OS. [ā] became [ǭ]; [ā] > [ǭ]

OS. [ā] became [ǭ]; [ā] > [ǭ]

In (Old) Sindarin long [ā] developed into [ǭ], and then later [ǭ] became [au]. This sound change is discussed in the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa from around 1950, written during the transitional period between Noldorin to Sindarin:

In the earliest Noldorin ē, ę̄, ā, ǭ, ō appear as ī, ę̄, ǭ, ǭ, ū; later ę̄, ǭ coalesce with ai, au (PE18/96).

There are similar descriptions of this phonetic development elsewhere in Tolkien’s later notes on Sindarin:

Examples of this Sindarin phonetic development are easy to find, especially if you also consider that later [au] generally became [o] in polysyllables:

There are a few aberrant developments where ā seems instead to produce oe, but these all originate from the combination āy:

These can be explained by the diphthongal development whereby [ǭi] became [oi], and then later [oi] became [oe].

Conceptual Development: As discussed by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonology of Goldogrin, the Gnomish development of long ā is much simpler: it just became long ō (HPG/§1.1). In Tolkien’s very early chart of the development of Gnome Vowels, at first long [ā] was preserved: â > â (PE15/13). But in the Gnomish Grammar Tolkien said:

In most cases of monosyllables the development ā, ē, ī, ō, ū > ō, ī, ū, ai, au ... (GG/14).

The examples of the phonetic development [ā] > [ō] are numerous in the Gnomish Lexicon, especially after including the cases where the long [ō] had shortened:

As pointed out by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923, by the 1920s it seems that long ā > au in Early Noldorin (HPITN/§4.2.3). For example:

Based on these last two examples, it seems Tolkien still used the older Gnomish phonetic developments in the Early Noldorin Grammar from approximately 1920 (PE13/119-132), but switched to the newer development in the Noldorin Word Lists circa 1923 (PE13/133-156): the word lists have the deleted form cóm “disease” (PE13/140) vs. replacement pau “sickness” (PE13/152), and deleted mór vs. replacement maur “good” (PE13/150). However, in the Gnomish Lexicon Slips (which were probably composed between 1918 and 1920) Tolkien already had mawr “good” (PE13/115) and bawr “house” < mbāră (PE13/116), so Tolkien seems to have been considering this revised phonetic development even earlier.

Noldorin Developments: The new development [ā] > (ultimately) [au] was well established by the Noldorin of the 1930s, and Tolkien elaborated on it in the first version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa from the mid-1930s:

In the earliest recorded Noldorin, [ē, ǣ, ā, ǭ, ō] remained distinct though changed to [ī, ei, ǭ, ou, ū]; later ei, ou products of ǣ, ǭ became ai, au coalescing with original ai, au (PE18/46).

These sound changes also appear in the Comparative Tables of phonetic development, but unlike (Old) Sindarin, Tolkien stated that Old Noldorin had not just [ā] > [ǭ] but also [au] > [ǭ], with both sounds later passing through [ǫu] to become [au] (PE19/25). Compare this to the above note from the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa, which is more representative of Sindarin development:

In the earliest Noldorin [read: Sindarin] ē, ę̄, ā, ǭ, ō appear as ī, ę̄, ǭ, ǭ, ū; later ę̄, ǭ coalesce with ai, au (PE18/96).

The Noldorin developments produced the same ultimate results as Sindarin (primitive [ē, ǣ, ā, ǭ, ō] > ultimately [ī, ae, au, au, ū]), but the intermediate stages were different. Based on the available evidence, it seems these developments were as follows:

The Noldorin intermediate stage [ǫu] is at least partly preserved in Sindarin. While Sindarin had original primitive diphthong [ou] > [ū], any later diphthong [ou] produced by other later sound changes would become [au] (PE17/99), which is exactly how such later diphthongs developed in Noldorin. In the Noldorin of The Etymologies, however, it seems that original primitive [ou] was also preserved, which along with [ou] of later origins ultimately became [au]. Thus, while Sindarin and Noldorin generally produced the same results (with the exception of primitive diphthong [ou]), the developments went through different paths. For the forms that ultimately produced [au]:

1930s-40s PQ ON N
Noldorin: [ā] > [ǭ] > [ǫu] > [au]
[ǭ] > [ǭ] > [ǫu] > [au]
[au] > [ǭ] > [ǫu] > [au]
(late diphthong) [ou] > [au]
[ou] > [ou] > [ou] > [au]
1950s-60s PQ OS S
Sindarin: [ā] > [ǭ] > [au]
[ǭ] > [ǭ] > [au]
[au] > [au] > [au]
(late diphthong) [ou] > [au]
[ou] > [ū] > [ū]

[ǭ] vs [ō]: Tolkien only rarely wrote ǭ in The Etymologies, and did so only in primitive forms, such as: ᴹ✶rǭda > N. rhaudh (Ety/ROD; EtyAC/ROD); ᴹ✶kǭro > N. Caur (Ety/KOR; EtyAC/KOR); ᴹ✶mǭri > N. maur (Ety/MOR, EtyAC/MOR). All these examples are from the Etymologies, Addenda and Corrigenda (EtyAC; VT45, VT46); Christopher Tolkien used only ō in The Etymologies as originally published in the Lost Road (LR/341-400). For any intermediate ON developments, J.R.R. Tolkien himself wrote only ō instead of ǭ, both in The Etymologies and elsewhere. For example:

It is my belief that these ON long ō are simply shorthand for [ǭ] (see below).

Tengwar Evidence: Other clues to the Noldorin phonetic developments can be found in Tolkien’s discussion of the use of the Feanorian Alphabet for Old Noldorin from the late 1930s. In the first draft of these tengwar documents Tolkien had:

The Noldorin change of Eldarin [ā] > [ō] (PE22/15).

While it is possible Tolkien briefly reverted to the Gnomish development, it is more probable that he was simply using [ō] as a short-hand for [ǭ] (< [ā]) as I indicated above. There would be no conflict with original primitive [ō], since such primitive [ō] > [ū] very early in Noldorin. Later versions of the tengwar notes are consistent with the Noldorin phonetic developments of The Etymologies, with the most relevant portions underlined:

], l [a], [e] were always short, since PQ ā, ē has become ō, ī: hence their names a-stinta, e-stinta “short-a, short-e”. In transcription the ON method is employed, where the exact ON spelling is represented. But in the grammar and Etymologies long vowels are marked with a macron (as ō, ū) (PE22/27).
   é called (amba-wai) “raised-w”. This was frequently used above letters to denote a following w: thus = khw, = rw, etc. Its most regular use was to express the diphthongs au̯, and the archaic ou̯ from PQ ǭ which later became au̯: thus [au̯] (and archaic [ou̯]). These were seldom written ]., or h. (PE22/27).
[o͡u]: ON au, ō or ŏ + ʒ, χ. archaic h. later > [au] q.v. (PE22/39).
The Noldorin origin of this is seen in use of h = o. This is derived from the Kornoldorin use. Thus ʒā name of h became with loss of [ʒ] ā > ō with N. change of ā > ǭ. Hence h called [ō] but having no function was adopted as sign = [o] (PE22/48).

This last quote further supports the idea that Tolkien’s use of ō in ON was a shorthand for [ǭ], though it may instead indicate a variant development or another intermediate stage: [ā] > [ǭ] > [ō] > [ou] > [au] (unlikely but not impossible). For further discussion of the conceptual history of the phonetic developments of [ou], see the entry on how [ei], [ou] became [ī], [ū] (in Sindarin but not necessarily Noldorin).

In any case, it seems that Tolkien removed all these Noldorin complexities in Sindarin. There is no evidence in Sindarin that primitive diphthong [au] ever changed its vocalic quality until very late and only in polysyllables (where it became short [o]).

References ✧ PE17/99; PE18/96; PE19/107

Order (02500)

After 00400 first in pair of voiced stops vocalized khabdā > S. haudh PE19/91
After 01700 long final vowels were shortened kānā > S. caun PM/362
After 02300 aspirates became voiceless spirants arāt-chír > aratχhír > S. †Aracchír VT41/9
Before 02800 [oi], [ǭi] became [ui], [oi] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY
Before 03600 [w] vanished before [u] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ā] > [ǭ] ✧ PE17/45 (ā > ǭ); PE18/96 (ā > ǭ); PE19/91 (ā > ǭ)

