S. initial nasals vanished before stops; [{mb|nd|ŋg}-] > [{bdg}-]

S. initial nasals vanished before stops; [{mb|nd|ŋg}-] > [{bdg}-]

At every conceptual stage of Sindarin (including earlier Gnomish and Noldorin), all initial nasalized stops become stops: [mb-] > [b-], [nd-] > [d-], [ŋg-] > [g-], the only exception being when those stops became syllabic and developed a preceding vowel. These sound changes appeared in the phonetic Comparitive Tables from the 1930s (PE19/20), and Tolkien mentioned them on numerous occasions:

The initial PQ combinations of nd, ȵg, mb were anciently preserved in ON. In late ON for 5 b t appear 2 x w, i.e. d, g, b indicating a change by loss of nasal in absolute initial position or after a consonant. But the nasal forms are still preserved after vowels (as still occasionally in archaic Gondolic) (Feanorian Alphabet, late 1930s, PE22/29).
Since Telerin and Quenya both simplified mb, nd, ñg > nasals (not stops as in Noldorin [emphasis added] and Beleriandic), ñ- also = ñg - ñ = ñgy [in Telerin] (second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa [TQ2], circa 1950, PE18/103-104).
The nasalized initial groups ... These groups [mb, nd, ñg] in Quenya normally simplified to nasals initially (in Telerin they became b, d, g) (Outline of Phonology [OP2], early 1950s, PE19/76).
These initial nasal groups [mb, nd, ñg] were normally simplified in the development of Quenya and (later) of Sindarin. The Quenya development was > mm´ > ; in Sindarin in absolute initial position the nasal was lost: mb´ > , but if a proclitic word such as the article i “the” preceded, mb remained and developed as medially, > mm > m (from notes on the etymology of umbar, late 1960s, PE17/104).

The timing of this sound change is hard to nail down. The first note above indicates the sound change began in Late Old Noldorin. The last note indicates it was a “later” Sindarin change. As hinted at in the final note, the Sindarin sound change was late enough that it still played a role in the soft mutation system; it did so for both Noldorin and Sindarin (see below). The Eldamo data model places this phonetic rule after Old Sindarin but very early in the Sindarin period, which is more or less where David Salo put this sound change as well (GS/§4.78).

There are numerous examples of this phonetic rule. A representative sample:

As mentioned above, remnants of these ancient nasalized stops appear in the Sindarin and Noldorin systems of mutations. Though the initial sound of these words became b-, d-, g-, their mutated forms were distinct from words that originally began with simple stops, since they typically preserved the nasal in some form. For example nguruthos was the lenited form of guruthos “shadow of death” (PE17/95), versus aear the lenited form of gaear “sea”, which shows the usual loss of initial g- in its mutated form (PE17/27). See the entry on soft mutation for further details.

There is one example that hints that this change might sometimes occur in the interior of words at morpheme boundaries: Aragorn < OS. Ára-ngorn (PE17/113), but since there are several other etymologies for the name Aragorn, it’s hard to say whether or not this was a general rule or a transient idea (the latter seems more likely).

Conceptual Development: As noted above, this sound change appeared in the earliest versions of Gnomish from the 1910s, and was retained throughout the conceptual evolution of Sindarin.

References ✧ PE17/60, 104; PE18/103-104; PE19/76

Variations

Order (00100)

Before 05200 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
Before 05700 [œ] became [e] ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh Ety/ÑGOLOD
Before 06800 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor Ety/NDAK

