S. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

S. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, the combinations [mb] and [nd] became [mm] and [nn] medially and (usually) finally, whereas [ŋg] remained medially but became [ŋ] finally. Tolkien described these sound changes in some detail in The Lord of the Rings appendices:

In Sindarin the combinations ng, nd, mb, which were specially favoured in the Eldarin languages at an earlier stage, suffered various changes. mb became m in all cases, but still counted as a long consonant for purposes of stress (see below), and is thus written mm in cases where otherwise the stress might be in doubt. ng remained unchanged except initially and finally where it became the simple nasal (as in English sing). nd became nn usually, as Ennor ‘Middle-earth’, Q. Endóre; but remained nd at the end of fully accented monosyllables such as thond “root” (cf. Morthond ‘Blackroot’), and also before r, as Andros ‘long-foam’. This nd is also seen in some ancient names derived from an older period, such as Nargothrond, Gondolin, Beleriand. In the Third Age final nd in long words had become n from nn, as in Ithilien, Rohan, Anórien (LotR/1115).

As this note indicates, the reduction of [mb] was universal, but the change of [nd] became [nn] sometimes did not occur, notably “at the end of fully accented monosyllables”, though exactly what this means is not entirely clear. These sound changes are mentioned in a variety of other places in Tolkien’s writings (PE17/104, PE19/92), but the only other lengthy discussion appears in his notes on the Noldorin use of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s (PE22/35-36):

The groups mb, nd, ŋg written t 5 g have now become [m]; [nn] medially and [n] finally; [ŋg] medially and [ŋ] finally. The spelling largely remained unchanged. The process was as follows:

Final [mb] became [m] in earliest Gondolic, probably before Y.S. 300. Hence t and y interchange finally, y transcribed m predominating: thus Gond. lham “tongue”, Nargothrondic and Feanorian dialects lhamb until later.

Final [ȵg] similarly, but perhaps later, also became [ŋ] before the end of the Gondolic period, but since the alphabet possessed no sign for isolated [ŋ], the spelling with g, transcribed ng, remained unchanged.

Medial and final [nd] remained unchanged until late Exhilic. Hence such spellings in the histories as Grond, Angband, Beleriand, Gondolin, &c.

In later Gondolic (after Y.S. 300) medial mb > mm. The letter t thus became used = [mm] of any origin (PQ pm, bm, sm, mm, mb) and is usually transcribed mm. Thus w]F7 [bār] “home” transcribed bár, pl. `B=tl`B7 [imméı̯r later iméı̯r] transcribed i·mmeir. Before or after consonants in compounds &c., [mm] > [m], usually recognized in spelling: so archaic amb “up” + rhūn “rising” > [ambrūn > amrūn]: written ]y7.F6, transcribed amrún.

In post-Exhilic, Toleressean, [mm] generally > [m] but this was not recognized usually in spelling.

In late Exhilic (after Y.S. 307) [nd] > [nn]. The letter 5 thus became used of [nn] of any origin (PQ tn, dn, sn, nn, nd); and is usually transcribed nn, except in ancient historical Gondolic names: as Gondolin. This [nn] became [n] finally and before consonants, and this is recognized in spelling, except that 5 = nn is retained in stressed monosyllables as a sign of the short quality of the preceding vowel. Thus sh5 = gŏnn, Gondolic gond “rock”.

Note ndr > nr not đr (as nr, nnr, see Consonants): So Belerian(d)ren “Beleriandic” but Gondoliðren “Gondolic”. In post-Exhilic [nn] > [n] before a main stress and so also in initial mutation (of d); but this was not recognized usually in spelling: the mutation of 2 [d] is always written 5 [nn or nd archaically]. Thus 1]F7 dór “land”, pl. `=5®R7 i·nnýr [inȳr] “the lands” [per editors note #116, dór should be 1hR7].

In late Exhilic [ŋg] suffered no further change. g thus represents [ŋg] except finally, where it is [ŋ]. [ŋg] has since remained before r, l, but became [ŋ] before other consonants, as Angband = [aŋban]. Before a main stress [ŋg] is sometimes in Toleressean reduce to [ŋ], but this is not normal.

