S. short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a]; [-{ĭŭ}{C|CC}a] > [-{eo}{C|CC}a]

S. short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a]; [-{ĭŭ}{C|CC}a] > [-{eo}{C|CC}a]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, the short vowels i and u were lowered to e and o in the syllable before final a, a phenomenon known as a-affection after the corresponding sound changes in Welsh (WGCH/§68). Tolkien himself used this term for the phenomenon:

Since the a-affection which produces geil from *gilyā only operates with final , the form in compounds is gil-. Gilgalad = “starlight” < *gilicalat- (PE17/152).

This phenomenon was recognized as part of Sindarin’s phonological history as far back as Jim Allen’s Introduction to Elvish published in 1978 (pp. 115-116, in an article written by Chris Gilson and Bill Welden). A more recent and more thorough analysis appears in Bertrand Bellet’s Vowel Affection in Sindarin and Noldorin article (VASN), published in Arda Philology 1 in 2005. My analysis is essentially the same as his, but with some additional examples that have been published in the intervening years.

Examples of this sound change are numerous in both Sindarin and Noldorin:

This sound change was limited to the syllable immediately before the final a, and did not apply to long [ī] or [ū]:

One of the challenges of analyzing a-affection is that it was frequently obscured by other sound changes. A-affection is fairly obvious in the case of ✶dankĭna > S. dangen and ✶ambuna > S. amon, less so in ✶lisyā > S. laich and ✶ugrā > S. oer. The final a that produced the affection was itself invariably lost when short final vowels vanished. Within the fictional context of Tolkien’s world, a-affection can only be detected by comparing related words that have different vowels, either within Sindarin itself or across Sindarin and Quenya. Fortunately, in many cases Tolkien made it clear when a-affection occurred by providing the primitive forms of Sindarin or Noldorin words, making the existence of primitive final a explicit.

Another obscuring sound change for a-affection is that short [u] often became [o] more generally in Sindarin and Noldorin. It can be tricky to tell when u > o was a result of a-affection, and when it was simply part of the general trend of u > o. There are, however, some conditions in which short u is usually preserved, such as before before nasals: ✶turunko > S. trunc “great stake” (PE21/80) or ᴹ✶tundu > N. tunn “hill, mound” (Ety/TUN). In such cases, the change of u > o must be the result of a-affection; compare with ᴹ✶tundā > N. tonn “tall” above.

Since final was a common feature of Primitive Elvish adjectives, one net result of a-affection is occasional i/e and u/o variation between Sindarin and Noldorin nouns and adjectives. Examples include:

A-affection also plays a role in the origin of the common Sindarin and Noldorin adjective suffixes S. -eb < ✶-ikwā (WJ/412) and S. -en < ✶-inā (PE17/131). As pointed out by Bertrand Bellet (VASN), the latter suffix often appears as -in in (ancient?) compounds: S./N. Celebrindal “Silver Foot”, S. Glórindol “Golden Head”, N. Melthinorn “Tree of Gold”. Presumably the a-affection did not take place medially in these compounds, so that the in was preserved. Whether the in would also be restored in later compounds is unclear, but examples like S. Calenhad “Green Space” and N. Methendol “*Last Hill” suggests this was probably not the case.

A-affection (unlike i-affection) does not seem to play a general role in verb inflection. In theory, any a-stem verb with i or (rare) u as its base vowel might undergo a-affection in its uninflected present-tense forms, but there are a several examples that indicate this is not the case: linna “sing” (PE17/27), S. minna “enter” (PE17/41), N. thinna “fade” (Ety/THIN), S. ruthra “rage” (PE17/188). Likely these verbs were reformed by analogy with their inflected forms, such as linnon “I sing”. However, there are a couple of examples where a-affection seems to play a role in the development of verbs that had more complex phonological changes:

These verb forms are hard to explain without assuming a-affection of the base vowel [u] > [o] and [i] > [e], respectively. The second example is contrasted with inflected forms (also on PE17/167) where no a-affection took place, such as past tense rithant and (3rd singular?) rithas. The verb form raitha is doubly-unusual in that it also shows [ei] > [ai], something that normally occurs only in final syllables in Sindarin. A nearby deleted form reitha indicates Tolkien may have been uncertain of the exact development of this verb.

There are, however, other examples where no such a-affection takes place in uninflected verb forms:

This last example appears only in its (Noldorin) infinitive form: rhitho. Given the sparsity of examples, it is hard to determine what these variations represent: (a) conceptual vacillations on Tolkien’s part, (b) dialectical differences or (c) they are simply examples where the uninflected verb underwent a-affection but for whatever reason was not reformed to match its inflected forms.