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [b-] ✧ PE17/104 (mb > b-); PE18/105 (mb > b)
[nd-] > [d-]
[ŋg-] > [g-] ✧ PE17/60 (ñg > g-); PE17/169 (ŋ > ʒ > g); PE18/105 (ñg > g)
[mf-] > [f-] ✧ PE18/92 (mp > f-)
[nθ-] > [θ-] ✧ PE18/92 (nt > th-)
[ŋx-] > [x-] ✧ PE18/92 (ŋk > h-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbando > bando mb- > b- mbandō > S. band ✧ MR/350
mbar > bar mb- > b- mbar(ă) > S. bâr ✧ PE17/109
mbar > bar mb- > b- mbar(ă) > S. bâr ✧ PE17/109
mbar > bar mb- > b- mbar > S. bar ✧ PE17/163
mbar > bar mb- > b- mbā̆r > S. bar ✧ PE17/164
mbar > bar mb- > b- mbár > S. bar ✧ SA/bar
mbarda > barda mb- > b- mbardā̆ > S. barð ✧ PE17/164
mbari > bari mb- > b- mbā̆r > S. bair ✧ PE17/164
mbarθan > barθan mb- > b- Q. martan > S. barthan ✧ PE17/109
mbarθano > barθano mb- > b- mbartanō > S. Barthan ✧ LT1A/Talka Marda
mbaume > baume mb- > b- ñgwaum- > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
mbelek > belek mb- > b- mbelek- > S. beleg ✧ PE17/115
mbelek > belek mb- > b- mbelek > S. beleg ✧ PE17/115
mbelekōre > belekōre mb- > b- mbelek-óre > S. Belegûr ✧ PE17/115
mbelexθa > belexθa mb- > b- mbelek > S. belaith ✧ PE17/115
mbǭme > bǭme mb- > b- ñgwām > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
mboθθo > boθθo mb- > b- MOT > mbotto > S. both ✧ PE17/165
ndaila > daila nd- > d- NDAY > S. dael ✧ PE17/151
ndaira > daira nd- > d- NDAY > S. daer ✧ PE17/151
ndak- > dak- nd- > d- ndak- > S. #Dag- ✧ SA/dagor
ndakro > dakro nd- > d- ndak- > S. dagor ✧ SA/dagor
ndan- > dan- nd- > d- nana-/ndan- > S. dan- ✧ PE17/166
ndan- > dan- nd- > d- NDĀ̆ > S. dan/dad- ✧ PE17/166
ndanmen- > danmen- nd- > d- nan-men > S. damen ✧ PE17/166
ndanwetha > danwetha nd- > d- OS. Ndangwetha > S. Dangweth ✧ PM/395
ndeb- > deb- nd- > d- ‽√NDEB > S. dev- ✧ PE17/167
ndī > dī nd- > d- ndī > S. di ✧ PE17/95
ndore > dore nd- > d- ndor > S. dôr ✧ SA/dôr
ndore > dore nd- > d- ndorē > S. dôr ✧ WJ/413
ndūne > dūne nd- > d- ndu > S. dûn ✧ SA/andúnë
ndūra > dūra nd- > d- (n)dūrā > S. Dûr ✧ PE17/152
araŋgorn > aragorn ŋg- > g- OS. ára-ngorn > S. Aragorn ✧ PE17/113
ŋgal- > gal- ŋg- > g- ŊGAL > S. gal- ✧ PE17/169
ŋgalata > galata ŋg- > g- ñalatā > S. galad ✧ PM/347
ŋgalatarigel > galatarigel ŋg- > g- ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > S. Galadriel ✧ PE17/60
ŋgalatariɣelle > galatariɣelle ŋg- > g- ñalata-riʒelle > S. Galadriel ✧ NM/352
ŋgauro > gauro ŋg- > g- ÑGAW > S. gaur ✧ PE17/39
ŋgōle > gōle ŋg- > g- ngōl- > S. gûl ✧ PE17/79
ŋgōle > gōle ŋg- > g- ngol- > S. gûl ✧ SA/gûl
ŋgōle > gōle ŋg- > g- NGOL > S. gûl ✧ WJ/383
ŋgolodi > golodi ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. Goelydh ✧ WJ/364
ŋgolodi > golodi ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. gœlyð ✧ PE17/139
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ngolodō > S. golodh ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/153
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- Ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PM/360
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. Golodh ✧ WJ/364
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ngolodõ > S. golodh ✧ MR/470
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/139
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ñgolodō > S. goloð ✧ PE17/140
ŋgor- > gor- ŋg- > g- ÑGOR > S. gor ✧ PE17/172
ŋgorna > gorna ŋg- > g- ñgornā > S. gorn ✧ PE17/113
ŋgoroθūho > goroθūho ŋg- > g- ñgor(o)-thūsō > Gorthu > S. Gorthaur ✧ PE17/183
ŋgūle > gūle ŋg- > g- ÑGUL > S. gûl ✧ PE17/125
ŋguroθo > guroθo ŋg- > g- NGUR > S. gorth ✧ WJ/415
ŋguru > guru ŋg- > g- ngurū > S. guru ✧ PE17/87

