā > maga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶magā > ON. maga ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
maglā > magla -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶maglā/ē > N. mael ✧ EtyAC/MAG²
magnā > magna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶magnā > ON. magna ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
magrā > magra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶magrā > N. maer ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
mailikā > mailika -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mailikā > mailika -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mazgā > mazga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶mazgā > mazga > ON. maiga ✧ Ety/MASAG
mbakʰā > mbakʰa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶mbakhā > N. bach ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbundā > mbunda -Sā > -Să #ᴹ✶mbundā > N. #bon ✧ Ety/MBUD
meldā > melda -Sā > -Să ᴹ√MEL > N. mell ✧ Ety/MEL
narwā > narwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶narwā > narw > N. naru ✧ Ety/NAR¹
ndissā > ndissa -Sā > -Să ᴹ√NDIS-SĒ/SĀ > ON. ndissa ✧ Ety/NDIS
nendā > nenda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶nendā > nend > N. nenn ✧ Ety/NEN
nettʰā > nettʰa -Sā > -Să ᴹ√NETH > N. Neth ✧ Ety/NĪ¹
nidwā > nidwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶nidwō > ON. nidwa ✧ Ety/NID
nūrā > nūra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶nūrā > N. nûr ✧ Ety/NU
oktā > okta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶oktā > N. auth ✧ Ety/KOT
padnā > padna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶patnā > N. pann ✧ Ety/PAT
parkā > parka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶parkā > ON. parkha ✧ EtyAC/A
parmā > parma -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶parmā > ON. parma ✧ Ety/PAR
pattʰā > pattʰa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶pathnā > ON. pattha ✧ Ety/PATH
patʰwā > patʰwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶pathmā > ON. pathwa ✧ Ety/PATH
pentā > penta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kwentā > N. pent ✧ Ety/KWET
piŋgā > piŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶kwingā > N. peng ✧ Ety/KWIG
poikā > poika -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶poikā > N. puig ✧ Ety/POY
ragnā > ragna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶ragnā > ON. ragna ✧ Ety/RAG
rambā > ramba -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
ranā > rana -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶Ranā > N. Rhân ✧ Ety/RAN
randā > randa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶randā > ON. randa ✧ Ety/RAD
ranjā > ranja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶(a)ranı̯ā > rhein > N. rhain ✧ EtyAC/RAN
ratā > rata -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶ratā > N. râd ✧ Ety/RAT
rattā > ratta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶rattā̆ > ON. rattha ✧ Ety/RAT
rautā > rauta -Sā > -Să ᴹ√RAUTĀ > ON. rauta ✧ Ety/RAUTĀ
rezdā > rezda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶reddā/red-tā > N. rîð ✧ EtyAC/RED
rimbā > rimba -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶rimbā > ON. rimba ✧ Ety/RIM
riŋgā > riŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ√RINGĀ > ON. ringa ✧ EtyAC/RINGI
rundā > runda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶rundā > ON. runda ✧ Ety/RUD
sagmā > sagma -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG
sagmā > sagma -Sā > -Să ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/32
sagrā > sagra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶sagrā > N. saer ✧ Ety/SAG
settā > setta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶settā > N. seth ✧ EtyAC/SET
silimā > silima -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶silimā > N. silef ✧ Ety/SIL
sjadā > sjada -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶syadā > N. †hâð ✧ Ety/SYAD
sjalmā > sjalma -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶syalmā > N. half ✧ Ety/SYAL
skallā > skalla -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶skalnā > ON. skhalla ✧ Ety/SKAL¹
skarnā > skarna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶skarnā > N. harn ✧ Ety/SKAR
skellā > skella -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶skelnā > ON. skhella ✧ Ety/SKEL
skelmā > skelma -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶skelmā > N. helf ✧ Ety/SKEL
slaiwā > slaiwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶slaiwā > slaiwa > ON. thlaiwa ✧ Ety/SLIW
sligā > sliga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶ligā > N. thlê ✧ Ety/SLIG
slinjā > slinja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶slinyā > N. thlein ✧ Ety/SLIN