With all the complex interactions between a-affection and other sound changes, determining when this change occurred in Sindarin/Noldorin phonological history is especially important. Based on Noldorin examples like rhem above, I assume the sound change occurred after the Old Sindarin/Old Noldorin period, as does David Salo (GS/§4.95). It must necessarily have occurred before short final vowels vanished, because the a that caused the affection later vanished in all cases. There are a few examples that indicate it also took place before the vocalizations of voiced and voiceless spirants:

The latter isn’t an obvious example of a-affection, but since final [e] became [a] after [s] (at least in Noldorin), the apparent development is: [tupsē] > [tupsa] > [tuɸsa] > [toɸsa] > [tousa] > [taus]. This phonetic development is only possible if a-affection took place before the vocalization of the labial spirant [ɸ] > [u]; if the vocalization of [ɸ] occurred first, the ultimate result would have been **tûs.

@@@ Example of change at morpheme boundary: ON Certhan

Conceptual Development: There isn’t any clear evidence of a-affection in Gnomish, but there are examples of a-affection in the Early Noldorin of the 1920s, as pointed out by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.2.1). Tolkien actually mentioned a-affection in the Early Noldorin Grammar:

Note where e is from i by a-mutation, before an original plural ending the original i reappeared, so we get an apparent mutation e > i (PE13/122).

Some examples of Early Noldorin a-affection include:

Roman Rausch also suggested that a-affection may have occurred in Early Noldorin even in cases where the a was not final (HPITN/§4.2.1). In particular, he noted the prefix ur- “without, -less”, which appeared as or- when prefixed to words containing an a: ᴱN. urbeth “wordless” and ᴱN. urhonn “heartless” vs. ᴱN. orfang “beardless” and ᴱN. orsarn “stoneless” (PE13/156). As Tolkien described it:

ur- (uru-) privative prefix, “without, -less”; before a noun with a in first syllable or-; with other ur-; with i- yr-. (or- should occur before ai = aı̯, akt etc.; oer, or before ai = a mutated; to yr before eı̯, i) (PE13/155).

Whether this was a general rule or limited to the prefix ur-/or- is unclear.

Reference ✧ PE17/152 ✧ for example: gail < geil < ✶gilyā

Order (00800)

Before 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ugrā > ogra > S. oer PE22/160
Before 01100 [x], [ɸ] vocalized between a vowel and [θ] RIK > S. raitha PE17/167
Before 01500 short [u] often became [o] ambuna > S. amon PE17/93
Before 02200 short final vowels vanished ugrā > ogra > S. oer PE22/160
Before 02300 final [i] intruded into preceding syllable lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich PE17/148
Before 04000 medial [mf], [nθ], [ŋx], [lθ] became [mm], [nn], [ŋg], [ll] mantinā > manthen > S. mannen
dankĭna > daŋχen > danghen > S. dangen
PE17/131
PE17/133
Before 05000 [lð] became [ll] ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
Before 05100 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] spin-dela > S. findel PE17/119
Before 05300 [œ] became [e] ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
Before 06200 [h] vanished after vowels ON. nuhina > nohen > N. noen EtyAC/NUS

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-ĭCa] > [-eCa]
[-ĭCCa] > [-eCCa]
[-ŭCa] > [-oCa]
[-ŭCCa] > [-oCCa]

