S. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

S. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

References ✧ LotR/1115; PE17/104; PE19/92

Order (05100)

After 04500 [au], [ae] became [o], [e] in polysyllables findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod VT41/9

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb] > [mm] ✧ LotR/1115 (mb > m); PE17/104 (mb > mm; medially); PE19/92 (mb > mm)
[nd] > [nn] ✧ LotR/1115 (nd > nn; usually); PE19/92 (nd > nn)

Phonetic Rule Examples

ambar > ammar mb > mm ambar- > ammar > S. amar ✧ PE17/104
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth ✧ PE17/104
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > S. amarth ✧ PE17/124
ambarθa- > ammarθa- mb > mm mbartā > ṃbartā > S. amartha- ✧ PE17/104
ambon > ammon mb > mm ambuna > S. amon ✧ PE17/93
ambon > ammon mb > mm ṃbono > S. amon ✧ PE17/93
remben > remmen mb > mm rembinā > S. remmen ✧ PE17/26
rembin > remmin mb > mm rembinī > S. remmin ✧ PE17/26
andond > andonn nd > nn ANA > S. annō/annon(d) ✧ PE17/40
and > ann nd > nn andā > S. ann- ✧ PE17/90
andonn > annonn nd > nn ANA > S. annō/annon(d) ✧ PE17/40
andūn > annūn nd > nn NDŪ > S. Annûn ✧ PE17/64
findrod > finnrod nd > nn findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
maerond > maeronn nd > nn MAY > S. maeron ✧ PE17/163
pelendor > pelennor nd > nn PEL > S. pelennor ✧ PE17/65
peθrond > peθronn nd > nn kwentrō > pentro > ᴸN. pethro-n ✧ PE18/100
r̥ond > r̥onn nd > nn SRON > rhond > S. rhonn ✧ PE17/183
tindūviell > tinnūviell nd > nn tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel ✧ PE19/73
θind > θinn nd > nn þindā > S. thin(n) ✧ PE17/72

N. [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn]; [mb|nd] > [mm|nn]

GS/§4.114 GS/§4.203 GS/§4.212 @@@

References ✧ PE22/30, 34-35

Variations

Order (05100)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
After 00700 voiceless [j̊], [w̥] became [x], [xw̥] ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn Ety/SWIN
After 00900 initial [w] became [gw] ᴹ√WENED > gwend > N. gwenn Ety/WEN
After 01000 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor Ety/ELED
After 01200 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn Ety/TUN
After 01400 [ɸ], [β] became [f], [v] ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn Ety/PHEN
After 02100 short [e], [a], [o] became [i], [e], [œ] preceding [i] Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin Ety/TIN
After 02200 short final vowels vanished ON. branda > brand > N. brann
ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m)
Ety/BARÁD
Ety/DARÁM
After 02400 initial [r], [l] were unvoiced ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann
ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham
Ety/LAD
Ety/RAMBĀ
After 03400 [nr] became [ðr] N. Belerian(d)ren PE22/36
After 03500 initial [x] became [h] ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann Ety/KHAN
After 03900 medial [s] became [θ] before [l], [r] ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon Ety/LOD
After 04600 non-initial [h] vanished ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell Ety/TIN
After 05000 [lð] became [ll] or [lt] ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell
ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel
Ety/TIN
Ety/TIN
Before 05400 [mm] shortened ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) Ety/DARÁM