Phonetic Rule Examples

abakarā- > abakarǭ- ā > ǭ aba-kar ā > S. avgaro ✧ WJ/371
agāle > agǭle ā > ǭ agālē > ãlē > S. aul ✧ PE17/131
aikanāro > aikanǭro ā > ǭ Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
aklāra > aklǭra ā > ǭ aklā́ra > aklōra > aglaur > ᴸN. aglor ✧ PE18/87
akāra > akǭra ā > ǭ akāra > S. agor ✧ WJ/415
akāwen > akǭwen ā > ǭ akjāwē-n > agauwen > S. agowen ✧ PE22/152
amān > amǭn ā > ǭ Ámān > S. Avon ✧ PE17/162
anār > anǭr ā > ǭ (A)NAR > S. anor ✧ PE17/38
arāme > arǭme ā > ǭ Val. Arǭmēz > arāmē/arǭmæ > araum(a) > araum̌/arauv > S. Araw ✧ WJ/400
arāta > arǭta ā > ǭ arātā > S. arod ✧ PM/363
asāme > asǭme ā > ǭ SAM > ahawv > S. aw ✧ PE17/173
astār > astǭr ā > ǭ as’tāră > S. astor ✧ PE17/183
bā > bǭ ā > ǭ > S. baw ✧ PE17/143
bā > bǭ ā > ǭ > S. baw ✧ PE17/145
bā > bǭ ā > ǭ BA > S. baw ✧ WJ/371
bā > bǭ ā > ǭ > S. baw ✧ WJ/372
bāta- > bǭta- ā > ǭ > S. bauda- ✧ PE17/143
bāta- > bǭta- ā > ǭ bā-ta > S. boda- ✧ WJ/372
dāra > dǭra ā > ǭ dāra > S. Daur ✧ PE17/102
ekā- > ekǭ- ā > ǭ HEK > hek(e) ā > S. ego! ✧ WJ/365
elā > elǭ ā > ǭ el/ele/el-ā > S. elo! ✧ WJ/362
gāja > gǭja ā > ǭ gāyā > S. goe ✧ PM/363
grā > grǭ ā > ǭ grā > S. graw ✧ VT47/12
gwābandina > gwǭbandina ā > ǭ gwā-ƀandina > S. ’ovannen ✧ PE17/17
jāna > jǭna ā > ǭ yānā > S. iaun ✧ PE17/42
kawathāne > kawathǭne ā > ǭ kjawathāni > S. cawathon ✧ PE22/152
kawā- > kawǭ- ā > ǭ kyaw-ā > S. cawo ✧ PE22/152
kiurāna > kiurǭna ā > ǭ keu̯rānă > cýrawn > S. cýron ✧ VT48/7
kālo > kǭlo ā > ǭ KOL > kālō > S. caul ✧ VT39/10
kāna > kǭna ā > ǭ kānā > S. caun ✧ PM/362
-kāno > -kǭno ā > ǭ -kānō > S. -gon ✧ PM/352
lastā- > lastǭ- ā > ǭ LAS > S. lasto ✧ PE17/46
lindāna > lindǭna ā > ǭ Lindānā > S. Lindon ✧ WJ/385
lāmina > lǭmina ā > ǭ lāmina > lǭ́m̃en > S. loven ✧ PE17/133
mbāme > mbǭme ā > ǭ ñgwām > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
mā > mǭ ā > ǭ MAƷ > S. †maw ✧ PE17/162
mā > mǭ ā > ǭ > S. †maw ✧ VT47/6
mā > mǭ ā > ǭ mag > S. maw ✧ VT47/18
mālime > mǭlime ā > ǭ mā-limi > S. molif ✧ VT47/6
narāka > narǭka ā > ǭ Kh. Narâg > S. Narog ✧ PE17/37
nāba > nǭba ā > ǭ nābā > nauv > S. naw ✧ WJ/414
nāta > nǭba ā > ǭ nābā > nǭv > North S. nōf ✧ WJ/414
nābagrot > nǭbagrot ā > ǭ nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod ✧ WJ/414
nāpata > nǭpata ā > ǭ nāpata > S. nobad ✧ VT48/5
nār > nǭr ā > ǭ (A)NAR > S. naur ✧ PE17/38
ā > ǭ ā > ǭ ā > ō > S. o ✧ WJ/365
ā > ǭ ā > ǭ ā > S. -o ✧ WJ/372
pār > pǭr ā > ǭ kwāra > S. paur ✧ PM/318
pāre > pǭre ā > ǭ kwārē > S. paur ✧ PE17/42
r̥āba > r̥ǭba ā > ǭ S-RAB > S. rhaw(f) ✧ PE17/78
r̥āban > r̥ǭban ā > ǭ srāban > S. rhovan ✧ PE17/78
rāta > rǭta ā > ǭ (a)rātā > S. raud ✧ PE17/49
rāta > rǭta ā > ǭ áratā > (a)rā́tā > S. raud ✧ PE17/118
rāta > rǭta ā > ǭ rāta > S. raud ✧ PE17/186
r̥āwe > r̥ǭwe ā > ǭ srāwe > S. rhaw ✧ MR/350
siriāna > siriǭna ā > ǭ siriānā > S. Sirion ✧ PE17/42
sɸanāja > sɸanǭja ā > ǭ SPAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/36
tasāre > tasǭre ā > ǭ tăsăre > tachaur > S. †taur/taor ✧ PE17/81
tā > tǭ ā > ǭ tad > tað > > S. taw ✧ PE19/104
turukāno > turukǭno ā > ǭ Turukāno > S. Tur(u)gon ✧ PE17/113
θā > θǭ ā > ǭ thā > OS. thō ✧ PE22/131
θāne > θǭne ā > ǭ thānĭ- > S. thaun ✧ PE17/81
θāni > θǭni ā > ǭ thānĭ- > S. thoen ✧ PE17/81
θāniel > θǭniel ā > ǭ THAN > S. thoniel ✧ PE17/82
wā- > wǭ- ā > ǭ > gwǭ > S. go ✧ WJ/364
wā > wǭ ā > ǭ > S. gwāw ✧ PE17/34
wāja > wǭja ā > ǭ wāyā > gwoe > S. gwae ✧ PE17/34
xaðād > xaðǭd ā > ǭ Kh. Khazād > chaðǭd > chaðaud > S. Hadhod ✧ WJ/388
xāno > xǭno ā > ǭ KHAN > S. †hawn ✧ VT47/14
ɸanāja > ɸanǭja ā > ǭ FAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/26
ɸindarāto > ɸindarǭto ā > ǭ findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9

