OS. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ|{ptk}{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}|{ɸθx}{ɸθx}]

OS. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ|{ptk}{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}|{ɸθx}{ɸθx}]

In both (Old) Sindarin and (Old) Noldorin, aspirates [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] became spirants, probably [ɸ, θ, x] as suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.80). Later [ɸ] became [f] and initial [x-] became [h-], partially obscuring the earlier sound changes. This phonetic development applied both to original primitive aspirates and to aspirates that arose from other sources such as voiceless stops that aspirated after consonants. Tolkien explicitly listed these phonetic developments in the Comparative Table of phonetic changes from the 1930s both initially and medially (PE19/18, 23).

For combinations of aspirated voiceless stops, such as [ttʰ] or [ktʰ], both consonants became spirants: [θθ] or [xθ]. This was explicitly described by Tolkien in several places for “dynamic long” pairs of aspirates:

The geminate or dynamic long pph, tth, kkh being weakened in aspiration became identical with pp, tt, kk. (The latter were, probably, in all Eldarin weakly aspirated; but in Noldorin the aspiration became strong so that pp, pph etc. coalesced in pph etc. and eventually (in Exhilic) produced spirantal combinations) (Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1], 1930s, PE19/43).
Lengthening produced the following modifications: (i) p, t, k > pp, tt, kk. In the case of (rare) ph and of th, kh the original lengthening may have been pph, tth, kkh, but in Eldarin the aspiration was lost - or rather pp, pph became identical, either as pp in Quenya or as pph as in Old Noldorin (second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa [TQ2], circa 1950, PE18/91).

Examples of the spirantalization of aspirates are extremely numerous in both Sindarin and Noldorin:

[pʰ] (> [ɸ]) > [f]: phelgā > S. and N. fela “mine, cave” (PE17/118, Ety/PHÉLEG).
[ppʰ] (> [ɸɸ]) > [ff]: et-pel > eppel > S. and N. ephel “outer fence” (PE17/65, WR/137).
[tʰ] > [θ]: THIL > S. and N. Ithil “moon” (SA/sil, Ety/THIL).
[ttʰ] > [θθ]: ᴹ✶kwetta > S. and N. peth “word” (PE17/46, Ety/KWET).
[kʰ] > [x]: KARAK [> *karka > *karkʰa] > S. and N. carch “fang, tooth” (SA/carak, Ety/KARAK).
[kkʰ] > [xx]: rokkō > S. and N. roch “horse” (Let/282.1706, Ety/ROK).

The combinations [ptʰ] and [ktʰ] become spirantal as well ([ɸθ], [xθ]), but the first spirant in each pair [x], [ɸ] became a vowel before [θ] with various later effects. See the entry on the vocalization of such spirants for examples and more details.

Note that there are an analogous set of sound changes in Quenya and Telerin, but these were a parallel set of changes rather than ones that occurred at some common stage, since the details differed in each child language. For example, Quenya and Telerin preserved primitive long voiceless stops such as tt: Q. atto, T. atta “daddy” vs. S. atheg (VT48/6).

Conceptual Development: These changes are not relevant to Primitive Elvish as Tolkien conceived of it in the 1910s and 1920s, because Tolkien did not introduce aspirates into Eldarin phonetic developments until the 1930s. Prior to that point, the analogous set of phonemes in Primitive Elvish were themselves already voiceless spirants (PE12/15).

Reference ✧ VT41/9 ✧ for example: S. Arothír, S. †Aracchír < aratχhír < ✶arāt-chír

Order (02200)

After 02100 voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s] ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred PE17/55
Before 02400 [ā] became [ǭ] arāt-chír > aratχhír > S. †Aracchír VT41/9
Before 02600 [ei], [ou] became [ī], [ū] ÞOWO > Þou... > S. Thuon PE17/68
Before 03400 [ē], [ō] became [ī], [ū] χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ PE17/133