Note that mb, nd, remaining, because analysed or separated syllabically, or redeveloped — as in compounds of various dates — were, after the development of 5 t as signs for [nn, mm], written 2P wP. Similarly [ŋg] in which [ŋ, n] belongs to one word, or component, is usually written sP.

The sound changes described here are mostly compatible with the description in The Lord of the Rings, written almost three decades later. Combining the information in these two notes, the order of sound changes seems to be roughly as follows:

  1. All combinations ([mb], [nd], [ŋg]) generally shortened to a simple nasal before another consonant.
  2. [-mb] > [-m] finally, and shortly afterwards [-ŋg] > [-ŋ].
  3. Medial [mb] became [mm].
  4. Medial and final [nd] became [nn].
  5. Final [nn] became [n] (in polysyllables).
  6. Medial [mm] became [m], preserved sometimes in spelling to indicate stress patterns.

It seems Noldorin and Sindarin had somewhat different developments for final nd/nn. According to the notes in the Feanorian Alphabet, in Noldorin nn always shortened finally, but was retained in spelling for monosyllables to reinforce the fact that the preceding vowel was short; this spelling convention makes it difficult to detemine how rigorously Tolkien adhered to this rule. In Sindarin it seems that nn consistently shortened only in polysyllables, and sometimes nd was retained in monosyllables when “stressed” (see below for further discussion).

In both conceptual periods, there were some special conditions where the longer clusters [nd] and [ŋg] were preserved, notably before liquids [r], [l]. Despite Tolkien’s statement above from the Feanorian Alphabet document, the combination ndr appears quite frequently in Noldorin as it does in Sindarin. The combination ndl does not appear in either Sindarin or Noldorin. This may be a coincidence, but Tolkien explicitly mentions the combination ndr and not ndl in The Lord of the Rings appendices (LotR/1115), so it seems likely the latter combination would reduce to nl. Developments for [ŋg] are somewhat harder to unravel, since Tolkien used the spelling ng for both [ŋg] and [ŋ], both in Latin characters and in Tengwar. However, both ngl and ngr appear in Noldorin and Sindarin, consistent with Tolkien’s statements above that this combination was preserved before liquids. The combination mbr also appears in a few cases as well (such as S. Fimbrethil and S./N. Nimbrethil), hinting that even mb could be preserved before r, though here mr was much more common.

It seems also that these combinations could reappear in later compounds, so that this sound change was no longer an active phonetic rule:

In Sindarin, where final -nd was preserved sometimes in monosyllables, it could also reappear in later compounds by analogy with isolated elements, notably in the Third Age name S. Morthond “Black Root” which contained thond “root” (LotR/1115). This was sufficiently common that Sindarin speakers had little difficulty with archaic names from the First Age that ended in -nd. This was not the case for -mb; that combination had disappeared finally long enough ago that it doesn’t show up finally even in ancient names.

Preservation of final -nd in Sindarin monosyllables: This leaves only the question of when final nd was preserved “at the end of fully accented monosyllables” in Sindarin. In Noldorin of the 1930s, monosyllables usually show final [-nn], with a handful of exceptions: N. grond “club”, N. gwend “bond, friendship”, N. ind “bond, friendship”, N. lhand “open space, level”, N. lhend “tuneful, sweet” (from various places in The Etymologies). There are many Sindarin monosyllables show only final [-nd], however, including a number of cases where Noldorin shows [-nn]:

However, often Sindarin monosyllables have variants ending in [-nn]. For example, S. and “long” had a variant form ann (PE17/12, 40, 121), and in one place Tolkien said:

S. †ann- [“long”] only preserved in certain compounds owing to competition with ann (< annā) “gift”, and ann(on) “gate”, of different origin (PE17/90).

