S. non-initial [m] usually became [v]; [Vm|{lr}m|m{mbp}] > [Vv|{lr}v|m{mbp}]

S. non-initial [m] usually became [v]; [Vm|{lr}m|m{mbp}] > [Vv|{lr}v|m{mbp}]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, an [m] appearing after a vowel or liquid almost always developed into a labial spirant [v], the only major exceptions being the combinations mm, mb, mp and mph. This was a factor in the soft-mutation of Sindarin, where words beginning with m have mutated forms beginning with v:

The most complete description of this sound change appears in Tolkien’s notes on the Noldorin usage of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

The ON sound m became opened to an (originally nasal) spirant. Since this change affected medial m in every case except in the combinations mb, mp (which were denoted t qp) the old sign was still used: thus y normally = spirant m (mh). But m in absolute initial position remained unchanged. Therefore the spirantal value, especially when this was grammatically a mutation of m, as in malt “gold”, i·mhalt, was represented when required by modified sign y+ or : as y]j1 `ByÅ]j1 [malt, imhalt]. Later mh became denasalized, at first becoming ƀ or with nasalization of a preceding vowel, and ultimately with loss of nasality becoming identical with f [v], w. The sign then went out of use, being longest preserved, even after the sound was [v], as the grammatical mutation of m. y+ thus only appeared initially in archaic Gondolic (PE22/35).

Tolkien also mentioned this change in several places in later writing:

Old Sindarin retained -m- in spelling. The spirantalizing > > v was not universal, nor anywhere achieved until after the arrival of the Noldor (never achieved in North Sindarin nor among the Noldor if Feanorian) (PE17/131).
Doriath, as might be expected from its history, was in general the most pure and conservative form of Sindarin in the Elder days ... It was none-the-less in a few but important points of phonology marked by changes not universal in Sindarin. Most notable among these was the spirantalizing of intervocalic m > a nasal , the nasality of which was, however, never lost in Doriathrin proper until after the dissolution of the Hidden Realm and the later mingling of speech among the defected [sic] remnants of the Sindar, Noldor and Atani (PE17/133).

As the first quote indicates, this sound change was not part of the North Sindarin dialect (PE17/108, 128), as indicated by words like North S. lómin “echoing” (S/118; PE17/133) and Celegorm (VT41/10). The last quote above seems to indicate this sound change originated in the dialect of Doriath, but elsewhere it seems this sound change was common to all Sindarin dialects outside of the north (PE17/128). Regardless, this feature blended into the common form of the language during the mingling of Elvish peoples on the coast of Beleriand after their defeat by Morgoth.

As described above, the result was first a nasalized spirant, which Tolkien sometimes represented as mh and sometimes as . It seems this nasalized spirant appeared early and lingered for some time, almost all the way to the fall of Beleriand. This makes it more difficult to determine the exact timing of the change of [m] > [v], since it was fairly gradual. As noted above, m resisted this change when combined with other labials. It did not occur for the combinations mm, mb, mp and mph, though the exact mechanics are hard to determine, since all of these combinations eventually developed into mm (except finally, where -mp and -mph > -mp). Since later [mm] shortened to [m], an isolated non-initial m could only appear in Sindarin as the ultimate development of these primitive combinations. Some examples:

The sound change [m] > [v] occurred not only after vowels, but after liquids as well. In the examples below, remember that final [v] is written -f in Sindarin and Noldorin (LotR/1113):

The combinations rm and lm could appear in later compounds (S. Mormegil, S. Dolmed), so it seems this was no longer an active sound change in later Sindarin. There are notes indicating [m] > [v] could occur in other combinations as well: “tm, dm > ðm, later > ðv, ðw” (from notes related to The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor from the late 1960s, PE42/26). This particular phonetic development is a bit dubious, however, because examples elsewhere indicate that [ð] vanished before nasals.