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pʰ] > [ɸ]
[tʰ] > [θ]
[kʰ] > [x]
[ppʰ] > [ɸɸ]
[ptʰ] > [ɸθ]
[ttʰ] > [θθ] ✧ VT47/14 (tth > tt > þþ); VT47/16 (tth > þþ)
[tkʰ] > [xx]
[ktʰ] > [xθ]
[kkʰ] > [xx]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ekkʰanθe > exxanθe kkʰ > xx et-kantē > S. echant ✧ PE17/42
ekkʰat- > exxat- kkʰ > xx et-kat- > S. echad- ✧ PE17/42
rokkʰo > roxxo kkʰ > xx rokkō > S. roch ✧ Let/282
etrektʰe > etrexθe ktʰ > xθ rekti(e) > S. edraith ✧ PE17/38
ektʰa > exθa ktʰ > xθ ek-tā > S. eitha- ✧ WJ/365
ektʰele > exθele ktʰ > xθ et-kelē > S. eithel ✧ SA/kel
gruktʰa- > gruxθa- ktʰ > xθ RUKU > S. gruitha ✧ WJ/415
maktʰa- > maxθa- ktʰ > xθ MAG > S. maetha- ✧ PE17/161
maktʰe > maxθe ktʰ > xθ MAG > S. maeth ✧ PE17/161
mbelektʰa > mbelexθa ktʰ > xθ mbelek > S. belaith ✧ PE17/115
nektʰano > nexθano ktʰ > xθ NEK > S. neithan ✧ PE17/167
nektʰe > nexθe ktʰ > xθ nek-tē > neith > S. naith ✧ PE17/55
nuktʰa- > nuxθa- ktʰ > xθ nuktā- > S. nuitha- ✧ WJ/413
paktʰa > paxθa ktʰ > xθ PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126
riktʰa- > rixθa- ktʰ > xθ RIK > S. raitha ✧ PE17/167
riktʰant > rixθant ktʰ > xθ RIK > S. rithant ✧ PE17/167
tektʰa > texθa ktʰ > xθ tek-tā > teith > S. taith ✧ PE17/43
tektʰa- > texθa- ktʰ > xθ tekta- > S. teith- ✧ PE17/43
wektʰe > wexθe ktʰ > xθ weg-tē > S. gwaith ✧ PE17/190
balkʰa > balxa kʰ > x wal-ka > S. balch ✧ PE17/154
daŋkʰina > daŋxina kʰ > x dankĭna > daŋχen > danghen > S. dangen ✧ PE17/133
daŋkʰini > daŋxini kʰ > x dankĭna > S. nenghin ✧ PE17/133
delkʰa > delxa kʰ > x delkā > S. delch ✧ PE17/17
karkʰa > karxa kʰ > x carak- > S. carch ✧ SA/carak
laŋkʰa > laŋxa kʰ > x (G)LAN > S. lanc ✧ VT42/8
parkʰa > parxa kʰ > x PAR > S. parch ✧ PE17/86
pʰliŋkʰe > pʰliŋxe kʰ > x AT. phlinke > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/72
pʰliŋkʰe > pʰliŋxe kʰ > x philinkĭ > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/81
r̥raŋkʰa > r̥aŋxa kʰ > x SRAK > S. rhanc ✧ PE17/154
taŋkʰla > taŋxla kʰ > x tanklā > tankla > tachl > ᴸN. tachol ✧ PE18/100
tarkʰildi > tarxildi kʰ > x tarkhildī > S. **terchil ✧ PE17/101
truŋkʰo > truŋxo kʰ > x turunko > S. trunc ✧ PE21/80
urkʰa > urxa kʰ > x urkā > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
urkʰi > urxi kʰ > x urkō > S. Yrch ✧ WJ/390
urkʰo > urxo kʰ > x urkō > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
kʰ- > x- kʰ > x khy- > S. h ✧ LotR/1115
kʰadma > xadma kʰ > x khadmā > chaðw > S. haðw ✧ PE22/148
kʰadma- > xadma- kʰ > x khadmā > haðma > S. haðwa ✧ PE22/148
kʰaðād > xaðād kʰ > x Kh. Khazād > chaðǭd > chaðaud > S. Hadhod ✧ WJ/388
kʰaida > xaida kʰ > x khagdā > S. haeð ✧ PE19/91
kʰāno > xāno kʰ > x KHAN > S. †hawn ✧ VT47/14
kʰauda > xauda kʰ > x khabdā > S. haudh ✧ PE19/91
kʰauda > xauda kʰ > x KHAWAD > S. haudh ✧ PE19/91
kʰauda > xauda kʰ > x KHAW > S. hauð ✧ PE19/92
kʰeledmorna > xeledmorna kʰ > x Kh. kheled > S. Hele(ð)vorn ✧ PE17/37
kʰēru > xēru kʰ > x kherū > S. hir ✧ Let/282
kʰerūni > xerūni kʰ > x herūnī > S. heruin ✧ PE17/97
kʰeruni > xeruni kʰ > x herūnī > S. heryn ✧ PE17/97
kʰi > xi kʰ > x khĭn- > S. ✧ VT49/34
kʰina > xina kʰ > x khīnā/khinā > S. hên ✧ WJ/403
kʰini > xini kʰ > x khīnā/khinā > S. hîn ✧ WJ/403
kʰīθilōme > xīθilōme kʰ > x χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ ✧ PE17/133
kʰō > xō kʰ > x > S. ✧ PE17/86
kʰollina > xollina kʰ > x KHOL > S. hollen ✧ PE17/98
kʰoθθa > xoθθa kʰ > x khottă > S. hoth ✧ PE17/39
appʰat- > aɸɸat- ppʰ > ɸɸ ap-pata > S. aphad- ✧ WJ/387
appʰet- > aɸɸet- ppʰ > ɸɸ at-kwet > S. aphed ✧ PE17/166
eppʰel > eɸɸel ppʰ > ɸɸ et-pel > eppel > S. ephel ✧ PE17/65
leptʰa- > leɸθa- ptʰ > ɸθ LEP > S. leutha- ✧ VT47/10
alpʰa > alɸa pʰ > ɸ T. alpa > S. alph ✧ UT/265
alpʰa > alɸa pʰ > ɸ alkwa > S. alf ✧ VT42/7
alpʰi > alɸi pʰ > ɸ T. alpa > S. eilph ✧ UT/265
ampʰala > amɸala pʰ > ɸ KWAL > ᴸON. amphala ✧ PE18/92
gampʰa > gamɸa pʰ > ɸ gampa > S. gamp ✧ VT47/20
kampʰru > kamɸru pʰ > ɸ camprû > camfrū > S. cāfru ✧ PE17/131