This only makes sense if the normal form of the monosyllable and “long” was in fact ann. There are many cases where Sindarin show both -nd, -nn variants, sometimes with the -nd variant explicitly marked as archaic (†):

Where Noldorin -nd and -nn variants appear together in The Etymologies, it is clear the -nd form is archaic and the -nn modern, so this is probably true as well for the Sindarin examples above. Thus, it seems Tolkien was not entirely committed to the idea that -nd was preserved in Sindarin monosyllables, and sorting out exactly actually when and why -nd was preserved is very difficult.

Conceptual Developments: As noted by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonology of Goldogrin (HPG/§2.3), these sound changes were already mostly established in the Gnomish of the 1910s, with some indications that generally [nd] > [nn] medially:

The same is not true of [mb]; all the obvious examples with the reduction of [mb] > [m] appear before another consonant:

Furthermore, there are a fair number of examples of medial mb that do not appear to be the result of compounds:

At the end of words, though, it seems that [-mb] > [-m] and [-nd] > [-nn] (and to [-n] in polysyllables) fairly regularly:

There are, however, a fair number of Gnomish monosyllables ending in -nd, so it seems Gnomish had the same -nd/-nn variation as Sindarin for monosyllables. There are also a fair number of Gnomish clusters with ndr, so it seems that other than medial survival of mb, the Gnomish developments of the 1910s were quite similar to Sindarin. Developments in Early Noldorin are more similar still, since medial [mb] started to become [m] in the 1920s:

Neo-Sindarin: It is common among Neo-Sindarin writers to assume that in Sindarin, final -nd should be the normal form based on Tolkien’s statements in The Lord of the Rings appendices, and some authors go so far as to revised Noldorin forms with primitive nd so that they end in -nd rather than -nn in (Neo) Sindarin. For example, see ᴺS. lhind “fine, slender” as an updated form of N. thlinn from Hiswelókë’s Sindarin Dictionary (HSD) and Gateway to Sindarin (GS/271). I personally find this approach to be useful, since it allows us to more easily distinguish words like S. and “long” from S. ann “gift”. This lexicon consistently presents monosyllables with -nd as the “default” in Sindarin, though it does show the -nn variants in cases where Tolkien provided them.

References ✧ LotR/1115; PE17/104; PE19/92

Order (05000)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
After 00300 initial [s] vanished before spirants espin-delē > findel > S. finnel PE17/17
After 00700 initial [w] became [gw] ᴹ√WENED > gwend > N. gwenn Ety/WEN
After 00800 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] spin-dela > S. findel PE17/119
After 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor Ety/ELED
After 01300 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] espin-delē > findel > S. finnel
ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn
PE17/17
Ety/PHEN
After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth PE17/22
After 02000 [ǭ] became [au] findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod VT41/9
After 02200 short final vowels vanished findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod VT41/9
After 04500 [au], [ae] became [o], [e] in polysyllables findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod VT41/9
After 04600 middle consonants frequently vanished in clusters elen-barathi > elmbereth > S. Elbereth
Gondō̆-lindē > Gondolind > Gond-lind > Gondlind/Gonglind > S. **Gonlin/Gonglin
MR/387
PE17/133
After 04900 [lð] became [ll] tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel PE19/73
Before 05100 [n] assimilated to following labial at morpheme boundaries OS. lenn-mbass > S. lembas PM/404
Before 05200 [œ] became [e] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN
Before 05300 final [ll], [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables S. †Rochand > Rochann > S. Rohan LotR/1115
Before 05600 [mm] shortened ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > S. amarth PE17/124