ON. [ā], [au] became [ǭ]; [ā|au] > [ǭ]

GS/§4.58 GS/§4.98 @@@ probably ou > ǫu @@@ Tolkien may have abandoned au > [ǭ] since it was not mentioned on PE22/27 and there is no evidence of it in later writing

References ✧ PE18/46; PE22/15, 27, 39, 48

Order (02700)

After 00900 first in pair of voiced stops vocalized ᴹ✶khagda > N. hauð Ety/KHAG
Before 02800 final [ǝ] was lost after [l, r, n, s], otherwise it became [a] ᴹ✶galā́sŏ > galṓsǝ > ON. galṓs PE22/26
Before 03400 [oi], [ǭi] became [ui] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY
Before 04600 [w] vanished before [u] ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia Ety/WAY

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ā] > [ǭ] ✧ Ety/THŌN (ā > ō); PE19/25 (ā > ǭ)
[au] > [ǭ] ✧ PE19/25 (au > ǭ)

Phonetic Rule Examples

glaure > glǭre au > ǭ ᴹ√GLAW(-R) > N. glaur ✧ Ety/GLAW(-R)
glaure > glǭre au > ǭ ᴹ√GLÁWAR > N. glaur ✧ Ety/LÁWAR
gaule > gǭle au > ǭ ᴹ√GAWA > N. Gaul ✧ Ety/GAWA
gauta > gǭta au > ǭ ᴹ√GAWA > N. gaud ✧ Ety/GAWA
gotʰombauko > gotʰombǭko au > ǭ ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
gotʰorauko > gotʰorǭko au > ǭ ᴹ✶Gothorauk- > N. Gothrog ✧ EtyAC/MBAW
indoglaurē > indoglǭre au > ǭ ᴹ✶Indo-ʒlaurē > Indlour > N. Inglor ✧ Ety/ID
kʰāda > kʰǭda au > ǭ ᴹ✶khagda > N. hauð ✧ Ety/KHAG
kʰausta > kʰǭsta au > ǭ ᴹ✶khau̯-stā > N. haust ✧ Ety/KHAW
lauka > lǭka au > ǭ ᴹ✶lauka > N. lhaug ✧ Ety/LAW
mbauj > mbǭj au > ǭ ᴹ✶mauy- > N. bui ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbauka > mbǭka au > ǭ ᴹ√MBAW > N. baug ✧ Ety/MBAW
ŋgaule > ŋgǭle au > ǭ ᴹ√ÑGAW > N. gaul ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgauro > ŋgǭro au > ǭ ᴹ√ÑGAW > N. gaur ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
nauki > nǭki au > ǭ ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. nuig ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
naukla > nǭkla au > ǭ ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
nauko > nǭko au > ǭ ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naug ✧ Ety/NAUK
nauta > nǭta au > ǭ ᴹ√NUT > N. naud ✧ Ety/NUT
pʰinderauto > pʰindarǭto au > ǭ ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰauka > pʰǭka au > ǭ ᴹ√PHAU̯ > ON. phauka ✧ Ety/PHAU
rauko > rǭko au > ǭ ᴹ√RUK > N. rhaug ✧ Ety/RUK
rauta > rǭta au > ǭ ON. rauta > N. rhaud ✧ Ety/RAUTĀ
taura > tǭra au > ǭ ᴹ✶tau̯rā > N. taur ✧ Ety/TĀ
taure > tǭre au > ǭ ᴹ✶tau̯rē > N. taur ✧ Ety/TÁWAR