karpʰa- > karɸa- pʰ > ɸ KARAP > S. carfa ✧ PE17/126
nimpʰe > nimɸe pʰ > ɸ NIK > S. nimp ✧ PE17/168
nimpʰe > nimɸe pʰ > ɸ nimpĭ > S. nimp ✧ VT48/18
nimpʰiraite > nimɸiraite pʰ > ɸ ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
pʰaila > ɸaila pʰ > ɸ PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ PHAL > S. falas ✧ PE17/62
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ PHAL > S. falas ✧ PE17/73
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ FAN > S. fân ✧ PE17/26
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ FAN > S. Fân ✧ PE17/26
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/173
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/174
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ Fana- > S. fân ✧ RGEO/66
pʰanāja > ɸanāja pʰ > ɸ FAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/26
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ FAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/26
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ phanyā > S. fain ✧ PE17/174
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/179
pʰanθa- > ɸanθa- pʰ > ɸ phantā- > S. fanha- ✧ PE17/174
pʰaran > ɸaran pʰ > ɸ pharan- > S. faran ✧ PE17/83
pʰaran > ɸaran pʰ > ɸ PHARAN > S. faran ✧ PE17/83
pʰawa > ɸawa pʰ > ɸ PHAW > phaw > S. faw ✧ PE17/181
pʰeleke > ɸeleke pʰ > ɸ PHELEK > S. feleg ✧ PE17/118
pʰelga > ɸelga pʰ > ɸ phelgā > S. fela ✧ PE17/118
pʰenna > ɸenna pʰ > ɸ PHEN > S. fen ✧ PE17/181
pʰereja > ɸereja pʰ > ɸ PHERE > S. ferui ✧ PE17/181
pʰerja > ɸerja pʰ > ɸ pheryā > feir > S. fair ✧ PE17/181
pʰerja- > ɸerja- pʰ > ɸ PHERE > S. feria- ✧ PE17/181
pʰimbe > ɸimbe pʰ > ɸ PHIM > S. fim ✧ PE17/23
pʰindarāto > ɸindarāto pʰ > ɸ findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
pʰinde > ɸinde pʰ > ɸ phindē > S. find ✧ PM/362
pʰine > ɸine pʰ > ɸ phini- > S. fîn ✧ PM/362
pʰinika > ɸinika pʰ > ɸ finik/fink > S. fineg ✧ PE17/17
pʰiniŋgorna > ɸiniŋgorna pʰ > ɸ Phiniñgornā > S. Fingorn ✧ PE17/113
pʰīripa > ɸīripa pʰ > ɸ PHIRI > S. Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
pʰliŋxe > ɸliŋxe pʰ > ɸ AT. phlinke > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/72
pʰliŋxe > ɸliŋxe pʰ > ɸ philinkĭ > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/81
-attʰa > -aθθa ttʰ > θθ atta > S. -ath ✧ VT48/19
attʰara- > aθθara- ttʰ > θθ atta- > S. athra ✧ PE17/14
grottʰa > groθθa ttʰ > θθ grottā > S. groth ✧ WJ/415
-ittʰa > -iθθa ttʰ > θθ -ittā > S. -eth ✧ PM/345
kʰottʰa > kʰoθθa ttʰ > θθ khottă > S. hoth ✧ PE17/39
lepettʰarone > lepeθθarone ttʰ > θθ lepeth-ron > S. lebethron ✧ PE17/89
lottʰa > loθθa ttʰ > θθ LOT > S. loth ✧ PE17/161
lottʰa > loθθa ttʰ > θθ lotta- > S. loth ✧ VT42/18
mbottʰo > mboθθo ttʰ > θθ MOT > mbotto > S. both ✧ PE17/165
moreŋgottʰo > moreŋgoθθo ttʰ > θθ Moringotto > S. Morgoth ✧ MR/194
nettʰe > neθθe ttʰ > θθ NETH > S. neth ✧ VT47/14
nettʰe > neθθe ttʰ > θθ netthi > S. neth ✧ VT47/33
nettʰe > neθθe ttʰ > θθ net > S. neth ✧ VT47/33
nukottʰo > nukoθθo ttʰ > θθ nukotto/a > S. Nogoth ✧ WJ/413
pettʰa > peθθa ttʰ > θθ QUET > S. peth ✧ PE17/46
rettʰo > reθθo ttʰ > θθ RETE > S. -reth ✧ PE17/182
-rottʰa > -roθθa ttʰ > θθ ROT > S. -roth/rod ✧ PE17/49
ambartʰ > ambarθ tʰ > θ ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > S. amarth ✧ PE17/124
ambartʰa > ambarθa tʰ > θ mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth ✧ PE17/104
ambartʰā > ambarθa tʰ > θ mbartā > ṃbartā > S. amartha- ✧ PE17/104
antʰa- > anθa- tʰ > θ ANA > antha- > S. anha- ✧ PE17/93
antʰa- > anθa- tʰ > θ ANA/NĀ > S. anta- ✧ PE17/147
artʰaure > arθaure tʰ > θ artaurē > S. Arthor ✧ PE17/28
atʰ- > aθ- tʰ > θ ATHA > S. ath- ✧ PE17/148
atʰa- > aθa- tʰ > θ ÞĀ̆/AÞA > S. atha- ✧ PE22/167
atʰaja > aθaja tʰ > θ aþayā > S. athae ✧ PE17/49
atʰja- > aθja- tʰ > θ ATHA > S. eitha- ✧ PE17/148
atʰra- > aθra- tʰ > θ aþra- > S. athra- ✧ PE17/14
autʰa > auθa tʰ > θ aw’tha > S. auth ✧ VT42/9
