S. final [l], [r] usually became syllabic; [-C{lr}] > [-Co{lr}]

S. final [l], [r] usually became syllabic; [-C{lr}] > [-Co{lr}]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, a final [l] or [r] after a consonant usually became syllabic, and developed into [-ol] and [-or] respectively, as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.192). There are a large number examples in both Sindarin and Noldorin:

There are, however, a couple examples where this sound change did not occur:

These may be archaic forms. There are also a couple more examples where it seems the vowel that developed was not [o]:

Here it is more difficult to guess Tolkien’s thinking. More likely this represents some kind of earlier metathesis of liquids and vowels, such as: idrē > *ider > idher.

Conceptual Developments: The analysis of these changes in the early stages of the language are complicated by the fact that syllabic [ḷ] and [ṛ] were ordinary vowels in the Primitive Elvish of the 1910s and 1920s. There are also quite a few examples where a final [l] or [r] did not develop a vowel after another consonant in the Early Period:

Thus, it seems that in most cases a syllabic final [-ḷ] or [-ṛ] simply remained in the Gnomish and Early Noldorin versions of the languages from the 1910s and 1920s.

Order (06500)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor Ety/NDAK
After 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶ubrā > ofr (ovr) > N. ovor Ety/UB
After 02300 short final vowels vanished ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol PE18/88
After 02500 voiceless stops voiced after vowels ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol PE18/88
After 03900 nasals vanished before spirantal clusters tanklā > tankla > tachl > ᴸN. tachol PE18/100
After 05700 non-initial [m] usually became [v] ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor Ety/TAM
After 05900 [mm] shortened ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor Ety/GLAM

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Cl] > [-Col]
[-Cr] > [-Cor]

Phonetic Rule Examples

naθl > naθol -Cl > -Col nathlo > S. nathal ✧ PE17/141
ogl > ogol -Cl > -Col OKO > S. ogol ✧ PE17/149
ogl > ogol -Cl > -Col ‽✶UKLA > S. ogl ✧ PE17/149
ogl > ogol -Cl > -Col oklā > S. ogol ✧ PE17/170
ogl > ogol -Cl > -Col ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol ✧ PE18/88
oθl > oθol -Cl > -Col Oþlō > S. Othol ✧ PE17/141
tagl > tagol -Cl > -Col *✶takala > S. #dagol ✧ VT42/8
taxl > taxol -Cl > -Col tanklā > tankla > tachl > ᴸN. tachol ✧ PE18/100
dagr > dagor -Cr > -Cor ndak- > S. dagor ✧ SA/dagor
haθr > haθor -Cr > -Cor haþa > T. hathro ✧ PE22/166
megr > megor -Cr > -Cor mikrā > S. megr ✧ WJ/337
sadr > sador -Cr > -Cor satrā > S. sador ✧ PE17/183

N. final [l], [r] usually became syllabic; [-C{lr}] > [-Co{lr}]

GS/§4.192 @@@

Order (05900)

After 00100 initial nasals vanished before stops ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor Ety/NDAK
After 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels ᴹ✶ubrā > ofr (ovr) > N. ovor Ety/UB
After 02100 short final vowels vanished ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor
ᴹ√MAK > magl > N. magol
Ety/AK
Ety/MAK
After 02400 voiceless stops voiced after vowels ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor Ety/AK
After 03700 nasals vanished before spirantal clusters ᴹ✶tankla > tachl > N. tachol Ety/TAK
After 05000 non-initial [m] usually became [v] ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor Ety/TAM
After 05700 [mm] shortened ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor Ety/GLAM

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-Cl] > [-Col]
[-Cr] > [-Cor]
[-iCr] > [-iCer]

Phonetic Rule Examples

magl > magol -Cl > -Col ᴹ√MAK > magl > N. magol ✧ Ety/MAK
naugl > naugol -Cl > -Col ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
taxl > taxol -Cl > -Col ᴹ✶tankla > tachl > N. tachol ✧ Ety/TAK
tegl > tegol -Cl > -Col ᴹ✶tekla > tegl > N. tegol ✧ Ety/TEK
agr > agor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor ✧ Ety/AK
baðr > baðor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶bad- > N. badhor ✧ Ety/BAD
baxr > baxor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√MBAKH > N. bachor ✧ Ety/MBAKH
dagr > dagor -Cr > -Cor ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor ✧ Ety/NDAK
gadr > gador -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√GAT(H) > gadr > N. gador ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
glamr > glamor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor ✧ Ety/GLAM
hadr > hador -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√KHAT > N. hador ✧ Ety/KHAT
kabr > kabor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√KAP > cabr > N. cabor ✧ Ety/KAP
lobr > lobor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√LOP > N. lobor ✧ EtyAC/LOP
naðr > naðor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ√NAD > N. naðor ✧ Ety/NAD
naðr > naðor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶nyadrō > naðr > ON. naðor ✧ EtyAC/NYAD
ovr > ovor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶ubrā > ofr (ovr) > N. ovor ✧ Ety/UB
taθr > taθor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶tatharē > tathrē > N. tathor ✧ Ety/TATHAR
tavr > tavor -Cr > -Cor ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor ✧ Ety/TAM
iðr > iðer -iCr > -iCer ᴹ✶idrē > N. idher ✧ Ety/ID