Conceptual Developments: The soft-mutation of [m] to [v] did not appear in The Gnomish Grammar of the 1910s (PE11/7), so it seems this sound change was not part of Tolkien’s earliest conception of the language. Similarly rm and lm are fairly common in the Gnomish Lexicon. The soft-mutation of [m] to [v] also did not happen in the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s (PE13/122), but there are signs [m] > [v] in the phonetic development of some words in the Early Noldorin words lists, as noted by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.1.5):

All of the sound changes whereby [m] > [v] were well established in the Noldorin of the 1930s and thereafter.

References ✧ PE17/112, 131, 133

Order (05500)

After 02000 [ǭ] became [au] Val. Arǭmēz > arāmē/arǭmæ > araum(a) > araum̌/arauv > S. Araw WJ/400
After 02600 final [ɣ] became [a] after a consonant julmā > S. ylf WJ/416
After 04100 initial [x-] became [h-] khadmā > chaðw > S. haðw PE22/148
After 05100 [n] assimilated to following labial at morpheme boundaries nan-men > S. damen PE17/166
After 05300 final [ll], [nn], [ss] shortened in polysyllables tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel PE19/73
Before 05600 [ðv] became [ðw] khadmā > chaðw > S. haðw PE22/148
Before 05700 [mm] shortened LAMA > glamb > glamm > S. glam WJ/416
Before 05800 final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe] okma > S. oew PE17/170
Before 05900 final [w], [v] vanished after [u] Val. Arǭmēz > arāmē/arǭmæ > araum(a) > araum̌/arauv > S. Araw WJ/400
Before 06000 [ou] became [au] Oromē > Orom̆ > Orow̯ > S. Araw PE17/99
Before 06100 [h] vanished after vowels SAM > ahawv > S. aw PE17/173
Before 06300 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor Ety/TAM
Before 06400 final [vn] sometimes became [von] ᴹ√KYÉLEP > celefn > N. celevon Ety/KYELEP