baltʰil > balθil tʰ > θ thil- > S. Belthil ✧ SA/sil
baratʰi > baraθi tʰ > θ barathī(e) > S. bereth ✧ PE17/23
bratʰil > braθil tʰ > θ BARATH > S. brethil ✧ PE17/23
dantʰa- > danθa- tʰ > θ DAN-TA > S. danna ✧ PE17/62
ekkʰantʰe > ekkʰanθe tʰ > θ et-kantē > S. echant ✧ PE17/42
glintʰa- > glinθa- tʰ > θ glim > S. glintha- ✧ WJ/337
gwetʰe > gweθe tʰ > θ gweth > S. #gweth ✧ PM/395
hatʰro > haθro tʰ > θ haþa > T. hathro ✧ PE22/166
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ thil- > S. Ithil ✧ SA/sil
kertʰi > kerθi tʰ > θ KER > S. cirth ✧ PE22/150
kintʰok > kinθok tʰ > θ KIT > S. cinnog ✧ PE17/157
kirtʰa > kirθa tʰ > θ kirtē > S. certh ✧ WJ/396
kʰītʰilōme > kʰīθilōme tʰ > θ χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ ✧ PE17/133
lotʰo > loθo tʰ > θ lotho/a > S. loth ✧ PE17/26
lōtʰo > lōθo tʰ > θ loth > S. lúth ✧ PE17/161
maltʰorne > malθorne tʰ > θ OS. malþorn > malhorn > S. mallorn ✧ VT42/27
mantʰina > manθina tʰ > θ mantinā > manthen > S. mannen ✧ PE17/131
maxtʰa > maxθa tʰ > θ maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/6
mbartʰan > mbarθan tʰ > θ Q. martan > S. barthan ✧ PE17/109
mbartʰano > mbarθano tʰ > θ mbartanō > S. Barthan ✧ LT1A/Talka Marda
moreŋgotʰo > moreŋgoθo tʰ > θ Moriñgotho > S. Morgoth ✧ MR/294
natʰa- > naθa- tʰ > θ ÞĀ̆/AÞA > an-aþa > S. natha- ✧ PE22/166
natʰlo > naθlo tʰ > θ nathlo > S. nathal ✧ PE17/141
nētʰa > nēθa tʰ > θ nēthā > S. nîth ✧ VT47/14
ŋgorotʰūso > ŋgoroθūso tʰ > θ ñgor(o)-thūsō > Gorthu > S. Gorthaur ✧ PE17/183
ŋgurotʰo > ŋguroθo tʰ > θ NGUR > S. gorth ✧ WJ/415
nortʰa- > norθa- tʰ > θ NOR > S. northa- ✧ PE17/168
nortʰe > norθe tʰ > θ NOR > S. north ✧ PE17/168
otʰlo > oθlo tʰ > θ Oþlō > S. Othol ✧ PE17/141
pentʰro > penθro tʰ > θ kwentrō > pentro > ᴸN. pethro-n ✧ PE18/100
pʰantʰa- > pʰanθa- tʰ > θ phantā- > S. fanha- ✧ PE17/174
ratʰē > raθe tʰ > θ rath- > S. rath ✧ UT/255
retʰ- > reθ- tʰ > θ REÞ > S. reth- ✧ PE17/182
rūtʰē > rūθe tʰ > θ RUTH > S. rúth ✧ PE17/183
rūtʰē > rūθe tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > S. rûth ✧ PE17/188
rutʰra- > ruθra- tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > S. ruthra ✧ PE17/188
santʰa > sanθa tʰ > θ SAT > S. sant ✧ VT42/20
talta- > talθa- tʰ > θ talta > OS. talthathō- ✧ PE22/134
tatʰare > taθare tʰ > θ taþā̆rĭ- > S. tathar ✧ PE17/81
tʰā > θā tʰ > θ thā > OS. thō ✧ PE22/131
tʰanda > θanda tʰ > θ thandā > S. #Than- ✧ UT/281
tʰāne > θāne tʰ > θ thānĭ- > S. thaun ✧ PE17/81
tʰāni > θāni tʰ > θ thānĭ- > S. thoen ✧ PE17/81
tʰāniel > θāniel tʰ > θ THAN > S. thoniel ✧ PE17/82
tʰara > θara tʰ > θ þara- > S. thar ✧ PE17/34
tʰarane > θarane tʰ > θ THAR > S. tharan ✧ PE17/187
tʰarapata > θarapata tʰ > θ thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar
tʰarja- > θarja- tʰ > θ THAR > S. theria- ✧ PE17/187
tʰaura > θaura tʰ > θ SAWA > S. thaur ✧ PE17/172
tʰinda > θinda tʰ > θ þindā > S. thin(n) ✧ PE17/72
tʰinde > θinde tʰ > θ þindĭ- > S. thind ✧ PE17/140
tʰoli > θoli tʰ > θ ÞOL > S. thuil ✧ PE17/188
tʰolo > θolo tʰ > θ ÞOL > S. thôl ✧ PE17/188
tʰolosi > θolosi tʰ > θ ÞOL > S. thely ✧ PE17/188
tʰorna > θorna tʰ > θ THOR > S. thorn ✧ PE17/113
tʰorono > θorono tʰ > θ þorono > S. Thoron ✧ Let/427
tʰosse > θosse tʰ > θ ÞOS > S. thos(s) ✧ PE17/87
tʰouō > θouo tʰ > θ thowō > thow > S. Thû ✧ PE17/99
tʰouon > θouon tʰ > θ ÞOWO > Þou... > S. Thuon ✧ PE17/68
tʰū > θū tʰ > θ THŪ > S. Thū ✧ PE17/124
tʰūse > θūse tʰ > θ thūsē > S. thû ✧ PE17/183
urutʰa > uruθa tʰ > θ RUTH > S. oroth ✧ PE17/183
urutʰa > uruθa tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > S. oroth ✧ PE17/188
utʰ- > uθ- tʰ > θ UTHU > S. oth- ✧ PE17/151
utʰ- > uθ- tʰ > θ UTHU > S. oth- ✧ PE17/172
watʰa > waθa tʰ > θ wath > S. gwath ✧ PE17/41
watʰa > waθa tʰ > θ Wath > S. Gwath ✧ VT42/9
watʰa > waθa tʰ > θ WATH > S. Gwath ✧ VT42/9
watʰra- > waθra- tʰ > θ WATH > S. gwathra- ✧ VT42/9
watʰrina > waθrina tʰ > θ WATH > S. gwathren ✧ VT42/9
watʰrini > waθrini tʰ > θ WATH > S. gwethrin ✧ VT42/9