N. initial nasals vanished before stops; [{mb|nd|ŋg}-] > [{bdg}-]

GS/§4.78 @@@ plus morpheme boundary: talagand

Reference ✧ PE22/29

Order (00100)

Before 05600 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann
ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm
Ety/MBAD
Ety/ÑGAL
Before 05700 [œ] became [e] ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh Ety/ÑGOLOD
Before 06200 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor Ety/NDAK

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [b-] ✧ PE19/20 (mb- > b-); PE19/20 (mb- > b-)
[nd-] > [d-] ✧ PE19/20 (nd- > d-)
[ŋg-] > [g-] ✧ PE19/20 ([ŋ]g- > g-); PE19/20 (ŋg- > g-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbalarauko > balarauko mb- > b- ᴹ✶ñgwalaraukō > N. Balrog ✧ Ety/RUK
mbalxa > balxa mb- > b- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > N. balch ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
mbanda > banda mb- > b- ᴹ✶mbanda > band > N. bann ✧ Ety/MBAD
mbaŋxa- > baŋxa- mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAKH > N. banga ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbar > bar mb- > b- ON. mbar > N. bár ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
mbarata > barata mb- > b- ᴹ√MBARAT > N. barad ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbarθa- > barθa- mb- > b- ᴹ√MBARAT > N. bartho ✧ Ety/MBARAT
mbasta > basta mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAS > N. bast ✧ Ety/MBAS
mbaukla- > baukla- mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAW > N. bauglo- ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbaure > baure mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAW > N. baur ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbaxa > baxa mb- > b- ᴹ✶mbakhā > N. bach ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbaxro > baxro mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAKH > N. bachor ✧ Ety/MBAKH
mbereθθe > bereθθe mb- > b- ᴹ√MBER > N. bereth ✧ Ety/MBER
mberina > berina mb- > b- ᴹ√MBER > N. beren ✧ Ety/MBER
mbǭka > bǭka mb- > b- ᴹ√MBAW > N. baug ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbǭla > bǭla mb- > b- ᴹ√ÑGWAL > N. baul ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
mboθθo > boθθo mb- > b- ᴹ√MBOTH > N. both ✧ Ety/MBOTH
mbui > bui mb- > b- ᴹ✶mauy- > N. bui ✧ Ety/MBAW
mbunda > bunda mb- > b- #ᴹ✶mbundā > N. #bon ✧ Ety/MBUD
mbundo > bundo mb- > b- ᴹ✶mbundu > bund > N. bunn ✧ Ety/MBUD
ndair > dair nd- > d- ᴹ√NDERE > ON. daer ✧ Ety/DER
ndair > dair nd- > d- ON. ndair > N. doer ✧ Ety/NDER
ndakie > dakie nd- > d- ON. ndakie > N. degi ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndakra- > dakra- nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAK > N. dagro ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndakro > dakro nd- > d- ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndamba > damba nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAM > N. dam ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndamba- > damba- nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAM > N. damma- ✧ Ety/NDAM
ndan > dan nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAN > N. Dân ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndani > dani nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAN > N. Dein ✧ Ety/NDAN
ndaniθǭro > daniθǭro nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
ndaŋno > daŋno nd- > d- ON. ndagno > N. daen ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndaŋxina > daŋxina nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAK > N. dangen ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndaŋxini > daŋxini nd- > d- ᴹ√NDAK > N. Ndengin ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndenda > denda nd- > d- ᴹ√DEN > dend > N. denn ✧ Ety/DEN