Phonetic Rule Examples

dirna > derna -ĭCCa > -eCCa dirnā > S. dern ✧ PE17/154
eklarista > eklaresta -ĭCCa > -eCCa ekla-rista > S. Eglarest ✧ WJ/365
-iθθa > -eθθa -ĭCCa > -eCCa -ittā > S. -eth ✧ PM/345
firja > ferja -ĭCCa > -eCCa Q. Firya > S. Feir ✧ WJ/387
gilja > gelja -ĭCCa > -eCCa gilyā > geil > S. gail ✧ PE17/152
gwinja > gwenja -ĭCCa > -eCCa WIN > S. gwein ✧ PE17/191
lixja > lexja -ĭCCa > -eCCa lisyā > liχı̯ā > leχı̯ > leich > S. laich ✧ PE17/148
mikra > mekra -ĭCCa > -eCCa mikrā > S. megr ✧ WJ/337
minja > menja -ĭCCa > -eCCa minya > mein > S. main ✧ VT42/25
rista > resta -ĭCCa > -eCCa rista > S. #rest ✧ WJ/365
rixθa- > rexθa- -ĭCCa > -eCCa RIK > S. raitha ✧ PE17/167
aklaripa > aklarepa -ĭCa > -eCa aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
daŋxina > daŋxena -ĭCa > -eCa dankĭna > daŋχen > danghen > S. dangen ✧ PE17/133
-ipa > -epa -ĭCa > -eCa ikwā > -ipā > S. -eb ✧ WJ/412
eripa > erepa -ĭCa > -eCa erikwa > S. ereb ✧ VT42/10
galadarembina > galadarembena -ĭCa > -eCa galad(a)rembinā > S. galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
gwaθrina > gwaθrena -ĭCa > -eCa WATH > S. gwathren ✧ VT42/9
gwǭbandina > gwǭbandena -ĭCa > -eCa gwā-ƀandina > S. ’ovannen ✧ PE17/17
kalina > kalena -ĭCa > -eCa KAL > S. calen ✧ PE17/153
kalina > kalena -ĭCa > -eCa KAL > S. calen ✧ PE17/153
kalina > kalena -ĭCa > -eCa kal- > S. calen ✧ SA/calen
kalina > kalena -ĭCa > -eCa kal- > S. calen ✧ SA/kal
kirθa > kerθa -ĭCa > -eCa kirtē > S. certh ✧ WJ/396
lǭmina > lǭmena -ĭCa > -eCa lāmina > lǭ́m̃en > S. loven ✧ PE17/133
manθina > manθena -ĭCa > -eCa mantinā > manthen > S. mannen ✧ PE17/131
matina > matena -ĭCa > -eCa matina > S. maden ✧ PE17/131
nekina > nekena -ĭCa > -eCa NEK > S. neg(e)n ✧ PE17/55
nipina > nipena -ĭCa > -eCa nip > nipinā > S. niben ✧ VT48/18
onnina > onnena -ĭCa > -eCa ONO > S. #onnen ✧ WJ/387
rembina > rembena -ĭCa > -eCa rembinā > S. remmen ✧ PE17/26
sina > sena -ĭCa > -eCa sĭna > S. sen ✧ PE17/44
silima > silema -ĭCa > -eCa silimā > S. silef ✧ PE17/23
tawina > tawena -ĭCa > -eCa tawĭnā > S. tawen ✧ PE17/115
xina > xena -ĭCa > -eCa khīnā/khinā > S. hên ✧ WJ/403
xollina > xollena -ĭCa > -eCa KHOL > S. hollen ✧ PE17/98
ɸindila > ɸindela -ĭCa > -eCa spindilā > S. †findel ✧ PE17/17
ɸinika > ɸineka -ĭCa > -eCa finik/fink > S. fineg ✧ PE17/17
ɸīripa > ɸīrepa -ĭCa > -eCa PHIRI > S. Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
gurða > gorða -ŭCCa > -oCCa GUR > S. gorð ✧ PE17/154
gurna > gorna -ŭCCa > -oCCa GUR > S. gorn ✧ PE17/154
kulða > kolða -ŭCCa > -oCCa kuldā > S. coll ✧ WJ/414
ugra > ogra -ŭCCa > -oCCa ugrā > ogra > S. oer ✧ PE22/160
urxa > orxa -ŭCCa > -oCCa urkā > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
runda > rond -ŭCCa > -oCCa RUN > S. ron ✧ PE17/89
turukunda > turukonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa Turukundā > S. Turgond- ✧ PE17/112
ukla > ukla -ŭCCa > -oCCa ‽✶UKLA > S. ogl ✧ PE17/149
ukla > ukla -ŭCCa > -oCCa ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol ✧ PE18/88
ambuna > ambona -ŭCa > -oCa ambuna > S. amon ✧ PE17/93
gūrikuba > gūrikoba -ŭCa > -oCa gōr(i)kubā > S. gurgof ✧ PE22/155
naruka > naroka -ŭCa > -oCa Kh. ‽naruka > S. Narog ✧ PE17/47
russa > rossa -ŭCa > -oCa russā > S. ross ✧ PM/366
uruθa > uroθa -ŭCa > -oCa RUTH > S. oroth ✧ PE17/183
uruθa > uroθa -ŭCa > -oCa (U)RUÞ > S. oroth ✧ PE17/188

N. short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a]; [-{ĭŭ}{C|CC}a] > [-{eo}{C|CC}a]

GS/§4.95 WGCH/§68 @@@

Order (01100)