ON. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ|{ptk}{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}|{ɸθx}{ɸθx}]

GS/§4.80 GS/§4.81 @@@

References ✧ PE19/43; PE22/24-25, 28

Order (03600)

After 02000 final [tʰ] became [t] ᴹ√KHOTH > N. hûd Ety/KHOTH

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pʰ] > [ɸ] ✧ PE19/18 (ph- > ph/f-); PE19/21 (phr- > phr-); PE19/21 (phl- > phl-); PE19/23 (-ph- > -ph-)
[tʰ] > [θ] ✧ PE19/18 (th- > th/þ-); PE19/21 (thr- > thr-); PE19/21 (thl- > thl-); PE19/23 (-th- > -th-)
[kʰ] > [x] ✧ PE19/18 (kh- > kh/χ-); PE19/21 (khr- > khr-); PE19/21 (khl- > khl-); PE19/23 (-khj- > -khj-); PE19/23 (-kh- > -kh-); PE19/23 (-khw- > -khw-)
[ppʰ] > [ɸɸ]
[ttʰ] > [θθ]
[ktʰ] > [xθ]
[ptʰ] > [ɸθ]
[kkʰ] > [xx]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ekkʰat- > exxat- kkʰ > xx ᴹ✶et-kat > N. echedi ✧ Ety/KAT
ekkʰo > exxo kkʰ > xx ᴹ√EK > N. ech ✧ Ety/EK
ekkʰuiwe > exxuiwe kkʰ > xx ᴹ✶et-kuiwē > N. echui(w) ✧ Ety/KUY
lokkʰo > loxxo kkʰ > xx ᴹ✶lokko > N. lhoch ✧ Ety/LOKH
rokkʰo > roxxo kkʰ > xx ᴹ✶rokkō > N. roch ✧ EtyAC/ROK
brektʰa- > brexθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶b’rekta > N. breitho ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brektʰa- > brexθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√MERÉK > N. breitha ✧ EtyAC/MERÉK
ektʰe > exθe ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√EK > N. aith ✧ Ety/EK
ektʰe > exθe ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√EK > N. eith ✧ EtyAC/EK
ektʰele > exθele ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶ektele > N. eithel ✧ Ety/KEL
jaktʰa > jaxθa ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶yakta- > N. iaeth ✧ Ety/YAK
juktʰa- > juxθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√YUK > N. iuitho ✧ Ety/YUK
juktʰe > juxθe ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√YUK > N. iuith ✧ Ety/YUK
kirjaktʰo > kirjaxθo ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶kirya-k’tō > N. ciriaeth ✧ PE18/62
kriktʰa- > krixθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶k’rikta > N. critho ✧ Ety/KIRIK
lektʰ- > lexθ- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√LEK > N. Leth- ✧ Ety/LEK
lektʰa- > lexθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√LEK > N. lheitho ✧ Ety/LEK
luktʰa- > luxθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√LUK > N. lhûtha ✧ Ety/LUK
luktʰe > luxθe ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√LUK > N. lhûth ✧ Ety/LUK
maktʰa > maxθa ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√MAK > N. maeth ✧ Ety/MAK
maktʰa- > maxθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√MAK > N. maetha ✧ Ety/MAK
naktʰa > naxθa ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√NAK > N. naeth ✧ Ety/NAK
niktʰe > nixθe ktʰ > xθ ON. nikthe > N. níth ✧ PE22/37
oktʰa > oxθa ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶oktā > N. auth ✧ Ety/KOT
riktʰa- > rixθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√RIK(H) > N. rhitho ✧ Ety/RIK(H)
suktʰa- > suxθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√SUK > N. sautha- ✧ Ety/SUK
suktʰo > suxθo ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√SUK > N. sûth ✧ Ety/SUK
taktʰa- > taxθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√TAK > N. taetho ✧ Ety/TAK
tektʰa- > texθa- ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√TEK > N. teitho ✧ Ety/TEK
tektʰa > texθa ktʰ > xθ ᴹ√TEK > ON. #tektha ✧ Ety/TEK
wektʰe > wexθe ktʰ > xθ ᴹ✶weg-tē > N. gweith ✧ Ety/WEG
aɸɸarkʰa > aɸɸarxa kʰ > x ᴹ✶apparkā > ON. appharkha ✧ EtyAC/A
erkʰa > erxa kʰ > x ᴹ√ERÉK > N. erch ✧ Ety/ERÉK
erkʰa- > erxa- kʰ > x ᴹ√ERÉK > N. ercho ✧ Ety/ERÉK
iŋkʰi > iŋxi kʰ > x ᴹ√INK/INIK? > N. inc ✧ Ety/INK
karkʰa > karxa kʰ > x ᴹ√KÁRAK > N. carch ✧ Ety/KARAK
kirkʰa > kirxa kʰ > x ᴹ√KIRIK > N. cerch ✧ Ety/KIRIK
korkʰa > korxa kʰ > x ᴹ√KORKA > N. corch ✧ Ety/KARKA
kʰelkʰa > kʰelxa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > N. helch ✧ Ety/KHEL
laŋkʰo > laŋxo kʰ > x ᴹ√LANK > N. lhanc ✧ Ety/LANK
laŋkʰo > laŋxo kʰ > x ᴹ√LAK¹ > N. lhanc ✧ EtyAC/LAK¹
mbalkʰa > mbalxa kʰ > x ᴹ√ÑGWAL > N. balch ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
mbaŋkʰa- > mbaŋxa- kʰ > x ᴹ√MBAKH > N. banga ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbakʰa > mbaxa kʰ > x ᴹ✶mbakhā > N. bach ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbakʰro > mbaxro kʰ > x ᴹ√MBAKH > N. bachor ✧ Ety/MBAKH
milkʰa > milxa kʰ > x ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. melch ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
narkʰa- > narxa- kʰ > x ᴹ√NÁRAK > N. narcha- ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
ndaŋkʰina > ndaŋxina kʰ > x ᴹ√NDAK > N. dangen ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndaŋkʰini > ndaŋxini kʰ > x ᴹ√NDAK > N. Ndengin ✧ Ety/NDAK
orkʰo > orxo kʰ > x ON. orko > N. orch ✧ Ety/ÓROK
orkʰui > orxui kʰ > x ON. orkui > N. †yrchy ✧ EtyAC/ÓROK
parkʰa > parxa kʰ > x ᴹ✶parkā > ON. parkha ✧ EtyAC/A
pʰliŋkʰe > pʰliŋxe kʰ > x ᴹ✶philínkē > N. flinc ✧ PE21/56
raŋkʰo > raŋxo kʰ > x ON. ranko > N. rhanc ✧ Ety/RAK
raŋkʰui > raŋxui kʰ > x ON. rankui > N. †rhengy ✧ Ety/RAK
riŋkʰe > riŋxe kʰ > x ᴹ✶rinki > N. rhinc ✧ Ety/RIK(H)
sθaŋkʰa > sθaŋxa kʰ > x ON. sthanka > N. thanc ✧ Ety/STAK
sulkʰa > sulxa kʰ > x ᴹ√SÚLUK > ON. sulkha ✧ Ety/SÚLUK
taŋkʰa > taŋxa kʰ > x ᴹ√TAK > N. tanc ✧ Ety/TAK
taŋkʰanθe > taŋxanθe kʰ > x ON. tankánte > N. tangant ✧ PE17/44
taŋkʰata- > taŋxata- kʰ > x ᴹ✶tánkā̆ta- > N. tangado ✧ PE17/44
taŋkʰla > taŋxla kʰ > x ᴹ✶tankla > tachl > N. tachol ✧ Ety/TAK
telkʰi > telxi kʰ > x ᴹ√TÉLEK > N. tilch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
telkʰo > telxo kʰ > x ᴹ√TÉLEK > N. telch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
tiŋkʰo > tiŋxo kʰ > x ᴹ✶TINKŌ > N. tinc ✧ Ety/TINKŌ
tulkʰasse > tulxasse kʰ > x ᴹ√TULUK > N. Tolchas ✧ EtyAC/TULUK
kʰad- > xad- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > N. hað- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰaime > xaime kʰ > x ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰal- > xal- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL² > N. heli ✧ EtyAC/KHAL²
kʰala > xala kʰ > x ᴹ✶khala > N. hâl ✧ EtyAC/KHAL¹
kʰalatir > xalatir kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL¹ > N. heledir ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
kʰalatirno > xalatirno kʰ > x ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > N. heledirn ✧ Ety/TIR
kʰalla > xalla kʰ > x ᴹ✶khalnā́ > ON. khalla ✧ Ety/KHAL²
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > N. haf- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰampʰa- > xampʰa- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamma- ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰampʰata > xampʰata kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰampʰe > xampʰe kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamp ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > N. ?hand ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanja- > xanja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > N. henio ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanwa > xanwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶hamwa > N. ham/hanw ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰap- > xap- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAP > N. hab- ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰarata > xarata kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harad ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰarda > xarda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > N. harð ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰarja > xarja kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > N. heir ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰarmena > xarmena kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harfen ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
kʰarmeni > xarmeni kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > N. herfin ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