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb] > [mm] ✧ LotR/1115 (mb > m); PE17/104 (mb > mm; medially); PE19/92 (mb > mm)
[nd] > [nn] ✧ LotR/1115 (nd > nn; usually); PE19/92 (nd > nn)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambar > ammar mb > mm ambar- > ammar > S. amar ✧ PE17/104
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth ✧ PE17/104
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > S. amarth ✧ PE17/124
ambarθa > ammarθa mb > mm mbartā > ṃbartā > S. amartha- ✧ PE17/104
ambon > ammon mb > mm ambuna > S. amon ✧ PE17/93
ambon > ammon mb > mm ṃbono > S. amon ✧ PE17/93
domb > domm mb > mm DOM > S. dom ✧ PE22/153
dymb > dymm mb > mm DOM > S. dym ✧ PE22/153
eglambar > eglammar mb > mm ekla-mbar > S. Eglamar ✧ WJ/365
fimb > fimm mb > mm PHIM > S. fim ✧ PE17/23
galaðremben > galaðremmen mb > mm galad(a)rembinā > S. galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
glamb > glamm mb > mm LAMA > glamb > glamm > S. glam ✧ WJ/416
imb > imm mb > mm imbi > imm > S. im ✧ VT47/14
kamb > kamm mb > mm kambā > S. cam ✧ SA/cam
lamb > lamm mb > mm lambē > S. lam(m) ✧ VT39/15
lamb > lamm mb > mm lambē > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
lamb > lamm mb > mm lambā > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
limb > limm mb > mm lĭmbĭ > S. lim ✧ PE17/18
nimb > nimm mb > mm T. nimbi > S. nim ✧ PE17/19
remb > remm mb > mm REM > S. rem(m) ✧ VT42/12
remben > remmen mb > mm rembinā > S. remmen ✧ PE17/26
rembin > remmin mb > mm rembinī > S. remmin ✧ PE17/26
romb > romm mb > mm rom > S. rom ✧ WJ/400
andond > andonn nd > nn ANA > S. annō/annon(d) ✧ PE17/40
and > ann nd > nn andā > S. ann- ✧ PE17/90
andonn > annonn nd > nn ANA > S. annō/annon(d) ✧ PE17/40
andūn > annūn nd > nn NDŪ > S. Annûn ✧ PE17/64
edlandor > edlannor nd > nn etlā-ndōrē > Eglannor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
edlandor > edlannor nd > nn etla-ndore > Eglandor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
edlend > edlenn nd > nn et-lendā > S. edlen(n) ✧ PE17/51
endynd > endynn nd > nn ANA > S. Ennyn ✧ PE17/40
endynn > ennynn nd > nn ANA > S. Ennyn ✧ PE17/40
find > finn nd > nn spindē > S. find ✧ PE17/17
find > finn nd > nn phindē > S. find ✧ PM/362
findel > finnel nd > nn espin-delē > findel > S. finnel ✧ PE17/17
findel > finnel nd > nn spindilā > S. †findel ✧ PE17/17
findel > finnel nd > nn spin-dela > S. findel ✧ PE17/119
gelendil > gelennil nd > nn Gala(da)ndil > S. Gelennil ✧ PE21/83
gland > glann nd > nn (G)LAN > S. glan ✧ VT42/8
gland > glann nd > nn (G)LAN > gland > S. glann ✧ VT42/8
glewellind > glewellinn nd > nn OS. †glawar-lin > S. Glewellin ✧ PE17/61
gond > gonn nd > nn gōn/gon- > S. gŏn- ✧ PE17/28
gond- > gonn- nd > nn gon-d > S. gon- ✧ RC/347
govanden > govannen nd > nn gwā-ƀandina > S. ’ovannen ✧ PE17/17
grond > gronn nd > nn G-RON > S. grond ✧ PE17/183
gwend > gwenn nd > nn WEN-ED > S. gwen(d) ✧ PE17/191
-iand > -iann nd > nn yandē > S. -iand ✧ PE17/42
-iend > -ienn nd > nn yandē > S. iend ✧ PE17/42
ind > inn nd > nn indu > ind > S. inn ✧ PE22/165
-iond > -ionn nd > nn -(i)ŏn/-(ĭ)ondo > S. -(i)on ✧ PE17/170
-iœnd > -iœnn nd > nn (ĭ)ondī > S. -ien ✧ PE17/170
lind > linn nd > nn LIN > S. lind ✧ PE17/27
lind > linn nd > nn linde > S. #lin(d) ✧ WJ/309
lindon > linnon nd > nn Lindānā > S. Lindon ✧ WJ/385
lond > lonn nd > nn LON > lond > S. lonn ✧ VT42/10
maerond > maeronn nd > nn MAY > S. maeron ✧ PE17/163
mellond > mellonn nd > nn mel- > S. mellon ✧ SA/mel
-ndor > -nnor nd > nn ndorē > -ndor > S. -nor/-nnor ✧ WJ/413
ogrond > ogronn nd > nn OKO > S. ogron ✧ PE17/170
pelendor > pelennor nd > nn PEL > S. pelennor ✧ PE17/65
-pend > -penn nd > nn kwenedē > S. pen- ✧ PE17/141
pend > penn nd > nn pendā > pend > S. penn ✧ PE17/173
penda- > penna- nd > nn PED > S. penna ✧ PE17/173
peθrond > peθronn nd > nn kwentrō > pentro > ᴸN. pethro-n ✧ PE18/100
pind > pinn nd > nn kwinde > S. †pinn ✧ PE17/24
pind > pinn nd > nn KWIN > pind > S. pinn ✧ PE17/173
pirind > pirinn nd > nn PIRI > S. pirin(a) ✧ PE17/146
r̥ond > r̥onn nd > nn SRON > rhond > S. rhonn ✧ PE17/183
rond > ronn nd > nn RUN > S. ron ✧ PE17/89
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. Rochann > S. Rohan ✧ Let/178
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. Rochand > S. Rohan ✧ Let/382
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. †Rochand > Rochann > S. Rohan ✧ LotR/1115
roxand > roxann nd > nn ᴸN. †Rochann > ᴸN. Rohan ✧ PM/53
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. Rochan > S. Rohan ✧ RC/241
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. Rochand > S. Rohan ✧ UT/319
roxand > roxann nd > nn S. Rochan(d) > S. Rohan ✧ WJI/Rohan
sadrond > sadronn nd > nn satrō > S. sadron ✧ PE17/183
tindūmihell > tinnūmihell nd > nn tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel ✧ PE19/73
θand > θann nd > nn thandā > S. #Than- ✧ UT/281
θind > θinn nd > nn þindā > S. thin(n) ✧ PE17/72
-wend > -wenn nd > nn wen > S. wen ✧ SA/wen

N. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

GS/§4.114 GS/§4.203 GS/§4.212 @@@

References ✧ PE22/30, 34-35

Variations

Order (05300)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
After 00400 initial [s] vanished before spirants ON. sphindéle > findel > N. finnel Ety/SPIN
After 00500 voiceless [j̊], [w̥] became [x], [xw] ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn Ety/SWIN
After 00800 initial [w] became [gw] ᴹ√WENED > gwend > N. gwenn Ety/WEN
After 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor Ety/ELED
After 01100 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn Ety/TUN
After 01300 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn Ety/PHEN
After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin Ety/TIN
After 02100 short final vowels vanished ON. branda > brand > N. brann
ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m)
Ety/BARÁD
Ety/DARÁM
After 02300 initial [r-], [l-] were unvoiced ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann
ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham
Ety/LAD
Ety/RAMBĀ
After 04100 initial [x-] became [h-] ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann Ety/KHAN
After 04600 medial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon Ety/LOD
After 04800 [lð] became [ll] or [lt] ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell
ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel
Ety/TIN
Ety/TIN
After 04900 [h] vanished after vowels ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell Ety/TIN
After 05200 [w], [v] vanished after [u] ᴹ√DOM > dúlind > N. dúlin Ety/TIN
Before 05400 [œ] became [e] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn EtyAC/TIN
Before 05500 final [ll], [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables ON. Bana-wende > Banwend > N. Banwen Ety/BAN
Before 05700 [mm] shortened ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) Ety/DARÁM