tʰaurena > tʰǭrena au > ǭ ᴹ✶tháurēnā > N. thoren ✧ Ety/THUR
tʰausa > tʰǭsa au > ǭ ᴹ✶thausā > N. thaw ✧ Ety/THUS
abāro > abǭro ā > ǭ ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > ON. abōro ✧ Ety/AB
anār > anǭr ā > ǭ ᴹ✶anār- > N. Anor ✧ Ety/ANÁR
anār > anǭr ā > ǭ ᴹ✶Anār > Anaur > N. Anor ✧ SD/306
atlāta > atlǭta ā > ǭ ᴹ√TALÁT > atlaud > N. aclod ✧ Ety/TALÁT
bāda > bǭda ā > ǭ ᴹ✶bād- > N. bauð ✧ Ety/BAD
brekāla > brekǭla ā > ǭ ᴹ✶berékā > N. bregol ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brekāla > brekǭla ā > ǭ ᴹ√MERÉK > N. bregol ✧ Ety/MERÉK
dauda > dǭda ā > ǭ ᴹ✶dagdā > N. dauð ✧ EtyAC/DAG
dāra > dǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ✶daʒrā > N. daur ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ
drāka > drǭka ā > ǭ ᴹ✶d’rāk > N. draug ✧ Ety/DARÁK
galāsǝ > galōsǝ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶galā́sŏ > galṓsǝ > ON. galṓs ✧ PE22/26
glā > glǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶g’lā́ > N. glaw ✧ Ety/KAL
gāsa > gǭsa ā > ǭ ᴹ✶gāsa > N. gaw ✧ Ety/GAS
istāja > istǭja ā > ǭ ᴹ✶istāyā > N. istui ✧ Ety/IS
jā > jǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ√YA > N. io ✧ Ety/YA
jābe > jǭbe ā > ǭ ᴹ√YAB > N. iau ✧ Ety/YAB
jābi > jǭbi ā > ǭ ᴹ√YAB > N. iui ✧ EtyAC/YAB
jāna > jǭna ā > ǭ ᴹ√YAN > N. iaun ✧ Ety/YAN
jāra > jǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ√YA > N. iaur ✧ Ety/YA
katwāra > katwǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ✶katwārā > N. cadwor ✧ Ety/KAT
kemenāro > kemenǭro ā > ǭ ᴹ√KEM > N. cevnor ✧ EtyAC/KEM
klāra > klǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ√KAL > N. †claur ✧ Ety/KAL
kāne > kǭne ā > ǭ ᴹ√KAN > N. caun ✧ Ety/KAN
kāsa > kǭsa ā > ǭ ᴹ√KAS > N. caw ✧ Ety/KAS
mbāla > mbǭla ā > ǭ ᴹ√ÑGWAL > N. baul ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
mā > mǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶māʒ > ON. ✧ Ety/MAƷ
māga > mǭga ā > ǭ ᴹ✶māgā > N. maw ✧ Ety/SMAG
māga > mǭga ā > ǭ ᴹ✶māga > N. maw ✧ EtyAC/MAG²
narāka > narǭka ā > ǭ ᴹ✶narāka > N. Narog ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
ndanitʰāro > ndanitʰǭro ā > ǭ ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
ndāko > ndǭko ā > ǭ ᴹ✶ndākō > ON. ndōko ✧ Ety/NDAK
nāj > nǭj ā > ǭ ᴹ✶nāyǝ > noi > ON. nui ✧ Ety/NAY
nār > nǭr ā > ǭ ᴹ√NAR¹ > N. naur ✧ Ety/NAR¹
āra > ǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ√AR¹ > N. aur ✧ Ety/AR¹
persās > persǭs ā > ǭ ᴹ√PER/PERES > ON. persṓs ✧ Ety/PERES