kʰarna > xarna kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harn ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰarna > xarna kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > N. harn ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰat- > xat- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAT > N. had- ✧ Ety/KHAT
kʰatlattʰa > xatlattʰa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/KHAT
kʰatlattʰa > xatlattʰa kʰ > x ᴹ√LATH/LAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/LATH
kʰatr > xatr kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAT > N. hador ✧ Ety/KHAT
kʰeled > xeled kʰ > x Kh. kheled > S. heleð ✧ PE17/37
kʰeleke > xeleke kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > N. heleg ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelese > xelese kʰ > x ᴹ✶khyelesē > khelesa > ON. kheleha ✧ Ety/KHYEL(ES)
kʰelle > xelle kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEL > N. hell ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelxa > xelxa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > N. helch ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰen > xen kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. hên ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰende > xende kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. henn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰendi > xendi kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. hint/hinn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰeni > xeni kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. hîn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰerbesno > xerbesno kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > N. hervenn ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰerbesse > xerbesse kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > N. hervess ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰēro > xēro kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ON. khēro ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰerondo > xerondo kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > N. heron ✧ EtyAC/KHER
kʰertʰe > xertʰe kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > N. herth ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰīma > xīma kʰ > x ᴹ✶khīmā > N. hiw ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰimbe > ximbe kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > N. him ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰīril > xīril kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ON. khíril ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰīsislūme > xīsislūme kʰ > x ᴹ✶χīsi-slōmē > N. Cílu ✧ PE21/32
kʰītʰe > xītʰe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > N. hîth ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰwa > xitʰwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithwa > N. hethw ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰwe > xitʰwe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithme > N. hithw ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰǭda > xǭda kʰ > x ᴹ✶khagda > N. hauð ✧ Ety/KHAG
kʰopasse > xopasse kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOP > N. hobas ✧ Ety/KHOP
kʰorja- > xorja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > hoerio > N. herio ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorna > xorna kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > N. horn ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorθa- > xorθa- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > N. hortha- ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰǭsta > xǭsta kʰ > x ᴹ✶khau̯-stā > N. haust ✧ Ety/KHAW
kʰosta > xosta kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > N. host ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰotse > xotse kʰ > x ᴹ✶khotsē > N. hoth ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰrasse > xrasse kʰ > x ᴹ✶khrassē > N. rhass ✧ Ety/KHARÁS
kʰūgan > xūgan kʰ > x ᴹ✶khugan > N. Huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰugo > xugo kʰ > x ᴹ√KHUG > N. ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰūgore > xūgore kʰ > x ᴹ✶Khōgore > N. Huor ✧ Ety/GOR
kʰūn > xūn kʰ > x ᴹ√KHŌ-N > N. hûn ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
kʰūpa > xūpa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOP > N. hûb ✧ Ety/KHOP
kʰūre > xūre kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > N. hûr ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰūt > xūt kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > N. hûd ✧ Ety/KHOTH
appʰarkʰa > aɸɸarkʰa ppʰ > ɸɸ ᴹ✶apparkā > ON. appharkha ✧ EtyAC/A
eppʰele > eɸɸele ppʰ > ɸɸ ᴹ✶Et-pele > eppele > N. Ephel ✧ WR/137
alpʰa > alɸa pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶alk-wā > ON. alpha ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
gampʰa > gamɸa pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√GAP > N. gamp ✧ Ety/GAP
gampʰasse > gamɸasse pʰ > ɸ ON. gampasse > N. gammas ✧ EtyAC/GAP
inpʰantʰa > inɸantʰa pʰ > ɸ ON. inpanta > in-fant > N. ifant ✧ Ety/YEN
kalpʰa > kalɸa pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√KALPA > N. calf ✧ Ety/KALPA
limpʰe > limɸe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimp ✧ Ety/LINKWI
nimpʰe > nimɸe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimp ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimpʰirete > nimɸirete pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimpʰit- > nimɸit- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimmid ✧ Ety/NIK-W
salpʰa > salɸa pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√SÁLAP > ON. salpha ✧ Ety/SÁLAP
silpʰion > silɸion pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√SÍLIP > N. **Silfion ✧ Ety/SIL
tumpʰo > tumɸo pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√TUMPU > N. tump ✧ Ety/TUMPU
xampʰa- > xamɸa- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamma- ✧ Ety/KHAP
xampʰata > xamɸata pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
xampʰe > xamɸe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamp ✧ Ety/KHAP
pʰaina > ɸaina pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > N. foen ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰaire > ɸaire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > ON. phaire ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰajanǭr > ɸajanǭr pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ON. Phayanṓr ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. falas ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalassi > ɸalassi pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. feles ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalma > ɸalma pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. falf ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalsa- > ɸalsa- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ON. phalsóbe ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰara- > ɸara- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR² > ON. pharóbe ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
pʰaradīr > ɸaradīr pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR² > N. feredir ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
pʰarasse > ɸarasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR² > ON. pharasse ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
pʰaren > ɸaren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > N. far ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarja- > ɸarja- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > N. feira- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarna > ɸarna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > N. farn ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰaste > ɸaste pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ON. phasta ✧ Ety/PHAS
pʰeleke > ɸeleke pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHELÉK > N. feleg ✧ EtyAC/PHELÉK
pʰelga > ɸelga pʰ > ɸ ON. phelga > N. fela ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
pʰelga > ɸelga pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ON. phelga ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
pʰelgi > ɸelgi pʰ > ɸ ON. phelga > N. fili ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