smaglā > smagla -Sā > -Să ᴹ√SMAG > N. hmael ✧ Ety/SMAG
smaldā > smalda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶smaldā > ON. malda ✧ Ety/SMAL
smalinā > smalina -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶smalinā > ON. malina ✧ Ety/SMAL
smaltā > smalta -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶smaltā > ON. maltha ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
smalwā > smalwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶smalwā > N. hmalw ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
spaŋgā > spaŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶spangā > ON. sphanga ✧ Ety/SPÁNAG
staŋkā > staŋka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶stankā > ON. sthanka ✧ Ety/STAK
stintā > stinta -Sā > -Să ᴹ√STINTĀ > ON. sthinta ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
staŋgā > stʰaŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶stangā > N. thang ✧ Ety/STAG
tārā > tāra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tārā > ON. tōra ✧ Ety/TĀ
targā > targa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶targā > ON. targa ✧ Ety/TÁRAG
taurā > taura -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tau̯rā > N. taur ✧ Ety/TĀ
tērā > tēra -Sā > -Să ᴹ√TEÑ > teñrā > ᴹ✶tēra ✧ Ety/TEƷ
tiukā > tiuka -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tiu̯kā > ON. tūka ✧ Ety/TIW
trīwā > trīwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶terḗwā > N. trîw ✧ Ety/TER
tubnā > tubna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tubnā > N. tofn ✧ Ety/TUB
tuimā > tuima -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tuimā > tuiw > N. tui ✧ Ety/TUY
tūnā > tūna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶Tūnā̆ > ON. Tūna ✧ Ety/TUN
tundā > tunda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn ✧ Ety/TUN
tuŋgā > tuŋga -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tungā > N. tong ✧ Ety/TUG
tussā > tussa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tussā > N. toss ✧ Ety/TUS
tʰaurenā > tʰaurena -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶tháurēnā > N. thoren ✧ Ety/THUR
ubrā > ubra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶ubrā > ofr (ovr) > N. ovor ✧ Ety/UB
uljā > ulja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil ✧ Ety/ULU
wājā > wāja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia ✧ Ety/WAY
wannā > wanna -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶wannā > N. gwann ✧ Ety/WAN
wārā > wāra -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶waʒrā > ON. wóra ✧ Ety/WAƷ
wedā > weda -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶wedā > ON. weda ✧ Ety/WED
westā > westa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶wed-tā > N. gwest ✧ Ety/WED
wilwā > wilwa -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶wilwā > N. gwelw ✧ Ety/WIL
winjā > winja -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶winyā > N. gwein ✧ Ety/WIN
winji > winji -Sā > -Să ᴹ✶winyā > N. gwîn ✧ Ety/WIN
aiwē > aiwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶AIWĒ > N. aew ✧ Ety/AIWĒ
andūnē > andūne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > N. annûn ✧ Ety/NDŪ
arjantē > arjante -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. Eriant ✧ Ety/AR¹
asmalē > asmale -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶asmalē > ON. ammale ✧ Ety/SMAL
asmalindē > asmalinde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶asmalindē̆ > ON. ammalinde ✧ Ety/SMAL
atapē > atape -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶atakwē > N. adab ✧ Ety/TAK
bessē > besse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶bessē > ON. besse ✧ Ety/BES
brassē > brasse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶b’rás-sē > ON. brasse ✧ Ety/BARAS
dūlindē > dūlinde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√DOƷ/DÔ > dúlind > N. dúlin(n) ✧ Ety/DOƷ
dūmilindē > dūmilinde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶dōmilindē > N. duilin ✧ SD/302
ekkuiwē > ekkuiwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶et-kuiwē > N. echui(w) ✧ Ety/KUY
ektē > ekte -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√EK > N. aith ✧ Ety/EK
ektē > ekte -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√EK > N. eith ✧ EtyAC/EK
entrendē > entrende -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN
eredē > erede -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶eredē > N. ereðh ✧ Ety/ERÉD
ezdē > ezde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶Ezdē > ezd > ēd > N. Īð ✧ PE19/45
ezdē > ezde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶EZDĒ > Ezde > Eide > ON. Īde ✧ Ety/EZDĒ
glaibē > glaibe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶laibē > N. g-laew ✧ Ety/LIB²
glaibē > glaibe -Sē > -Sĕ ON. glaibe > N. glaiw ✧ PE22/32