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb] > [mm] ✧ PE19/20 (amb- > amm-); PE19/20 (amb- > amm-); PE19/23 (-mb- > mb, mm)
[nd] > [nn] ✧ PE19/20 (and- > ann-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. am ✧ Ety/AM²
amb > amm mb > mm ᴹ√ANGWA > N. am- ✧ Ety/ANGWA
ambar > ammar mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > N. amar ✧ Ety/MBAR
ambarθ > ammarθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT
ambaθ > ammaθ mb > mm ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ambath > N. amath ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
ambon > ammon mb > mm ᴹ√AM² > N. amon ✧ Ety/AM²
damb > damm mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. dam ✧ Ety/NDAM
damba- > damma- mb > mm ᴹ√NDAM > N. damma- ✧ Ety/NDAM
dramb > dramm mb > mm ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dumb > dumm mb > mm ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > N. dum ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
emberein > emmerein mb > mm ᴹ√MBAR > Emerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
gemb > gemm mb > mm ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > gemb > N. gem ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
glamb > glamm mb > mm G-LAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/GLAM
glamb > glamm mb > mm ᴹ√ÑGYAL/ÑGYÁLAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
glambr > glammr mb > mm G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor ✧ Ety/GLAM
goθmbaug > goθmmaug mb > mm ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
himb > himm mb > mm ᴹ√KHIM > N. him ✧ Ety/KHIM
imb > imm mb > mm ᴹ√IMBE > im(b) > N. imm ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
kamb > kamm mb > mm ᴹ√KAB > camb > N. cam ✧ Ety/KAB
kamb > kamm mb > mm ON. kamba > N. camm ✧ Ety/MAƷ
kramb > kramm mb > mm ᴹ√KRAB > cramb > N. cram ✧ Ety/KRAB
kromb > kromm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM
krumb > krumm mb > mm ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum ✧ Ety/KURÚM
kumb > kumm mb > mm ᴹ√KUB > cumb > N. cum ✧ Ety/KUB
l̥amb > l̥amm mb > mm ᴹ√LAB > N. lham(b) ✧ Ety/LAB
l̥imb > l̥imm mb > mm ᴹ✶liñwi > lhimb > N. lhim ✧ Ety/LIW
l̥imbid- > l̥immid- mb > mm ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI
l̥omb > l̥omm mb > mm ON. lumba > N. lhom ✧ EtyAC/LUB
l̥umb > l̥umm mb > mm ᴹ√LUM > N. lhum ✧ Ety/LUM
nemb > nemm mb > mm ᴹ✶NEÑ-WI > nemb > N. nem ✧ Ety/NEÑ-WI
r̥amb > r̥amm mb > mm ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
r̥emb > r̥emm mb > mm ON. rimba > rhemb > N. rhem ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ON. rimbe > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imm mb > mm ᴹ√RINGI > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RINGI
r̥omb > r̥omm mb > mm ON. romba > N. rhom ✧ Ety/ROM
tamba- > tamma- mb > mm ᴹ✶tambā́- > N. tammo ✧ Ety/TAM
tumb > tumm mb > mm ᴹ✶tumbu > N. tum ✧ Ety/TUB
θamb > θamm mb > mm ᴹ✶stambē > thamb > N. tham ✧ Ety/STAB
aŋgolond > aŋgolonn nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > N. Angolonn ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
and > ann nd > nn ᴹ✶andā > and > N. ann ✧ Ety/ÁNAD
anda- > anna- nd > nn #ᴹ✶anda > N. #anna- ✧ Ety/MBUD
andabond > annabond nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
annabond > annabonn nd > nn ᴹ✶andambundā > andabon > N. annabon ✧ Ety/MBUD
andon > annon nd > nn ᴹ√AD > N. annon ✧ Ety/AD
andūn > annūn nd > nn ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > N. annûn ✧ Ety/NDŪ
balandor > balannor nd > nn ON. Balandor > N. Balannor ✧ Ety/BAL
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann ✧ Ety/MBAD
band > bann nd > nn ᴹ√BAD² > band > N. bann ✧ EtyAC/BAD²
banwend > banwenn nd > nn ON. Bana-wende > Banwend > N. Banwen ✧ Ety/BAN
bind > binn nd > nn ᴹ√GWINDI > bind > N. binn ✧ EtyAC/GWINDI
bond > bonn nd > nn #ᴹ✶mbundā > N. #bon ✧ Ety/MBUD
brand > brann nd > nn ON. branda > brand > N. brann ✧ Ety/BARÁD
bund > bunn nd > nn ᴹ✶mbundu > bund > N. bunn ✧ Ety/MBUD
dend > denn nd > nn ᴹ√DEN > dend > N. denn ✧ Ety/DEN
duilind > duilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶dōmilindē > N. duilin ✧ SD/302
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOƷ/DÔ > dúlind > N. dúlin(n) ✧ Ety/DOƷ
dūlind > dūlinn nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > dúlind > N. dúlin ✧ Ety/TIN
edleðond > edleðonn nd > nn ON. etledro > N. egledhron ✧ Ety/LED
elendor > elennor nd > nn ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor ✧ Ety/ELED
emmlind > emmlinn nd > nn ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ√DER > N. Enner ✧ Ety/TULUK
ender > enner nd > nn ᴹ✶Enderō > N. Enner ✧ EtyAC/E
