S. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

S. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

As suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.180), the phonetic developments of the primitive aspirate [pʰ] as well as the spirantal sounds that developed from [b] were most likely bilabial spirants [ɸ] and [β] to begin with, developing into labio-dental [f] and [v] later. The occasional appearance of and ƀ for these sounds in Tolkien’s writing supports this idea, such as on PE22/28 and PE19/101. The timing of this change is hard to nail down; I put it early in my series of sound changes purely for convenience (“f” and “v” are easier to type than “ɸ” and “β”). Most likely this sound change occurred at all conceptual stages of Tolkien’s languages.

Order (01300)

Before 05200 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] espin-delē > findel > S. finnel
ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn
PE17/17
Ety/PHEN
Before 05400 [œ] became [e] ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir Ety/PHOR

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f]
[β] > [v]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɸɸat- > affat- ɸ > f ap-pata > S. aphad- ✧ WJ/387
aɸɸet- > affet- ɸ > f at-kwet > S. aphed ✧ PE17/166
alɸa > alfa ɸ > f T. alpa > S. alph ✧ UT/265
alɸa > alfa ɸ > f alkwa > S. alf ✧ VT42/7
alɸi > alfi ɸ > f T. alpa > S. eilph ✧ UT/265
eɸɸel > effel ɸ > f et-pel > eppel > S. ephel ✧ PE17/65
ɸaila > faila ɸ > f PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352
ɸalasse > falasse ɸ > f PHAL > S. falas ✧ PE17/62
ɸalasse > falasse ɸ > f PHAL > S. falas ✧ PE17/73
ɸana > fana ɸ > f FAN > S. fân ✧ PE17/26
ɸana > fana ɸ > f FAN > S. Fân ✧ PE17/26
ɸana > fana ɸ > f SPAN > S. fân ✧ PE17/36
ɸana > fana ɸ > f phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/173
ɸana > fana ɸ > f phanā > S. fân ✧ PE17/174
ɸana > fana ɸ > f Fana- > S. fân ✧ RGEO/66
ɸanoia > fanoia ɸ > f FAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/26
ɸanoia > fanoia ɸ > f SPAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/36
ɸanθa- > fanθa- ɸ > f phantā- > S. fanha- ✧ PE17/174
ɸaran > faran ɸ > f pharan- > S. faran ✧ PE17/83
ɸaran > faran ɸ > f PHARAN > S. faran ✧ PE17/83
ɸawa > fawa ɸ > f PHAW > phaw > S. faw ✧ PE17/181
ɸeleke > feleke ɸ > f PHELEK > S. feleg ✧ PE17/118
ɸelɣa > felɣa ɸ > f phelgā > S. fela ✧ PE17/118
ɸenna > fenna ɸ > f PHEN > S. fen ✧ PE17/181
ɸerīa > ferīa ɸ > f PHERE > S. ferui ✧ PE17/181
ɸerja > ferja ɸ > f pheryā > feir > S. fair ✧ PE17/181
ɸerja- > ferja- ɸ > f PHERE > S. feria- ✧ PE17/181
ɸimbe > fimbe ɸ > f PHIM > S. fim ✧ PE17/23
ɸindarǭto > findarǭto ɸ > f findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
ɸinde > finde ɸ > f spindē > S. find ✧ PE17/17
ɸinde > finde ɸ > f phindē > S. find ✧ PM/362
ɸindela > findela ɸ > f spindilā > S. †findel ✧ PE17/17
ɸindela > findela ɸ > f spin-dela > S. findel ✧ PE17/119
ɸindele > findele ɸ > f espin-delē > findel > S. finnel ✧ PE17/17
ɸine > fine ɸ > f SPIN- > S. fin- ✧ PE17/17
ɸine > fine ɸ > f phini- > S. fîn ✧ PM/362
ɸineka > fineka ɸ > f finik/fink > S. fineg ✧ PE17/17
ɸiniŋgorna > finiŋgorna ɸ > f Phiniñgornā > S. Fingorn ✧ PE17/113
ɸīrepa > fīrepa ɸ > f PHIRI > S. Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
ɸliŋxe > fliŋxe ɸ > f AT. phlinke > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/72
ɸliŋxe > fliŋxe ɸ > f philinkĭ > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/81
gamɸa > gamfa ɸ > f gampa > S. gamp ✧ VT47/20
kamɸru > kamfru ɸ > f camprû > camfrū > S. cāfru ✧ PE17/131
karɸa- > karfa- ɸ > f KARAP > S. carfa ✧ PE17/126
nimɸe > nimfe ɸ > f NIK > S. nimp ✧ PE17/168
nimɸe > nimfe ɸ > f nimpĭ > S. nimp ✧ VT48/18
nimɸiraite > nimfiraite ɸ > f ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
ɸanja > ɸanja ɸ > f FAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/26
ɸanja > ɸanja ɸ > f phanyā > S. fain ✧ PE17/174
ɸanja > ɸanja ɸ > f PHAN > S. fain ✧ PE17/179
buðβo > buðvo β > v buzbō > S. buðu ✧ PE19/101

N. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [ɸ|β] > [f|v]

GS/§4.180 @@@

Order (01300)

Before 01900 [ou] became [au] ON. Phayanṓr > Feanoúr > N. Féanor Ety/PHAY
Before 05300 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn Ety/PHEN
Before 05400 [œ] became [e] ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir Ety/PHOR

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f] ✧ PE19/18 (ph/f- > f-); PE19/18 (ph/f- > f/f-); PE19/21 (phr- > fr-); PE19/21 (phl- > fl-); PE19/23 (-ph- > -f-)
[β] > [v]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aɸɸarxa > affarxa ɸ > f ON. appharkha > N. afarch ✧ EtyAC/A
alɸa > alfa ɸ > f ON. alpha > N. alf ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
alɸi > alfi ɸ > f ON. alpha > N. Elf ✧ Ety/KHOP
eɸɸele > effele ɸ > f ᴹ✶Et-pele > eppele > N. Ephel ✧ WR/137
ɸaika > faika ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY
ɸaina > faina ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAY > N. foen ✧ Ety/PHAY
ɸalasse > falasse ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. falas ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalassi > falassi ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. feles ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalma > falma ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. falf ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸalsa- > falsa- ɸ > f ON. phalsóbe > N. faltho ✧ Ety/PHAL
ɸaŋga > faŋga ɸ > f ON. sphanga > N. fang ✧ Ety/SPÁNAG
ɸanja > fanja ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAN > N. fein ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸanθur > fanθur ɸ > f ᴹ✶Spanturo > N. Fennyr/Fennuir ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸara- > fara- ɸ > f ON. (s)pharóbe > N. faro ✧ Ety/SPAR
ɸaradīr > faradīr ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAR > N. feredir ✧ Ety/SPAR
ɸaradīr > faradīr ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR² > N. feredir ✧ EtyAC/PHAR²
ɸarasse > farasse ɸ > f ON. (s)pharasse > N. faras ✧ Ety/SPAR
ɸare > fare ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > N. far ✧ Ety/PHAR
ɸarja- > farja- ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > N. feira- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
ɸarma > farma ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAR² > N. farf ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
ɸarna > farna ɸ > f ᴹ√PHAR > N. farn ✧ Ety/PHAR
ɸasta > fasta ɸ > f ON. phasta > N. fast ✧ Ety/PHAS
ɸauka > fauka ɸ > f ON. phauka > N. faug ✧ Ety/PHAU
ɸeanour > feanour ɸ > f ON. Phayanṓr > Feanoúr > N. Féanor ✧ Ety/PHAY
ɸeleke > feleke ɸ > f ᴹ√PHELÉK > N. feleg ✧ EtyAC/PHELÉK
ɸelɣa > felɣa ɸ > f ON. phelga > N. fela ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
ɸelɣi > felɣi ɸ > f ON. phelga > N. fili ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
ɸenda > fenda ɸ > f ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn ✧ Ety/PHEN
ɸere > fere ɸ > f ON. pheren > N. †fêr ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
ɸereni > fereni ɸ > f ON. pheren > N. †ferin ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
ɸerja > ferja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸerna > ferna ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > N. fern ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸilike > filike ɸ > f ᴹ√PHILIK > N. filig ✧ Ety/PHILIK
ɸindekouno > findekouno ɸ > f ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
ɸindele > findele ɸ > f ON. sphindéle > findel > N. finnel ✧ Ety/SPIN
ɸinderouto > finderouto ɸ > f ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
ɸinwe > finwe ɸ > f ON. Phinwe > N. **Finw ✧ Ety/PHIN
ɸirji > firji ɸ > f ᴹ√PHIR > N. fîr ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸliŋxe > fliŋxe ɸ > f ᴹ✶philínkē > N. flinc ✧ PE21/56
ɸorja > forja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
ɸormena > formena ɸ > f ᴹ√PHOR > N. forven ✧ Ety/PHOR
ɸormenja > formenja ɸ > f ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
ɸorna > forna ɸ > f ᴹ√PHOR > N. forn ✧ Ety/PHOR
ɸorote > forote ɸ > f ᴹ✶phoroti > N. forod ✧ Ety/PHOR
ɸouna > founa ɸ > f ᴹ✶spāna > N. faun ✧ Ety/SPAN
ɸoura > foura ɸ > f ᴹ√SPAR² > N. faur ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
ɸuia- > fuia- ɸ > f ON. phuióbe > N. fuio ✧ Ety/PHEW
ɸuine > fuine ɸ > f ᴹ✶phuine > N. fuin ✧ Ety/PHUY
gamɸa > gamfa ɸ > f ᴹ√GAP > N. gamp ✧ Ety/GAP
gamɸasse > gamfasse ɸ > f ON. gampasse > N. gammas ✧ EtyAC/GAP
inɸanθa > infanθa ɸ > f ON. inpanta > in-fant > N. ifant ✧ Ety/YEN
kalɸa > kalfa ɸ > f ᴹ√KALPA > N. calf ✧ Ety/KALPA
limɸe > limfe ɸ > f ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimp ✧ Ety/LINKWI
nimɸe > nimfe ɸ > f ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimp ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimɸirete > nimfirete ɸ > f ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimɸit- > nimfit- ɸ > f ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimmid ✧ Ety/NIK-W
salɸa > salfa ɸ > f ON. salpha > N. salff ✧ Ety/SÁLAP
silɸion > silfion ɸ > f ᴹ√SÍLIP > N. **Silfion ✧ Ety/SIL
tumɸo > tumfo ɸ > f ᴹ√TUMPU > N. tump ✧ Ety/TUMPU
xamɸa- > xamfa- ɸ > f ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamma- ✧ Ety/KHAP
xamɸata > xamɸata ɸ > f ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
xamɸe > xamɸe ɸ > f ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamp ✧ Ety/KHAP