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb] > [mm] ✧ PE19/20 (amb- > amm-); PE19/20 (amb- > amm-); PE19/23 (-mb- > mb, mm)
[nd] > [nn] ✧ PE19/20 (and- > ann-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. am ✧ Ety/AM²
amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√ANGWA > N. am- ✧ Ety/ANGWA
ambar > ammar mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > N. amar ✧ Ety/MBAR
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT
ambaθ > ammaθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ambath > N. amath ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
ambon > ammon mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. amon ✧ Ety/AM²
damb > damm mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. dam ✧ Ety/NDAM
damba- > damma- mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. damma- ✧ Ety/NDAM
dramb > dramm mb > mm ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dumb > dumm mb > mm ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > N. dum ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
emberein > emmerein mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > Emerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
embyn > emmyn mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > emuin > N. emyn ✧ Ety/AM²
gemb > gemm mb > mm ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > gemb > N. gem ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
glamb > glamm mb > mm ᴹ√G-LAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/GLAM
glamb > glamm mb > mm ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
glambr > glammr mb > mm ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor ✧ Ety/GLAM
goθmbaug > goθmmaug mb > mm ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
himb > himm mb > mm ᴹ√KHIM > N. him ✧ Ety/KHIM
imb > imm mb > mm ᴹ√IMBE > im(b) > N. imm ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
kamb > kamm mb > mm ᴹ√KAB > camb > N. cam ✧ Ety/KAB
kamb > kamm mb > mm ON. kamba > N. camm ✧ Ety/MAƷ
kramb > kramm mb > mm ᴹ√KRAB > cramb > N. cram ✧ Ety/KRAB
kromb > kromm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM
krumb > krumm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum ✧ Ety/KURÚM
kumb > kumm mb > mm ᴹ√KUB > cumb > N. cum ✧ Ety/KUB
l̥amb > l̥amm mb > mm ᴹ√LAB > N. lham(b) ✧ Ety/LAB
l̥imb > l̥imm mb > mm ᴹ✶liñwi > lhimb > N. lhim ✧ Ety/LIW
l̥imbid- > l̥immid- mb > mm ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI
l̥omb > l̥omm mb > mm ON. lumba > N. lhom ✧ EtyAC/LUB
l̥umb > l̥umm mb > mm ᴹ√LUM > N. lhum ✧ Ety/LUM
nemb > nemm mb > mm ᴹ✶NEÑ-WI > nemb > N. nem ✧ Ety/NEÑ-WI
r̥amb > r̥amm mb > mm ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
r̥emb > r̥emm mb > mm ON. rimba > rhemb > N. rhem ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ON. rimbe > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ᴹ√RINGI > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RINGI
r̥omb > r̥omm mb > mm ON. romba > N. rhom ✧ Ety/ROM
tamba- > tamma- mb > mm ᴹ✶tambā́- > N. tammo ✧ Ety/TAM
tumb > tumm mb > mm ᴹ✶tumbu > N. tum ✧ Ety/TUB
θamb > θamm mb > mm ᴹ✶stambē > thamb > N. tham ✧ Ety/STAB
andond > andonn nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. annon ✧ Ety/AD
aŋgolond > aŋgolonn nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > N. Angolonn ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
and > ann nd > nn ᴹ✶andā > and > N. ann ✧ Ety/ÁNAD
anda- > anna- nd > nn #ᴹ✶anda > N. #anna- ✧ Ety/MBUD
andabond > annabond nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
annabond > annabonn nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
andonn > annonn nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. annon ✧ Ety/AD
andūn > annūn nd > nn ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > N. annûn ✧ Ety/NDŪ
balandor > balannor nd > nn ON. Balandor > N. Balannor ✧ Ety/BAL
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann ✧ Ety/MBAD
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ√BAD² > band > N. bann ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banwend > banwenn nd > nn ON. Bana-wende > Banwend > N. Banwen ✧ Ety/BAN
bind > binn nd > nn ᴹ√GWINDI > bind > N. binn ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
bond > bonn nd > nn #ᴹ✶mbundā > N. #bon ✧ Ety/MBUD
brand > brann nd > nn ON. branda > brand > N. brann ✧ Ety/BARÁD
bund > bunn nd > nn ᴹ✶mbundu > bund > N. bunn ✧ Ety/MBUD
dend > denn nd > nn ᴹ√DEN > dend > N. denn ✧ Ety/DEN
duilind > duilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶dōmilindē > N. duilin ✧ SD/302
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOƷ/DÔ > dúlind > N. dúlin(n) ✧ Ety/DOƷ
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > dúlind > N. dúlin ✧ Ety/TIN
edleðond > edleðonn nd > nn ON. etledro > N. egledhron ✧ Ety/LED
elendor > elennor nd > nn ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor ✧ Ety/ELED
emmlind > emmlinn nd > nn ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL
endynd > endynn nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. ennyn ✧ Ety/AD
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ√DER > N. Enner ✧ Ety/TULUK
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ✶Enderō > N. Enner ✧ EtyAC/E
endin > ennin nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > N. ennin ✧ Ety/YEN