endin > ennin nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > N. ennin ✧ Ety/YEN
eθrend > eθrenn nd > nn ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN
fend > fenn nd > nn ON. phenda > fend > N. fenn ✧ Ety/PHEN
findel > finnel nd > nn ON. sphindéle > findel > N. finnel ✧ Ety/SPIN
findgon > finŋgon nd > nn ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
findrod > finnrod nd > nn ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. gannado ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ganda- > ganna- nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. ganno ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
gandell > gannell nd > nn ᴹ√ÑGANAD > gandel > N. gannel ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLIN > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLIN
glind > glinn nd > nn ᴹ√GLINDI > glind > N. glinn ✧ Ety/GLINDI
gondolind > gondolinn nd > nn ᴹ✶Gond-dol-ind > N. Gondolin ✧ EtyAC/DUL
gond > gonn nd > nn ᴹ√GÓNOD/GONDO > N. gonn ✧ Ety/GOND
gwend > gwenn nd > nn ᴹ√WENED > gwend > N. gwenn ✧ Ety/WEN
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ Ety/WIN
gwind > gwinn nd > nn ᴹ✶windi > gwind > N. gwinn ✧ EtyAC/WIN
gwinda- > gwinna- nd > nn ON. winda > N. gwinna ✧ EtyAC/WIN
hand > hann nd > nn ᴹ√KHAN > hand > N. hann ✧ Ety/KHAN
hend > henn nd > nn ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > N. henn ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
herond > heronn nd > nn ᴹ√KHER > N. heron ✧ EtyAC/KHER
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ√YEN > iðrind > N. iðrin ✧ Ety/RIN
īðrind > īðrinn nd > nn ᴹ✶ı̯en-rinde > N. îðrin ✧ Ety/YEN
ind > inn nd > nn ᴹ√ID > N. inn ✧ Ety/ID
jond > jonn nd > nn ᴹ√YON > N. ionn ✧ Ety/YŌ
kallond > kallonn nd > nn ᴹ✶kalrondō > N. callon ✧ Ety/KAL
kand > kann nd > nn ᴹ✶kandā > N. cann ✧ Ety/KAN
krand > krann nd > nn ᴹ✶k’randā > crand > N. crann ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN
kund > kunn nd > nn ᴹ√KUND-Ū > N. †cunn ✧ Ety/KUNDŪ
l̥and > l̥ann nd > nn ᴹ√LAD > lhand > N. lhann ✧ Ety/LAD
l̥aθrond > l̥aθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶la(n)sro-ndo > N. lhathron ✧ Ety/LAS²
l̥ind > l̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√LIN² > lhind > N. lhinn ✧ Ety/LIN²
lond > lonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > lond > N. lonn ✧ Ety/AK
l̥ond > l̥onn nd > nn ᴹ✶londē > N. lhonn ✧ Ety/LOD
mellond > mellonn nd > nn ᴹ√MEL > meldon > N. mellon ✧ EtyAC/MEL
mindond > mindonn nd > nn ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
mindass > minnass nd > nn ᴹ√MINI > N. minnas ✧ Ety/MINI
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilind > N. merilin ✧ Ety/TIN
mœrilind > mœrilinn nd > nn Ilk. mur(i)lind/myr(i)lind > mœrilinn > N. merilinn ✧ EtyAC/TIN
nand > nann nd > nn ᴹ√NAD > nand > N. nann ✧ Ety/NAD
nend > nenn nd > nn ᴹ✶nendā > nend > N. nenn ✧ Ety/NEN
nind > ninn nd > nn ᴹ√NIN-DI > N. ninn ✧ Ety/NIN-DI
oðrond > oðronn nd > nn ᴹ✶onrō > N. odhron ✧ Ety/ONO
oθlond > oθlonn nd > nn ᴹ√LOD > othlond > N. othlon ✧ Ety/LOD
pand > pann nd > nn ᴹ√PAD > N. pann ✧ Ety/PAD
pend > penn nd > nn ᴹ√PEN/PÉNED > pend > N. penn ✧ Ety/PEN
peθrond > peθronn nd > nn ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET
r̥end > r̥enn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > N. rhenn ✧ Ety/RIN
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ√RIG > N. rhien ✧ Ety/TĀ
r̥iend > r̥ienn nd > nn ᴹ✶rīʒende > N. rhiend ✧ EtyAC/RIG
r̥ind > r̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√RIN > rhind > N. rhinn ✧ Ety/RIN
r̥ond > r̥onn nd > nn ᴹ√ROD > rhond > N. rhonn ✧ Ety/ROD
sund > sunn nd > nn ᴹ√SUD > N. sunn ✧ EtyAC/SUD
tindu > tinnu nd > nn ᴹ√DOM > tindumh > tindu > N. tinnu ✧ Ety/TIN
tindūviell > tinnūviell nd > nn ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel ✧ Ety/TIN
tond > tonn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundā > tond > N. tonn ✧ Ety/TUN
tuilind > tuilinn nd > nn ᴹ✶tuilelindō > tuilind > N. tuilinn ✧ Ety/TUY
tund > tunn nd > nn ᴹ✶tundu > tund > N. tunn ✧ Ety/TUN
tūrind > tūrinn nd > nn ᴹ√TUR > N. Túrin(n) ✧ Ety/ID
θaliond > θalionn nd > nn ᴹ✶stalgondō > N. thalion ✧ Ety/STÁLAG
θand > θann nd > nn ᴹ√STAN > thand > N. thann ✧ Ety/STAN
θavrond > θavronn nd > nn ON. sthabro(ndo) > N. thavron ✧ Ety/STAB
θind > θinn nd > nn ᴹ✶thindi > thind > N. thinn ✧ Ety/THIN
θlind > θlinn nd > nn ᴹ✶slindi > thlind > N. thlinn ✧ Ety/SLIN
θond > θonn nd > nn ᴹ√STUD > thund > N. thonn ✧ EtyAC/SUD
Uinend > Uinenn nd > nn ON. Uinenda > Uinend > N. Uinen ✧ Ety/UY
ulund > ulunn nd > nn ᴹ✶ulgundō > ulund > N. ulun ✧ Ety/ÚLUG
xw̥and > xw̥ann nd > nn ᴹ✶swanda > chwand > N. chwann ✧ Ety/SWAD
xw̥ind > xw̥inn nd > nn ᴹ√SWIN > chwind > N. chwinn ✧ Ety/SWIN