G. [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v]; [β|ɸ] > [v|f]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ɸ] > [f]
[β] > [v]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ɸaigrin > faigrin ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > G. fegrin ✧ QL/37
ɸaire > faire ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > G. fair ✧ LT1A/Dor Faidwen
ɸaiθ > faiθ ɸ > f ᴱ√FAYA > G. faith ✧ LT1A/Dor Faidwen
ɸalma > falma ɸ > f ᴱ√fal-¹ > G. falm ✧ GL/33
ɸalt > falt ɸ > f ᴱ√fal-² > G. falt ✧ GL/33
ɸīðlī > fīðlī ɸ > f ᴱ✶fīđ’lī > G. faigli ✧ GL/35
ɸḹk > fḹk ɸ > f ᴱ√FḶKḶ > G. Falc ✧ LT2A/Glorfalc
ɸḹkan > fḹkan ɸ > f ᴱ√FḶKḶ > G. falchon ✧ LT2A/Glorfalc
ɸṇ̄t > fṇ̄t ɸ > f ‽ᴱ√fṇ̄t > G. fant ✧ GL/34
ɸṇta- > fṇta- ɸ > f ᴱ√fṇt > G. fintha- ✧ GL/35
ɸoloim > foloim ɸ > f ᴱ√fol- > G. fluim ✧ GL/35
ɸoxna > foxna ɸ > f ᴱ√foχo > G. fuin ✧ GL/36
ɸoxs > foxs ɸ > f ᴱ√foχo > G. fuis ✧ GL/36
ɸoxta- > foxta- ɸ > f ᴱ√foχo > G. fuitha¹ ✧ GL/36
ɸur- > fur- ɸ > f ᴱ√FURU > G. fur- ✧ LT2A/Gar Thurion
jaβ- > jav- β > v ᴱ√ı̯aƀa > G. gav- ✧ GL/38
jaβsta > javsta β > v ᴱ√ı̯aƀa > G. gaust ✧ GL/38
taβ- > kav- β > v #ᴱ√tyav- > G. caf- ✧ GL/24
kaβka > kavka β > v ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
kaβko > kavko β > v ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
kaβm > kavm β > v ᴱ√kava- > G. caum ✧ GL/25
kaβta- > kavta- β > v #ᴱ√tyav- > G. cautha- ✧ GL/24
kʷiβ- > kʷiv- β > v ᴱ√QIV > G. cwiv- ✧ GL/29
maβs > mavs β > v ᴱ√maƀ > G. maus ✧ GL/57
naβs > navs β > v ᴱ√naf- > G. naus ✧ GL/59
raβste > ravste β > v ᴱ√RAVA > G. raust ✧ LT1A/Meássë
uβna > uvna β > v ᴱ✶uƀna > G. †uvon ✧ GL/75