endynn > ennynn nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. ennyn ✧ Ety/AD
eθrend > eθrenn nd > nn ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN
fend > fenn nd > nn ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn ✧ Ety/PHEN
findel > finnel nd > nn ON. sphindéle > findel > N. finnel ✧ Ety/SPIN
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. gannado ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. ganno ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
gandell > gannell nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > gandel > N. gannel ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLIN > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLIN
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLINDI > glind > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLINDI
gondolind > gondolinn nd > nn ᴹ✶Gond-dol-ind > N. Gondolin ✧ EtyAC/DUL
gond > gonn nd > nn ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > N. gonn ✧ Ety/GOND
gwend > gwenn nd > nn ᴹ√WENED > gwend > N. gwenn ✧ Ety/WEN
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ Ety/WIN
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ EtyAC/WIN
gwinda- > gwinna- nd > nn ON. winda > N. gwinna ✧ EtyAC/WIN
hand > hann nd > nn ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann ✧ Ety/KHAN
hend > henn nd > nn ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. henn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
hend > henn nd > nn ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. hint/hinn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
herond > heronn nd > nn ᴹ√KHER > N. heron ✧ EtyAC/KHER
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > iðrind > N. iðrin ✧ Ety/RIN
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ✶ı̯en-rinde > N. îðrin ✧ Ety/YEN
ind > inn nd > nn ᴹ√ID > N. inn ✧ Ety/ID
jond > jonn nd > nn ᴹ√YON > N. ionn ✧ Ety/YŌ
kallond > kallonn nd > nn ᴹ✶kalrondō > N. callon ✧ Ety/KAL
kand > kann nd > nn ᴹ✶kandā > N. cann ✧ Ety/KAN
krand > krann nd > nn ᴹ✶k’randā > crand > N. crann ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN
kund > kunn nd > nn ᴹ√KUND-Ū > N. †cunn ✧ Ety/KUNDŪ
l̥and > l̥ann nd > nn ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann ✧ Ety/LAD
l̥aθrond > l̥aθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶la(n)sro-ndo > N. lhathron ✧ Ety/LAS²
l̥ind > l̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√LIN² > lhind > N. lhinn ✧ Ety/LIN²
lond > lonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > lond > N. lonn ✧ Ety/AK
l̥ond > l̥onn nd > nn ᴹ✶londē > N. lhonn ✧ Ety/LOD
mellond > mellonn nd > nn ᴹ√MEL > meldon > N. mellon ✧ EtyAC/MEL
mindond > mindonn nd > nn ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
mindass > minnass nd > nn ᴹ√MINI > N. minnas ✧ Ety/MINI
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin ✧ Ety/TIN
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn ✧ EtyAC/TIN
nand > nann nd > nn ᴹ√NAD > nand > N. nann ✧ Ety/NAD
nend > nenn nd > nn ᴹ✶nendā > nend > N. nenn ✧ Ety/NEN
nind > ninn nd > nn ᴹ√NIN-DI > N. ninn ✧ Ety/NIN-DI
oðrond > oðronn nd > nn ᴹ✶onrō > N. odhron ✧ Ety/ONO
oθlond > oθlonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon ✧ Ety/LOD
pand > pann nd > nn ᴹ√PAD > N. pann ✧ Ety/PAD
pend > penn nd > nn ᴹ√PÉNED > pend > N. penn ✧ Ety/PEN
peθrond > peθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET
r̥end > r̥enn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > N. rhenn ✧ Ety/RIN
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ√RIG > N. rhien ✧ Ety/TĀ
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ✶rīʒende > N. rhiend ✧ EtyAC/RIG
r̥ind > r̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > rhind > N. rhinn ✧ Ety/RIN
r̥ond > r̥onn nd > nn ᴹ√ROD > rhond > N. rhonn ✧ Ety/ROD
sund > sunn nd > nn ᴹ√SUD > N. sunn ✧ EtyAC/SUD
tindu > tinnu nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > tindumh > tindu > N. tinnu ✧ Ety/TIN
tindūviell > tinnūviell nd > nn ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel ✧ Ety/TIN
tond > tonn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn ✧ Ety/TUN
tuilind > tuilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶tuilelindō > tuilind > N. tuilinn ✧ Ety/TUY
tund > tunn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundu > tund > N. tunn ✧ Ety/TUN
tūrind > tūrinn nd > nn ᴹ√TUR > N. Túrin(n) ✧ Ety/ID
θaliond > θalionn nd > nn ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thalion ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
θand > θann nd > nn ᴹ√STAN > thand > N. thann ✧ Ety/STAN
θavrond > θavronn nd > nn ON. sthabro(ndo) > N. thavron ✧ Ety/STAB
θelynd > θelynn nd > nn ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thelyn ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
θind > θinn nd > nn ᴹ✶thindi > thind > N. thinn ✧ Ety/THIN
θlind > θlinn nd > nn ᴹ✶slindi > thlind > N. thlinn ✧ Ety/SLIN
θond > θonn nd > nn ᴹ√STUD > thund > N. thonn ✧ EtyAC/SUD
Uinend > Uinenn nd > nn ON. Uinenda > Uinend > N. Uinen ✧ Ety/UY
ulund > ulunn nd > nn ᴹ✶ulgundō > ulund > N. ulun ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
xwand > xwann nd > nn ᴹ✶swanda > chwand > N. chwann ✧ Ety/SWAD
xwind > xwinn nd > nn ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn ✧ Ety/SWIN