pʰenda > ɸenda pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEN > ON. phenda ✧ Ety/PHEN
pʰeren > ɸeren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phéren > ON. pheren ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
pʰerna > ɸerna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉREN > ON. pherna ✧ Ety/PHER
pʰilike > ɸilike pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHILIK > N. filig ✧ Ety/PHILIK
pʰinde > ɸinde pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIN > ON. phinde ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰindekǭno > ɸindekǭno pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰindarǭto > ɸinderǭto pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰinja > ɸinja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIN > ON. phinya ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰinwe > ɸinwe pʰ > ɸ ON. Phinwe > N. **Finw ✧ Ety/PHIN
pʰirja > ɸirja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirji > ɸirji pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > N. fîr ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirna > ɸirna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > N. fern ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰliŋxe > ɸliŋxe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶philínkē > N. flinc ✧ PE21/56
pʰǭka > ɸǭka pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAU̯ > ON. phauka ✧ Ety/PHAU
pʰorja > ɸorja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰormena > ɸormena pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > N. forven ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰormenja > ɸormenja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
pʰorna > ɸorna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > N. forn ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰorote > ɸorote pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phoroti > N. forod ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰuia- > ɸuia- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEW > ON. phuióbe ✧ Ety/PHEW
pʰuine > ɸuine pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phuine > N. fuin ✧ Ety/PHUY
attʰ- > aθθ- ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. ath- ✧ Ety/RAT
-attʰa > -aθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶-atta > N. -ath ✧ PE21/57
battʰa- > baθθa- ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶battā́ > ON. batthṓ ✧ Ety/BAT
dalattʰe > dalaθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√DAL > N. dalath ✧ Ety/DAL
dattʰa > daθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶dattā > N. dath ✧ Ety/DAT
gattʰa > gaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶gattā > N. gath ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
grottʰo > groθθo ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√ROT > N. groth ✧ EtyAC/ROT
jattʰa > jaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶yatta > N. iath ✧ EtyAC/YAT
kelettʰe > keleθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√KEL > N. celeth ✧ EtyAC/KEL
lattʰa > laθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√LATH/LAT > N. lhath ✧ Ety/LATH
mattʰa- > maθθa- ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶mahtā́ > ON. matthṓ-be ✧ Ety/MAƷ
mberettʰe > mbereθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√MBER > N. bereth ✧ Ety/MBER
mbottʰo > mboθθo ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√MBOTH > N. both ✧ Ety/MBOTH
melettʰe > meleθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√MEL > N. meleth ✧ Ety/MEL
merettʰe > mereθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√MER > N. mereth ✧ Ety/MBER
mettʰa > meθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶metta > N. meth ✧ Ety/MET
nanittʰa > naniθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√NAN > N. naneth ✧ Ety/NAN
nettʰa > neθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√NETH > N. Neth ✧ Ety/NĪ¹
palattʰe > palaθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√PAL > N. palath ✧ Ety/PAL
pattʰa > paθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶pathnā > ON. pattha ✧ Ety/PATH
pettʰa > peθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶kwetta > N. peth ✧ Ety/KWET
rattʰa > raθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶rattā̆ > ON. rattha ✧ Ety/RAT
rottʰo > roθθo ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√ROT > N. roth ✧ EtyAC/ROT
settʰa > seθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ✶settā > N. seth ✧ EtyAC/SET
skalattʰa > skalaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√SKAL > N. ?halath ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skalattʰi > skalaθθi ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√SKAL > N. heleth ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skelattʰa > skelaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√SKEL > N. helath ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skelettʰe > skeleθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√SKEL > N. heleth ✧ Ety/SKEL
tittʰina > tiθθina ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√TIT > N. tithen ✧ Ety/TIT
tittʰini > tiθθini ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√TIT > N. tithin ✧ Ety/TIT
wanattʰa > wanaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√WAN > N. gwanath ✧ Ety/WAN
wattʰa- > waθθa- ttʰ > θθ ON. wattóbe > N. gwatho ✧ Ety/WAƷ
wattʰe > waθθe ttʰ > θθ ON. watte > N. gwath ✧ Ety/WAƷ
wilittʰe > wiliθθe ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√WIL > N. gwilith ✧ Ety/WIL
wilwilittʰa > wilwiliθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√WIL > N. gwilwileth ✧ Ety/WIL
xatlattʰa > xatlaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√KHAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/KHAT
xatlattʰa > xatlaθθa ttʰ > θθ ᴹ√LATH/LAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/LATH
ambartʰa > ambarθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT
ambatʰ > ambaθ tʰ > θ ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ambath > N. amath ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
antʰa > anθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. ant ✧ Ety/ANA¹
antʰa- > anθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. anno ✧ Ety/ANA¹
arjantʰe > arjanθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. Eriant ✧ Ety/AR¹
atlantʰa- > atlanθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. atlanno ✧ Ety/TALÁT
atlantʰa > atlanθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. atlant ✧ Ety/TALÁT
awartʰa > awarθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√WAR > N. awarth ✧ Ety/WAR
awartʰa- > awarθa- tʰ > θ ON. awarta > N. awartha ✧ Ety/WAR
baltʰil > balθil tʰ > θ ON. Balthil > N. Belthil ✧ Ety/BAL
baratʰi > baraθi tʰ > θ ᴹ√BARATH > N. bereth ✧ Ety/BARATH
bertʰa > berθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√BER > ON. bértha- ✧ Ety/BER
bretʰa > breθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. breth ✧ EtyAC/NEL
bretʰel > breθele tʰ > θ ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. brethel ✧ Ety/NEL
bretʰeli > breθeli tʰ > θ ᴹ√BERÉTH > N. brethil ✧ Ety/NEL
dantʰ > danθ tʰ > θ ᴹ√DANT > N. dant- ✧ Ety/DAT
dartʰa- > darθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√DAR > N. dartha ✧ Ety/DAR
dultʰa- > dulθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√DUL > N. doltha ✧ Ety/DUL
entʰrende > enθrende tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN
gartʰa > garθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√GARAT > N. garth ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
gartʰa- > garθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√GARAT > N. gartho ✧ EtyAC/GAR
gotʰombǭko > goθombǭko tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
gotʰorǭko > goθorǭko tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Gothorauk- > N. Gothrog ✧ EtyAC/MBAW
inɸantʰa > inɸanθa tʰ > θ ON. inpanta > in-fant > N. ifant ✧ Ety/YEN
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ITHIL > N. Ithil ✧ Ety/I²
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > N. †Ithil ✧ Ety/SIL
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > N. †Ithil ✧ Ety/THIL
