S. [œ] became [e]; [œ] > [e]

S. [œ] became [e]; [œ] > [e]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, wherever the vowel [œ] arose as the result of i-affection, it eventually developed into [e]. The clearest description of this sound change appears in Tolkien’s notes on the Noldorin use of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s, where he mentioned this sound change several times:

As the notes above indicate, in Noldorin wherever the diphthong [œi] arose from i-intrusion, it too became [ei]. The phonetic development of the diphthong [œi] is much less clear in Sindarin, since it arose only rarely: see the entry on how [œi] became [ui] or [y] for further discussion.

Some clear examples of this change include:

Analyzing the intermediate developments is complicated by the fact that Tolkien sometimes wrote oe for [œ], which he also used to represent the diphthong [oe]. In other cases, Tolkien did write œ, but it was recorded as oe when published. And sometimes Tolkien’s handwriting is simply hard to decipher for such subtle distinctions.

Conceptual Developments: I-affection was not a factor in the earliest Gnomish plurals. As noted in Thorsten Renk’s Early Noldorin Plural Patterns (ENPP), the vowel o in the initial syllable of words became either oe or e for plurals in Early Noldorin, though in one exceptional case it became y: ᴱN. lylyth plural of ᴱN. loloth “poplar-tree” (PE13/149). Thus it seems likely that [œ] > [e] was introduced soon after i-affection. In fact, there is one example in the early Noldorin Dictionary where ᴱN. goelydh appears before gelydh as an (older?) plural of ᴱN. Golodh “Gnome” (PE13/162). Roman Rausch also noted this as the probable development in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.2.1).

Order (05200)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh Ety/ÑGOLOD
After 00800 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
After 01300 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir Ety/PHOR
After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] ñgolodō > S. gœlyð PE17/139
After 02200 short final vowels vanished ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
After 02300 final [i] intruded into preceding syllable ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN
After 05000 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN
Before 05300 final [ll], [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN

Phonetic Rule Elements

[œ] > [e]

Phonetic Rule Examples

œnnin > ennin œ > e ONO > S. #oennin ✧ WJ/387
œryd > eryd œ > e OR/ORO > S. eryd/ered ✧ PE17/64
œryn > eryn œ > e oronī > S. Eryn ✧ PE17/33
œryn > eryn œ > e oronyē > S. eryn ✧ PE17/119
gœlyð > gelyð œ > e ñgolodō > S. Goelydh ✧ WJ/364
gœlyð > gelyð œ > e ñgolodō > S. gœlyð ✧ PE17/139
-iœnn > -ienn œ > e (ĭ)ondī > S. -ien ✧ PE17/170
θœlyh > θelyh œ > e ÞOL > S. thely ✧ PE17/188

N. [œ] became [e]; [œ] > [e]

GS/§4.189 @@@

References ✧ PE22/37, 39

Order (05400)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh Ety/ÑGOLOD
After 01100 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
After 01300 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir Ety/PHOR
After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN
After 02100 short final vowels vanished ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
After 02200 final [i] intruded into preceding syllable ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen Ety/RUN
After 02300 initial [r-], [l-] were unvoiced #ᴹ✶runya > rhoein > N. rhein Ety/RUN
After 05300 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN
Before 05500 final [ll], [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN
Before 06700 [ei] sometimes became [e] in unstressed final syllables ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen
ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > N. tellen
Ety/RUN
Ety/TAL

Phonetic Rule Elements

[œ] > [e]

Phonetic Rule Examples

arnœdiad > arnediad œ > e N. arnœdiad > N. arnediad ✧ Ety/NOT
brœnia- > brenia- œ > e ON. bronie > N. brenio ✧ Ety/BORÓN
dœlia- > delia- œ > e ᴹ√DUL > dœlio > N. delio ✧ Ety/DUL
dœrœin > derein œ > e ᴹ√DÓRON > N. dœrœin/deren ✧ Ety/DÓRON
œil > eil œ > e ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil ✧ Ety/ULU
œlœi > elei œ > e ᴹ√ÓLOS > N. elei ✧ Ety/ÓLOS
œrœid > ereid œ > e ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered ✧ Ety/ÓROT
œrœid > ereid œ > e N. †œrœid > N. ered ✧ PE22/41
œria- > eria- œ > e ON. orie > N. erio ✧ Ety/ORO
fœir > feir œ > e ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
fœrvein > fervein œ > e ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
gœlœið > geleið œ > e ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
gwedœir > gwedeir œ > e ON. wator > N. gwedeir ✧ Ety/TOR
hœria- > heria- œ > e ᴹ√KHOR > hoerio > N. herio ✧ Ety/KHOR
kœrin > kerin œ > e ᴹ√KOR > N. cerin ✧ Ety/KOR
mœrilinn > merilinn œ > e Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin ✧ Ety/TIN
mœrilinn > merilinn œ > e Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn ✧ EtyAC/TIN
r̥œin > r̥ein œ > e #ᴹ✶runya > rhoein > N. rhein ✧ Ety/RUN
tellœin > tellein œ > e ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen ✧ Ety/RUN
tellœin > tellein œ > e ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > N. tellen ✧ Ety/TAL
θœrœin > θerein œ > e ᴹ√THÓRON > N. therein ✧ Ety/THOR