G. [mβ] became [mb]; [mβ] > [mb]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04600)

Before 04700 [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mβ] > [mb]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kʷimβ > kʷimb mβ > mb ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28

G. [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally; [n{dð}|-mb] > [nn|m]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04700)

After 04600 [mβ] became [mb]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[nd] > [nn]
[nd] > [nd]
[-mb] > [-m]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kamb > kam -mb > -m ᴱ✶kamba > G. cam ✧ GL/25
kʷimb > kʷim -mb > -m ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28
tlimb > tlim -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. climli ✧ GL/26
tlumb > tlum -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. clum ✧ GL/26
mband > mband nd > nd ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > G. band ✧ PME/58
amund > amunn nd > nn ᴱ✶amundǝ > G. amon ✧ PE13/110
and > ann nd > nn ᴱ✶anda > G. [a]nn ✧ PE13/110
andai > annai nd > nn ᴱ✶ṇ̄dai > G. annai ✧ GL/19
bend > benn nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. †benn ✧ GL/22
benda- > benna- nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. benna- ✧ GL/22
brond > brond nd > nn ᴱ√VORO > G. brod ✧ LT1A/Bronweg
glonθend > glonθenn nd > nn ᴱ✶glon-χend > G. glonthen ✧ GL/40
gʷarenda > gʷarenna nd > nn ᴱ✶ŋuarenđā > G. gwarin(n) ✧ GL/44
gʷendin > gʷennin nd > nn ᴱ√gu̯eđe > G. gwennin ✧ GL/45
handa- > hanna- nd > nn ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ > G. †hanna- ✧ GL/48
ndrond > ndronn nd > nn ᴱ√NORO > G. drond ✧ LT1A/Nornorë
sindai > sinnai nd > nn ᴱ✶sind(an)ai > G. sinnai ✧ GL/68