G. [mβ] became [mb]; [mβ] > [mb]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04400)

Before 04500 [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mβ] > [mb]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kʷimβ > kʷimb mβ > mb ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28

G. [nd] generally became [nn], while [mb] became [m] finally; [n{dð}|-mb] > [nn|m]

HSG/§2.3

Order (04500)

After 04400 [mβ] became [mb]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[nd] > [nn]
[nd] > [nd]
[-mb] > [-m]

Phonetic Rule Examples

kamb > kam -mb > -m ᴱ✶kamba > G. cam ✧ GL/25
kʷimb > kʷim -mb > -m ᴱ√QIV > G. cwim¹ ✧ GL/28
tlimb > tlim -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. climli ✧ GL/26
tlumb > tlum -mb > -m ᴱ√tel > G. clum ✧ GL/26
mband > mband nd > nd ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > G. band ✧ PME/58
amund > amunn nd > nn ᴱ✶amundǝ > G. amon ✧ PE13/110
and > ann nd > nn ᴱ✶anda > G. [a]nn ✧ PE13/110
andai > annai nd > nn ᴱ✶ṇ̄dai > G. annai ✧ GL/19
bend > benn nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. †benn ✧ GL/22
benda- > benna- nd > nn ᴱ√Beđ > G. benna- ✧ GL/22
brond > brond nd > nn ᴱ√VORO > G. brod ✧ LT1A/Bronweg
glonθend > glonθenn nd > nn ᴱ✶glon-χend > G. glonthen ✧ GL/40
gʷarenda > gʷarenna nd > nn ᴱ✶ŋuarenđā > G. gwarin(n) ✧ GL/44
gʷendin > gʷennin nd > nn ᴱ√gu̯eđe > G. gwennin ✧ GL/45
handa- > hanna- nd > nn ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ > G. †hanna- ✧ GL/48
ndrond > ndronn nd > nn ᴱ√NORO > G. drond ✧ LT1A/Nornorë
sindai > sinnai nd > nn ᴱ✶sind(an)ai > G. sinnai ✧ GL/68