ndi > di nd- > d- ᴹ√NDI/DI > N. di ✧ EtyAC/NDI
ndīs > dīs nd- > d- ON. ndîs > N. dîs ✧ Ety/NDIS
ndǭko > dǭko nd- > d- ON. ndōko > N. daug ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndolo > dolo nd- > d- ON. ndolo > N. dôl ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndolθi > dolθi nd- > d- ᴹ√NDOL > N. dylt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndolθo > dolθo nd- > d- ᴹ√NDOL > N. dolt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndore > dore nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndorē > N. Dôr ✧ Ety/NDOR
ndori > dori nd- > d- N. †dy̆r > N. dȳr ✧ PE22/38
ndorθa- > dorθa- nd- > d- ᴹ√NDOR > N. dortho- ✧ Ety/NDOR
ndulla > dulla nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndulna > N. doll ✧ Ety/DUL
ndulla > dulla nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndulla > N. doll ✧ Ety/NDUL
ndumbe > dumbe nd- > d- ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > N. dum ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
ndūmena > dūmena nd- > d- ᴹ√NDŪ > N. dúven ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ndūmeni > dūmeni nd- > d- ᴹ√NDŪ > N. dúvin ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
ndūne > dūne nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndūne > N. dûn ✧ Ety/NDŪ
ndūro > dūro nd- > d- ᴹ✶ndeuro > N. Dûr ✧ EtyAC/NDEW
ŋganda- > ganda- ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. gannado ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋganda- > ganda- ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > N. ganno ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgandelle > gandelle ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGANAD > gandel > N. gannel ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ŋgaramo > garamo ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > N. garaf ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
ŋglambe > glambe ŋg- > g- ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
ŋgolda > golda ŋg- > g- ᴹ✶ngolda > N. goll ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgǭle > gǭle ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGAW > N. gaul ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgolodi > golodi ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > goeloeidh > N. geleidh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolodo > golodo ŋg- > g- ON. ngolodo > N. golodh ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolodomire > golodomire ŋg- > g- ᴹ√MIR > N. Golovir ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolwe > golwe ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGOL > N. †golw ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgolwina > golwina ŋg- > g- ᴹ✶ngolwina > N. golwen ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgǭro > gǭro ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGAW > N. gaur ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
ŋgoroθo > goroθo ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH > N. goroth ✧ Ety/ÑGOROTH
ŋgūle > gūle ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGOL > N. gûl ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
ŋgurina > gurina ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGUR > N. goren ✧ EtyAC/ÑGUR
ŋgurθu > gurθu ŋg- > g- ON. ngurtu > N. guruth ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
ŋguru > guru ŋg- > g- ON. nguru > N. ‽gûr/gurw ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
ŋguru > guru ŋg- > g- ᴹ√NGUR > N. Guru ✧ Ety/WAN
ŋgau- > ŋgau- ŋg- > g- ᴹ√ÑGAW > N. gaw- ✧ Ety/ÑGAW
talaŋgando > talagando ŋg- > g- ᴹ✶tyalañgando > N. talagand ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
talaŋgando > talagando ŋg- > g- ᴹ✶tyalañgandō̆ > N. Talagand ✧ Ety/TYAL