itʰīl > iθīl tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Ithīl > N. Ithil ✧ SD/306
jantʰa > janθa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶yantā > N. iant ✧ Ety/YAT
kantʰa > kanθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√KAT > N. cant ✧ Ety/KAT
kartʰa > karθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√KAR > N. carth ✧ Ety/KAR
kentʰano > kenθano tʰ > θ ᴹ√TAN > N. cennan ✧ Ety/TAN
kentʰano > kenθano tʰ > θ ᴹ√KEM > N. cennan ✧ EtyAC/KEM
kirtʰan > kirθan tʰ > θ ᴹ√TAN > ON. Certhan ✧ Ety/TAN
kʰortʰa- > kʰorθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√KHOR > N. hortha- ✧ Ety/KHOR
lantʰa > lanθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√LAT > N. lhant ✧ Ety/LAT
lotʰo > loθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√LOTH > N. lhoth ✧ Ety/LOT(H)
luntʰe > lunθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√LUT > N. lhunt ✧ Ety/LUT
mbartʰa- > mbarθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√MBARAT > N. bartho ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mentʰe > menθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√MET > N. ment ✧ Ety/MET
mintʰe > minθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√MIT > N. mint ✧ EtyAC/MIT
mitʰe > miθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√MITH > N. mith ✧ Ety/MITH
mitʰe > miθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√MITH > N. mith ✧ Ety/MITH
nartʰa- > narθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√NARTA > N. nartho ✧ EtyAC/NARTA
nartʰasse > narθasse tʰ > θ ᴹ√NARTA > N. Narthas ✧ EtyAC/NARTA
ndanitʰǭro > ndaniθǭro tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
ndoltʰi > ndolθi tʰ > θ ᴹ√NDOL > N. dylt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndoltʰo > ndolθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√NDOL > N. dolt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndortʰa- > ndorθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√NDOR > N. dortho- ✧ Ety/NDOR
netʰra > neθra tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nethra > N. neth ✧ Ety/NETH
ŋgorotʰo > ŋgoroθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > N. goroth ✧ Ety/ÑGOROTH
ŋgurtʰu > ŋgurθu tʰ > θ ON. ngurtu > N. guruth ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
nītʰe > nīθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nēthē > N. nîth ✧ Ety/NETH
norotʰa > noroθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√NOROTH > N. Noroth ✧ EtyAC/NOROTH
noutʰa- > nouθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√NOWO > N. nautha- ✧ Ety/NOWO
noutʰe > nouθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√NOWO > N. nauth ✧ Ety/NOWO
ontʰa- > onθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√ONO > N. #onna ✧ Ety/ONO
ortʰa- > orθa- tʰ > θ ON. ortóbe > N. ortho ✧ Ety/ORO
ortʰel- > orθel- tʰ > θ ᴹ√TEL > N. ortheli ✧ Ety/TEL
ortʰur- > orθur- tʰ > θ ᴹ✶or-tur- > N. orthor ✧ Ety/TUR
pantʰa- > panθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√KWAT > N. pannod ✧ Ety/KWAT
pantʰa > panθa tʰ > θ ON. panta > N. pant ✧ Ety/KWAT
pantʰjīnare > panθjīnare tʰ > θ ᴹ√KWAT > N. penninar ✧ Ety/YEN
pantʰra- > panθra- tʰ > θ ᴹ√KWAT > N. pathro ✧ Ety/KWAT
partʰa- > parθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√PAR > ON. parthóbi ✧ Ety/PAR
patʰwa > paθwa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶pathmā > ON. pathwa ✧ Ety/PATH
peltʰakse > pelθakse tʰ > θ ᴹ✶peltakse > ON. pelthaksa ✧ Ety/PEL
pentʰa > penθa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶kwentā > N. pent ✧ Ety/KWET
pentʰasse > penθasse tʰ > θ ᴹ√KWET > N. pennas ✧ Ety/KWET
pentʰro > penθro tʰ > θ ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET
rantʰa > ranθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√RAT > N. rant ✧ Ety/RAT
skeltʰa- > skelθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ✶skelta- > N. heltha ✧ Ety/SKEL
smaltʰa > smalθa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶smaltā > ON. maltha ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
spantʰur > spanθur tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Spanturo > N. Fennyr/Fennuir ✧ Ety/SPAN
stintʰasse > stinθasse tʰ > θ ᴹ√STINTĀ > N. thinnas ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
sθintʰa > sθinθa tʰ > θ ON. sthinta > N. thent ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
sxaltʰa- > sxalθa- tʰ > θ ON. skhalta- > N. haltha ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
taltʰa > talθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. talt ✧ Ety/TALÁT
taŋkʰantʰe > taŋkʰanθe tʰ > θ ON. tankánte > N. tangant ✧ PE17/44
tatʰre > taθre tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tatharē > tathrē > N. tathor ✧ Ety/TATHAR
tintʰa- > tinθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√TIN > N. tinno ✧ Ety/TIN
tintʰe > tinθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√TIN > N. tint ✧ Ety/TIN
tolotʰo > toloθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√TOL¹-OTH/OT > N. toloth ✧ Ety/TOL¹-OTH/OT
tultʰa- > tulθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tultā- > N. toltho ✧ Ety/TUL
turtʰa- > turθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√TUR > N. tortho ✧ Ety/TUR
tʰar- > θar- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THAR > N. Thar- ✧ Ety/THAR
θeles > θele tʰ > θ ᴹ√THELES > ON. thele ✧ Ety/THEL
tʰelesi > θelesi tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thelesi > ON. thelehi ✧ Ety/THEL
tʰīa- > θīa- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THĒ > N. thio ✧ Ety/THĒ
tʰilja- > θilja- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > N. thilio ✧ Ety/THIL
tʰinde > θinde tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thindi > thind > N. thinn ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinje > θinje tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > N. †thîn ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinθa > θinθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ON. thintha ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰīre > θīre tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thērē > N. thîr ✧ Ety/THĒ
tʰondo > θondo tʰ > θ ᴹ√SON > N. thond ✧ EtyAC/SON
tʰora > θora tʰ > θ ᴹ√THOR > N. thôr ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰǭrena > θǭrena tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tháurēnā > N. thoren ✧ Ety/THUR
tʰoron > θoron tʰ > θ ᴹ√THÓRON > N. thôr ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰoron > θoron tʰ > θ ᴹ√THÓRON > ON. thoronen ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰoroni > θoroni tʰ > θ ᴹ√THÓRON > N. therein ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰoroto > θoroto tʰ > θ ᴹ√THOR > N. thôrod ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰǭsa > θǭsa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thausā > N. thaw ✧ Ety/THUS
tʰuia- > θuia- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > N. thuio ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰūle > θūle tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > N. thūl ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰura- > θura- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUR > N. thoro- ✧ Ety/THUR
tʰūse > θūse tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUS > N. thû ✧ Ety/THUS
tʰusta > θusta tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUS > N. thost ✧ EtyAC/THUS
tʰusta- > θusta- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUS > N. thosto ✧ EtyAC/THUS
tʰintʰa > tʰinθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ON. thintha ✧ Ety/THIN
wantʰa- > wanθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ✶wanta- > N. gwanno ✧ Ety/WAN
wartʰa > warθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√WAR > N. gwarth ✧ Ety/WAR
watʰa > waθa tʰ > θ ᴹ√WATH > ON. watha ✧ Ety/WATH
wintʰa- > winθa- tʰ > θ ᴹ✶wínta- > ON. wintha ✧ Ety/WIN
xertʰe > xerθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√KHER > N. herth ✧ Ety/KHER
xītʰe > xīθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > N. hîth ✧ Ety/KHIS
xitʰwa > xiθwa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithwa > N. hethw ✧ Ety/KHIS
xitʰwe > xiθwe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithme > N. hithw ✧ Ety/KHIS