pāme > pǭme ā > ǭ ᴹ√KWAM > N. paw ✧ Ety/KWAM
pāre > pǭre ā > ǭ ᴹ√KWAR > ON. pōre ✧ Ety/KWAR
pʰajanār > pʰajanǭr ā > ǭ ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ON. Phayanṓr ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰindekāno > pʰindekǭno ā > ǭ ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
rā > rǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶rāu̯ > ON. ✧ Ety/RAW
rāba > rǭba ā > ǭ ᴹ√RAB² > N. rhaw ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
rāba > rǭba ā > ǭ ᴹ✶rāba > N. rhaw ✧ Ety/RAB
rābana > rǭbana ā > ǭ ᴹ√RAB > N. rhofan ✧ EtyAC/RAB
rāmale > rǭmale ā > ǭ ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofal ✧ Ety/RAM
rāmali > rǭmali ā > ǭ ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofel ✧ Ety/RAM
rānen > rǭnen ā > ǭ ᴹ√RAN > N. rhaun ✧ Ety/RAN
smāga > smǭga ā > ǭ ᴹ√SMAG > N. hmaw ✧ Ety/SMAG
sāba > sǭba ā > ǭ ᴹ√SAB > ON. sōba ✧ Ety/SAB
spāna > spǭna ā > ǭ ᴹ✶spāna > N. faun ✧ Ety/SPAN
spāra > spǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ√SPAR² > N. faur ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
tlāta > tlǭta ā > ǭ ᴹ√TALÁT > tlaud > N. claud ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT
tā > tǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ√TA > ON. ✧ Ety/TA
tā > tǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶tad > > N. ✧ PE19/52
tā > tǭ ā > ǭ ᴹ✶tā̆d > ON. ✧ PE21/58
tāra > tǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ✶tārā > ON. tōra ✧ Ety/TĀ
tāro > tǭro ā > ǭ ᴹ✶tārō > N. †taur ✧ Ety/TĀ
wāja > wǭja ā > ǭ ᴹ✶wāyā > wōia > ON. uia ✧ Ety/WAY
wājar > wǭjar ā > ǭ ᴹ✶wā́yārō̆/Vā́yārō̆ > N. Uiar ✧ Ety/WAY
wān > wǭn ā > ǭ ᴹ✶WĀ-N > N. gwaun ✧ Ety/WA-N
wāni > wǭni ā > ǭ ᴹ✶WĀ-N > N. guin ✧ Ety/WA-N
wāra > wǭra ā > ǭ ᴹ✶waʒrā > ON. wóra ✧ Ety/WAƷ

G. [ā] became [ō]; [ā] > [ō]

HPG/§1.1

Order (01300)

Before 04900 [ll] became [l] lengthening preceding stressed vowel ᴱ✶nalda > nalla > G. nâla GL/59

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ā] > [ō] ✧ GG/14 (ā > ō)

Phonetic Rule Examples

eðusmāni > eðusmōni ā > ō ᴱ✶eđusmānī > G. Edhofon ✧ GL/31
gʷāloθ > gʷōloθ ā > ō ᴱ✶ŋgua-aloþ- > gwōloth > G. goloth ✧ GL/41
gʷār > gʷōr ā > ō ᴱ✶ŋguār > gwōr- > G. gôr ✧ GL/41
jāt > jōt ā > ō ᴱ√yat- > G. gôd ✧ GL/36
jātrā > jōtrā ā > ō ᴱ√yat- > G. godra ✧ GL/36
kāla > kōla ā > ō ᴱ√cala > G. côl ✧ GL/25
kʷāmē > kʷōmē ā > ō ᴱ✶qāmē > G. côma ✧ GL/26
mbāsḷ > mbōsḷ ā > ō ᴱ✶mᵇāsḷ > G. bothli ✧ GL/23