After 01000 [ɣ], [ŋ] vocalized before [l], [r], [m], [n] ᴹ√RIG > N. rhîn
ᴹ✶kuʒnā > N. cûn
Ety/RIG
Ety/KUƷ
Before 01200 [x], [ɸ] vocalized between a vowel and [s], [θ] ᴹ√SUK > N. sautha-
ᴹ✶tupsē > N. taus
Ety/SUK
Ety/TUP
Before 01500 short [u] often became [o] ᴹ√TULUK > N. tolog Ety/TULUK
Before 02100 short final vowels vanished ON. pikina > N. pigen
ON. ruska > N. rhosc
Ety/PIK
Ety/RŪSKA
Before 02200 final [i] intruded into preceding syllable ᴹ✶gilya > N. geil
ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil
Ety/GIL
Ety/ULU
Before 04800 [lð] became [ll] or [lt] ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
Before 04900 [h] vanished after vowels ON. nuhina > nohen > N. noen EtyAC/NUS
Before 05300 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn Ety/TUN
Before 05400 [œ] became [e] ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil Ety/ULU
Before 06600 initial [θl] sometimes became [fl] ᴹ√SLUS > thloss > N. floss Ety/SLUS

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ĭC+Ca] > [eC+Ca]
[-ĭCa] > [-eCa]
[-ĭCCa] > [-eCCa]
[-ŭCa] > [-oCa]
[-ŭCCa] > [-oCCa]