gorūmē > gorūme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶Górōmē > N. Goru ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
idrē > idre -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶idrē > N. idher ✧ Ety/ID
jadmē > jadme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶yatmā > N. ianw ✧ Ety/YAT
jadmē > jadme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶yatmā > ON. yadme ✧ Ety/ƷEL
jagwē > jagwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶yagwē > N. iau ✧ Ety/YAG
katwē > katwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶katwā > ON. katwe ✧ Ety/KAT
krumbē > krumbe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum ✧ Ety/KURÚM
kʰaimē > kʰaime -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰelesē > kʰelese -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶khyelesē > khelesa > ON. kheleha ✧ Ety/KHYEL(ES)
kʰīsislūmē > kʰīsislūme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶χīsi-slōmē > N. Cílu ✧ PE21/32
kʰotsē > kʰotse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶khotsē > N. hoth ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰrassē > kʰrasse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶khrassē > N. rhass ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
lassē > lasse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶lassē > N. lhass ✧ Ety/LAS¹
lassepelīnē > lassepelīne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶lassekwelēnē > N. lhasbelin ✧ EtyAC/KWEL
lindē > linde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√LIN² > lhind > N. lhinn ✧ Ety/LIN²
londē > londe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√LOD > lond > N. lonn ✧ Ety/AK
londē > londe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶londē > N. lhonn ✧ Ety/LOD
mazgē > mazge -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶mazgē > mazge > ON. maige ✧ EtyAC/MASAG
mizdē > mizde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶mizdē > N. mídh ✧ Ety/MIZD
ndorē > ndore -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶ndorē > N. Dôr ✧ Ety/NDOR
neinē > neine -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶neinē > N. nîn ✧ Ety/NEI
nīdē > nīde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶negdē > N. nīdh ✧ EtyAC/NEG
nītʰē > nītʰe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶nēthē > N. nîth ✧ Ety/NETH
ornē > orne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶ornē > N. orn ✧ SD/302
orǭmē > orǭme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶Orǭmē > Oroume > ON. Araume ✧ Ety/ORÓM
orǭmē > orǭme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶Orǭmē > ON. Araume ✧ PE22/37
pelīnē > pelīne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶kwelēnē > N. belin ✧ Ety/LAS¹
pǣnē > pǣne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶kwǣ-nē > ON. †paine ✧ EtyAC/KWǢ
penedē > penede -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶kwenedē > N. penedh ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
pʰinwē > pʰinwe -Sē > -Sĕ ON. Phinwe > N. **Finw ✧ Ety/PHIN
ragmē > ragme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶rakmē > ON. ragme ✧ Ety/RAK
rāmalē > rāmale -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofal ✧ Ety/RAM
rīgē > rīge -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶rīgē > ON. rīge ✧ Ety/RIG
rimbē > rimbe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶rimbē > ON. rimbe ✧ Ety/RIM
salapē > salape -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶SALÁK-(WĒ) > ON. salape ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
silimē > silime -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶silimē > N. silif ✧ Ety/SIL
skarwē > skarwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶skarwē > N. harw ✧ Ety/SKAR
sliŋgē > sliŋge -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶sliñgē > N. thling ✧ Ety/SLIG
slīwē > slīwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶slīwē > slīwe > ON. thlīwe ✧ Ety/SLIW
spindē > spinde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶spindē > ON. sphinde ✧ Ety/SPIN
stabnē > stabne -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶stabnē > ON. sthamne ✧ Ety/STAB
stambē > stambe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶stambē > thamb > N. tham ✧ Ety/STAB
taksē > takse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶taksē > N. taes ✧ Ety/TAK
tatʰrē > tatʰre -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tatharē > tathrē > N. tathor ✧ Ety/TATHAR
taurē > taure -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tau̯rē > N. taur ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tegmē > tegme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tekmē > N. tîw ✧ Ety/TEK
tinmē > tinme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tinmē > N. tinw ✧ Ety/TIN