G. initial [ŋgʷ] became [gʷ]; [ŋgʷ-] > [gʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ŋgʷ-] > [gʷ-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ŋgʷa- > gʷa- ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋu̯a > G. go ✧ GL/40
ŋgʷaðrā > gʷaðrā ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ√ŋwa- > G. gwadhra ✧ GL/47
ŋgʷaðril > gʷaðril ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ√ŋwa- > G. gwadhril ✧ GL/47
ŋgʷaðron > gʷaðron ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ√ŋwa- > G. gwadhron ✧ GL/47
ŋgʷaðt > gʷaðt ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ√ŋwa- > G. gwast ✧ GL/47
ŋgʷaɣet > gʷaɣet ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43
ŋgʷaɣets > gʷaɣets ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43
ŋgʷāloθ > gʷāloθ ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋgua-aloþ- > gwōloth > G. goloth ✧ GL/41
ŋgʷamat > gʷamat ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋwa·mat > G. gomod ✧ GL/44
ŋgʷār > gʷār ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋguār > gwōr- > G. gôr ✧ GL/41
ŋgʷarenðā > gʷarenðā ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ŋuarenđā > G. gwarin(n) ✧ GL/44
ŋgʷeðra- > gʷeðra- ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ√ŋwedh- > G. gwethra- ✧ GL/46
ŋgʷṛθ > gʷṛθ ŋgʷ- > gʷ- ᴱ✶ngwṛþ- > G. gurth ✧ GL/43

G. initial nasals vanished before stops; [{mb|nd|ŋg}-] > [{bdg}-]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[mb-] > [b-]
[nd-] > [d-]
[ŋg-] > [g-]

Phonetic Rule Examples

mbal > bal mb- > b- ᴱ√MBALA > G. bal ✧ LT1A/Balrog
mband > band mb- > b- ᴱ√mᵇṇřṇ > G. band ✧ PME/58
mbar > bar mb- > b- ᴱ√mbar > G. bar ✧ LT1A/Eldamar
mbloss > bloss mb- > b- ᴱ√mol- > G. Bloss ✧ GL/23
mboθli > boθli mb- > b- ᴱ✶mᵇāsḷ > G. bothli ✧ GL/23
mbridwen > bridwen mb- > b- ᴱ√mṛt > G. Bridwen ✧ GL/24
mbriθ- > briθ- mb- > b- ᴱ√M(B)ṚTṚ > G. brith- ✧ QL/63
ndol- > dol- nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dol- ✧ GL/30
ndolfa > dolfa nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolfa ✧ GL/30
ndolk > dolk nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolc ✧ GL/30
ndolm > dolm nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolm ✧ GL/30
ndolmeg > dolmeg nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolmeg ✧ GL/30
ndor > dor nd- > d- ᴱ✶ndor- > G. dôr ✧ LT1A/Dor Faidwen
ndrib- > drib- nd- > d- ᴱ√nṛq- > G. drib- ✧ GL/30
ndrio > drio nd- > d- ᴱ✶n’reu̯ > G. †drio ✧ GL/30
ndriθ > driθ nd- > d- ᴱ√nṛþ- > G. drith ✧ GL/30
ndriθ- > driθ- nd- > d- ᴱ√nṛþ- > G. drith- ✧ GL/31
ndrō > drō nd- > d- ᴱ√NORO > G. drô ✧ LT1A/Nornorë
ndrog > drog nd- > d- ᴱ✶norokā́ > G. drog ✧ GL/31
ndronn > dronn nd- > d- ᴱ√NORO > G. drond ✧ LT1A/Nornorë
ndūl > dūl nd- > d- ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dûl ✧ GL/30
ŋgainu > gainu ŋg- > g- ᴱ√ŋaı̯ > G. Gainu ✧ GL/37
ŋgaist > gaist ŋg- > g- ᴱ√ŋaı̯ > G. gaist ✧ GL/37
ŋgaista- > gaista- ŋg- > g- ᴱ✶ŋaistă- > G. gaista- ✧ GL/37
ŋgolda > golda ŋg- > g- ᴱ✶ŋolđō > G. golda ✧ GL/41