Phonetic Rule Examples

dissa > dessa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. dissa > N. †dess ✧ Ety/BES
gilja > gelja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶gilya > N. geil ✧ Ety/GIL
gwilwa > gwelwa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶wilwā > N. gwelw ✧ Ety/WIL
gwinja > gwenja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶winyā > N. gwein ✧ Ety/WIN
gwilwiliθθa > gwilwileθθa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√WIL > N. gwilwileth ✧ Ety/WIL
kirja > kerja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√KIR > N. ceir ✧ Ety/KIR
kirxa > kerxa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√KIRIK > N. cerch ✧ Ety/KIRIK
linda > lenda -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶LINDĀ > N. lhend ✧ Ety/LIND
milxa > melxa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. melch ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
miska > meska -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√MISK > mesc > N. mesg ✧ Ety/MISK
naniθθa > naneθθa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√NAN > N. naneth ✧ Ety/NAN
niðwa > neðwa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. nidwa > N. nedhw ✧ Ety/NID
niðwa > neðwa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. nidwa > N. neðw ✧ EtyAC/NID²
piŋga > peŋga -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶kwingā > N. peng ✧ Ety/KWIG
pixja > pexja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√PIS > N. peich ✧ Ety/PIS
rimba > remba -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. rimba > rhemb > N. rhem ✧ Ety/RIM
rinda > renda -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√RIN > N. rhenn ✧ Ety/RIN
riŋga > reŋga -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. ringa > N. rheng ✧ EtyAC/RINGI
rissa > ressa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶risse- > N. rhess ✧ Ety/RIS²
rista > resta -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√RIS > N. rhest ✧ Ety/RIS²
sinja > senja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√SI > N. sein ✧ Ety/SI
θinθa > θenθa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ON. sthinta > N. thent ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
θlinja > θlenja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶slinyā > N. thlein ✧ Ety/SLIN
xiθwa > xeθwa -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ✶khithwa > N. hethw ✧ Ety/KHIS
ɸirja > ɸerja -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√PHIR > N. feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
ɸirna > ɸerna -ĭCCa > -eCCa ᴹ√PHIR > N. fern ✧ Ety/PHIR
beðwina > beðwena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶Bedū+ina > N. Vedhwen ✧ Ety/LEP
berina > berena -ĭCa > -eCa ON. berina > N. beren ✧ Ety/BER
berina > berena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√MBER > N. beren ✧ Ety/MBER
daŋxina > daŋxena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√NDAK > N. dangen ✧ Ety/NDAK
golwina > golwena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶ngolwina > N. golwen ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
gurina > gurena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√ÑGUR > N. goren ✧ EtyAC/ÑGUR
iðrina > iðrena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√ID > N. idhren ✧ Ety/ID
kalina > kalena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√KAL > N. calen ✧ Ety/KAL
latina > latena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√LAT > N. lhaden ✧ Ety/LAT
latina > latena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶lătĭna > N. laden ✧ PE22/126
mailika > maileka -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mailika > maileka -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
m̥alðina > m̥alðena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√SMAL > N. mallen ✧ Ety/SMAL
m̥alina > m̥alena -ĭCa > -eCa ON. malina > N. malen ✧ Ety/SMAL
merina > merena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√MER > N. meren ✧ Ety/MBER
minija > mineja -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶miniı̯a > N. minei ✧ Ety/MINI
nuhina > nuhena -ĭCa > -eCa ON. nuhina > nohen > N. noen ✧ EtyAC/NUS
pika > peka -ĭCa > -eCa ON. pika > N. peg ✧ Ety/PIK
pikina > pikena -ĭCa > -eCa ON. pikina > N. pigen ✧ Ety/PIK
silima > silema -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶silimā > N. silef ✧ Ety/SIL
tiθθina > tiθθena -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ√TIT > N. tithen ✧ Ety/TIT
θliɣa > θleɣa -ĭCa > -eCa ᴹ✶ligā > N. thlê ✧ Ety/SLIG
andambunda > andambonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
bunda > bonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa #ᴹ✶mbundā > N. #bon ✧ Ety/MBUD
dulla > dolla -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶ndulna > N. doll ✧ Ety/DUL
dulla > dolla -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶ndulla > N. doll ✧ Ety/NDUL
dulθa- > dolθa- -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√DUL > N. doltha ✧ Ety/DUL
dumna > domna -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√DUB > N. dofn ✧ Ety/DUB
dunna > donna -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√DUN > N. donn ✧ Ety/DUN
dusta > dosta -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√DUS > N. dost ✧ EtyAC/DUS
grunda > gronda -ŭCCa > -oCCa ON. runda > N. grond ✧ Ety/RUD
julma > jolma -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√YUL > ON. iolf ✧ Ety/YUL
kulða > kolða -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶kuldā > N. coll ✧ Ety/KUL
kumna > komna -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√KUM > cofn > N. caun ✧ Ety/KUM
kurwa > korwa -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√KUR > N. corw ✧ Ety/KUR
krumba > kromba -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM
lumba > lomba -ŭCCa > -oCCa ON. lumba > N. lhom ✧ EtyAC/LUB
luŋga > loŋga -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶lungā > N. lhong ✧ Ety/LUG¹
lusta > losta -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√LUS > N. lhost ✧ Ety/LUS
minitunda > minitonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
n̥urða > n̥orða -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√SNUR > N. norð ✧ Ety/SNUR
n̥urna > n̥orna -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√SNUR > N. norn ✧ Ety/SNUR
ulða > olða -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll ✧ Ety/ULU
ulja > olja -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶ulyā > œil > N. eil ✧ Ety/ULU
uvra > ovra -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶ubrā > ofr (ovr) > N. ovor ✧ Ety/UB
pusta > posta -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√PUS > N. post ✧ Ety/PUS
runja > ronja -ŭCCa > -oCCa #ᴹ✶runya > rhoein > N. rhein ✧ Ety/RUN
ruska > roska -ŭCCa > -oCCa ON. ruska > N. rhosc ✧ Ety/RŪSKA
sulxa > solxa -ŭCCa > -oCCa ON. sulkha > N. solch ✧ Ety/SÚLUK
suxθa- > soxθa- -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√SUK > N. sautha- ✧ Ety/SUK
tallunja > tallonja -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tal-runya > tellœin > N. tellen ✧ Ety/RUN
tallunja > tallonja -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶talrunya > tellein > N. tellen ✧ Ety/TAL
tulθa- > tolθa- -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tultā- > N. toltho ✧ Ety/TUL
tumna > tomna -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tubnā > N. tofn ✧ Ety/TUB
tunda > tonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn ✧ Ety/TUN
tuŋga > toŋga -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tungā > N. tong ✧ Ety/TUG
turθa- > torθa- -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√TUR > N. tortho ✧ Ety/TUR
tussa > tossa -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tussā > N. toss ✧ Ety/TUS
tuɸsa > toɸsa -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ✶tupsē > N. taus ✧ Ety/TUP
θlussa > θlossa -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√SLUS > thloss > N. floss ✧ Ety/SLUS
θunda > θonda -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√STUD > thund > N. thonn ✧ EtyAC/SUD
θusta > θosta -ŭCCa > -oCCa ᴹ√THUS > N. thost ✧ EtyAC/THUS
jura > jora -ŭCa > -oCa ON. yura > N. iôr ✧ Ety/YUR
tuluka > tuloka -ŭCa > -oCa ᴹ√TULUK > N. tolog ✧ Ety/TULUK
kirθan > kerθan ĭC+Ca > eC+Ca ᴹ√TAN > ON. Certhan ✧ Ety/TAN