tulugmē > tulugme -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tulukmē > ON. tulugme ✧ Ety/TULUK
tulussē > tulusse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tyulussē > N. tulus ✧ Ety/TYUL
tupsē > tupse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tupsē > N. taus ✧ Ety/TUP
tūrē > tūre -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶tūrē > N. túr ✧ Ety/TUR
tʰīrē > tʰīre -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶thērē > N. thîr ✧ Ety/THĒ
tʰūsē > tʰūse -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ√THUS > N. thû ✧ Ety/THUS
uspē > uspe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶us(u)k-wē > N. osp ✧ Ety/USUK
wanwē > wanwe -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶wanwē > N. gwanw ✧ Ety/WAN
wattē > watte -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶wahtē > ON. watte ✧ Ety/WAƷ
wǣdē > wǣde -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶wǣdē > ON. waide ✧ Ety/WED
wektē > wekte -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶weg-tē > N. gweith ✧ Ety/WEG
wiŋgē > wiŋge -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶wingē > N. gwing ✧ Ety/WIG
winjē > winje -Sē > -Sĕ ᴹ✶winyē > N. gwîn ✧ EtyAC/WIN
atapī > atapi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶atakwē > N. edeb ✧ Ety/TAK
atarī > atari -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶atar > edeir > N. eder ✧ Ety/ATA
barathī > barathi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶Barathī > ON. Barathi(l) ✧ Ety/BARATH
bretʰelī > bretʰeli -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. brethil ✧ Ety/NEL
eledī > eledi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ√ÉLED > N. Elidh ✧ Ety/ELED
lugnī > lugni -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶lugni > N. luin ✧ Ety/LUG²
madlī > madli -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶mad-lī > N. megli ✧ Ety/LIS
mbarī > mbari -Sī > -Sĭ N. †băr > N. be͡ır ✧ PE22/36
ndoltī > ndolti -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ√NDOL > N. dylt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ornī > orni -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶ÓR-NI > N. yrn ✧ Ety/ÓR-NI
penedī > penedi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶kwenedē > N. penidh ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
rāmalī > rāmali -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofel ✧ Ety/RAM
slinjī > slinji -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶slinyā > N. thlîn ✧ Ety/SLIN
stalgondī > stalgondi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thelyn ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
telkī > telki -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ√TÉLEK > N. tilch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
tulussī > tulussi -Sī > -Sĭ ᴹ✶tyulussē > N. tylys ✧ Ety/TYUL
abārō > abāro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ON. abōro ✧ Ety/AB
alakō > alako -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶álākō > N. alag ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
besnō > besno -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶besnō > ON. benno ✧ Ety/BES
beurō > beuro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶beu̯rō > biuro > ON. bioro ✧ Ety/BEW
brokō > broko -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶morókō > N. brôg ✧ Ety/MORÓK
doronō > dorono -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ√DÓRON > N. doron ✧ Ety/DÓRON
endero > endero -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶Enderō > N. Enner ✧ EtyAC/E
jagō > jago -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶yagō > N. ia ✧ RS/437
kallondō > kallondo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶kalrondō > N. callon ✧ Ety/KAL
kirjaktō > kirjakto -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶kirya-k’tō > N. ciriaeth ✧ PE18/62
laŋgō > laŋgo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ√LANG > N. lhang ✧ Ety/LANK
manō > mano -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶manō > N. mân ✧ EtyAC/MAN
mbottʰō > mbottʰo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ√MBOTH > N. both ✧ Ety/MBOTH
nadrō > nadro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶nyadrō > naðr > ON. naðor ✧ EtyAC/NYAD
ndākō > ndāko -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ndākō > ON. ndōko ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndanitʰārō > ndanitʰāro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
-ō > -o -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ√ƷŌ̆ > ON. -o ✧ EtyAC/ƷŌ̆
panō > pano -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶panō > ON. pano ✧ Ety/PAN
pentrō > pentro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET
potō > poto -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ√POTŌ > ON. poto ✧ Ety/POTŌ
rokkō > rokko -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶rokkō > N. roch ✧ EtyAC/ROK
ronjō > ronjo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ronyō > N. rhŷn ✧ Ety/ROY¹
stabrō > stabro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶stabrō > ON. sthabro ✧ Ety/STAB
stalgondō > stalgondo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thalion ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
tamrō > tamro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor ✧ Ety/TAM
tārō > tāro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶tārō > N. †taur ✧ Ety/TĀ
tiŋko > tiŋko -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶TINKŌ > N. tinc ✧ Ety/TINKŌ
tuilelindō > tuilelindo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶tuilelindō > tuilind > N. tuilinn ✧ Ety/TUY
ūbanō > ūbano -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ū́banō > N. úan ✧ Ety/BAN
ulgundō > ulgundo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶ulgundō > ulund > N. ulun ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
ulumō > ulumo -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶Ulumō > N. Ulu ✧ Ety/ULU
wanūrō > wanūro -Sō > -Sŏ ᴹ✶wa-nōrō > ON. wanūro ✧ Ety/TOR
anū > anu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√ƷAN > ON. anu ✧ Ety/ƷAN
kundū > kundu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√KUND-Ū > N. †cunn ✧ Ety/KUNDŪ
kʰēro > kʰēro -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√KHER > ON. khēro ✧ Ety/KHER
lasū > lasu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ✶lasū > N. lhaw ✧ Ety/LAS²
manū > manu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√MAN > N. mân ✧ Ety/MAN
ŋgurtū > ŋgurtu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√ÑGUR > ON. ngurtu ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
ŋgurū > ŋguru -Sū > -Sŭ ᴹ√ÑGUR > ON. nguru ✧ Ety/ÑGUR

G. long final vowels were shortened; [-S{īēǣāōū}] > [-S{ĭĭăăăŭ}]

HPG/§1.3

Reference ✧ GG/11 ✧ phonetics

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Sī] > [-Sĭ]
[-Sē] > [-Sĭ]
[-Sǣ] > [-Să]
[-Sā] > [-Să]
[-Sō] > [-Să]
[-Sū] > [-Sŭ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aidhā > aidha -Sā > -Să ‽ᴱ✶ai-idh > G. aidha ✧ GL/17
akrā > akra -Sā > -Să ᴱ√aka· > G. agra ✧ GL/17
aksā > aksa -Sā > -Să ᴱ√aksa > G. acha ✧ GL/17
alpā > alpa -Sā > -Să ᴱ✶alchwa > G. alfa ✧ GL/18
blektā > blekta -Sā > -Să ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > G. blectha ✧ GL/22
dagā > daga -Sā > -Să ᴱ✶daga- > G. da ✧ PE13/112
daxā > daxa -Sā > -Să ᴱ√TAHA > G. ✧ LT1A/Qalmë-Tári
gantā > ganta -Sā > -Să ᴱ√yṇt > G. gantha ✧ GL/37
giltā > gilta -Sā > -Să ᴱ√Gil- > G. giltha ✧ GL/38
gōtra > gōtra -Sā > -Să ᴱ√yat- > G. godra ✧ GL/36
gulmā > gulma -Sā > -Să ᴱ√dyulu > G. Gulma ✧ GL/38
gʷaðrā > gʷaðra -Sā > -Să ᴱ√ŋwa- > G. gwadhra ✧ GL/47
gʷalā > gʷala -Sā > -Să ᴱ√gwal > G. Gwala ✧ GL/44
gʷarenðā > gʷarenða -Sā > -Să ᴱ✶ŋuarenđā > G. gwarin(n) ✧ GL/44
gʷeðlā > gʷeðla -Sā > -Să ᴱ√gwedh-¹ > G. gwegla ✧ GL/46
naldā > nalda -Sā > -Să ᴱ✶nalda > nalla > G. nâla ✧ GL/59
ndolpā > ndolpa -Sā > -Să ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolfa ✧ GL/30
nexā > nexa -Sā > -Să ᴱ√nı̯eχe· > G. necha ✧ GL/59
goiē > goi -Sē > -Sĭ ᴱ✶ı̯ōı̯ē > G. gui ✧ GL/42
oulē > ouli -Sē > -Sĭ ᴱ✶Ou̯lē > G. Ôli ✧ GL/62
ektī > ekti -Sī > -Sĭ ‽ᴱ✶ektī > G. †aithi ✧ GL/18
faiðlī > faiðli -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ✶fīđ’lī > G. faigli ✧ GL/35
gailī > gaili -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ√Gil- > G. gaili ✧ GL/38
gauðī > gauði -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ√gudh > G. gaudhi ✧ GL/42
gʷaiðī > gʷaiði -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ√gu̯iđ > G. gwaidhi ✧ GL/46
gʷailī > gʷaili -Sī > -Sĭ ‽ᴱ√gu̯il > G. gwaili ✧ GL/45
gʷeθlī > gʷeθli -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ✶gu̯eđeþlī > G. gwethli ✧ GL/45
gʷinðlī > gʷinðli -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ√gu̯iđ > G. gwingli ✧ GL/46
gʷīrī > gʷīri -Sī > -Sĭ ᴱ√gu̯er > G. gwîri ✧ GL/46
kaurī > kauri -Sī > -Sĭ #ᴱ√tyuru- > G. cauri ✧ GL/28
ŋgolðō > ŋgolða -Sō > -Să ᴱ✶ŋolđō > G. golda ✧ GL/41
oldō > olda -Sō > -Să ᴱ✶oldō > G. ôla ✧ GL/62
durū > duru -Sū > -Sŭ ᴱ√TURU > G. duru ✧ LT1A/Turuhalmë
gurθū > gurθu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴱ✶gu̯rþū́ > G. gurthu ✧ GL/43
kulū > kulu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴱ√KULU > G. culu ✧ LT1A/Kulullin
kurðū > kurðu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴱ√qṛđ > G. curdhu ✧ GL/28
ŋgainū > ŋgainu -Sū > -Sŭ ᴱ√ŋaı̯ > G. Gainu ✧ GL/37
kōmē > kōma -Sǣ > -Să ᴱ✶qāmē > G. côma ✧ GL/26
oromǣ > oroma -Sǣ > -Să ᴱ✶Ŏrŏmǣ > G. Orma ✧ GL/63
ōxē > ōxa -Sǣ > -Să ᴱ✶ou̯χē > G. ocha ✧ GL/62
xilθē > xilθa -Sǣ > -Să ᴱ✶χilþē > G. hiltha ✧ GL/49