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vm] > [Vv] ✧ VT42/26 (im > iv); PE17/131 (-m- > > v); PE17/133 (m > ); PE22/149 (mn > ƀn > vn)
[lm] > [lv]
[rm] > [rv]
[ðm] > [ðv] ✧ VT42/26 (ðm > ðv)
[mm] > [mm]
[mb] > [mb]
[mp] > [mp]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ahaum > ahauv Vm > Vv SAM > ahawv > S. aw ✧ PE17/173
araum > arauv Vm > Vv Val. Arǭmēz > arāmē/arǭmæ > araum(a) > araum̌/arauv > S. Araw ✧ WJ/400
amon > avon Vm > Vv Ámān > S. Avon ✧ PE17/162
baum > bauv Vm > Vv ñgwaum- > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
baum > bauv Vm > Vv ñgwām > mbaum̃ > S. baw ✧ PE19/107
dūm > dūv Vm > Vv dōmē > S. ✧ PE17/152
dūm > dūv Vm > Vv dōmē > S. ✧ SA/dú
gwaem > gwaev Vm > Vv wagme > S. gwaew ✧ PE17/34
helemorn > helevorn Vm > Vv Kh. kheled > S. Hele(ð)vorn ✧ PE17/37
hiθlūm > hiθlūv Vm > Vv χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ ✧ PE17/133
koma- > kova- Vm > Vv KOM > S. cova- ✧ PE17/157
koma- > kova- Vm > Vv KOM > S. cova ✧ PE17/158
kūm > kūv Vm > Vv kūma > S. cû(f) ✧ PE17/122
laman > lavan Vm > Vv laman(a)/lamān > S. lavan ✧ WJ/416
lemain > levain Vm > Vv laman(a)/lamān > S. levain ✧ WJ/416
lim > liv Vm > Vv limi > S. #lif ✧ VT47/6
l̥oer > l̥oer Vm > Vv SLOY > S. lhoer ✧ PE17/185
l̥oem > l̥oev Vm > Vv SLOY > S. lhoew ✧ PE17/185
lomen > loven Vm > Vv lāmina > lǭ́m̃en > S. loven ✧ PE17/133
molim > moliv Vm > Vv mā-limi > S. molif ✧ VT47/6
oem > oev Vm > Vv okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170
oraum > orauv Vm > Vv Orǭmē > Oraúmh > Araúv > S. Áraw ✧ PE17/153
orom > orov Vm > Vv Oromē > Orom̆ > Orow̯ > S. Araw ✧ PE17/99
raem > raev Vm > Vv RAY > S. raef ✧ PE22/159
raem > raev Vm > Vv RAY > S. raef ✧ VT42/12
semin > sevin Vm > Vv SAM > S. sevin ✧ PE17/173
silem > silev Vm > Vv silimā > S. silef ✧ PE17/23
tamn > tavn Vm > Vv taman- > S. tavn ✧ PE17/107
tinnūmihel > tinnūvihel Vm > Vv tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel ✧ PE19/73
nindalm > nindalv lm > lv nēn-talma > S. nindalf ✧ PE17/167
talm > talv lm > lv talam > S. talf ✧ PE17/52
ylm > ylv lm > lv julmā > S. ylf ✧ WJ/416
domm > domm mm > mm DOM > S. dom ✧ PE22/153
dymm > dymm mm > mm DOM > S. dym ✧ PE22/153
fimm > fimm mm > mm PHIM > S. fim ✧ PE17/23
galaðremmen > galaðremmen mm > mm galad(a)rembinā > S. galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
glamm > glamm mm > mm LAMA > glamb > glamm > S. glam ✧ WJ/416
imm > imm mm > mm immā > S. im ✧ VT47/14
imm > imm mm > mm immō > S. im ✧ VT47/14
imm > imm mm > mm imbi > imm > S. im ✧ VT47/14
kamm > kamm mm > mm kambā > S. cam ✧ SA/cam
lamm > lamm mm > mm lambē > S. lam(m) ✧ VT39/15
lamm > lamm mm > mm lambē > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
lamm > lamm mm > mm lambā > S. lam ✧ WJ/394
limm > limm mm > mm lĭmbĭ > S. lim ✧ PE17/18
nimm > nimm mm > mm T. nimbi > S. nim ✧ PE17/19
remm > remm mm > mm REM > S. rem(m) ✧ VT42/12
romm > romm mm > mm rom > S. rom ✧ WJ/400
gamp > gamp mp > mp gampa > S. gamp ✧ VT47/20
nimp > nimp mp > mp nimpĭ > S. nimp ✧ VT48/18
haðm > haðv ðm > ðv khadmā > chaðw > S. haðw ✧ PE22/148
haðma- > haðva- ðm > ðv khadmā > haðma > S. haðwa ✧ PE22/148

N. non-initial [m] usually became [v]; [Xm|m{mbp}] > [Xv|m{mbp}]

GS/§4.127 GS/§4.181 @@@

References ✧ PE22/32, 35

Order (05000)

After 01900 [ou] became [au] ON. doume > N. daw
ᴹ✶Orǭmē > Oroume > ON. Araume
Ety/DOƷ
Ety/ORÓM
After 03100 [ai] became [oe] or [ae] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32
Before 05200 [w], [v] vanished after [u] ᴹ✶tuimā > tuiw > N. tui Ety/TUY
Before 05700 [mm] shortened ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > N. amar Ety/MBAR
Before 05900 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor Ety/TAM
Before 06000 final [vn] sometimes became [von] ᴹ√KYÉLEP > celefn > N. celevon Ety/KYELEP
Before 06200 [io] became [ui], [eo] ON. sniuma/snȳma > N. hniof/hnuif Ety/SNEW

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vm] > [Vv]
[lm] > [lv]
[rm] > [rv]
[mm] > [mm]
[mb] > [mb]
[mp] > [mp]

Phonetic Rule Examples

araum > arauv Vm > Vv ON. Araume > N. Araw ✧ Ety/ORÓM
araum > arauv Vm > Vv ON. Araume > Aráw > Ara͠uƀ > Aróu̯mh > N. Áraw ✧ PE22/37
aram > arav Vm > Vv ᴹ√ƷARAM > N. araf ✧ Ety/ƷARAM
daum > dauv Vm > Vv ON. doume > N. daw ✧ Ety/DOƷ
domn > dovn Vm > Vv ᴹ√DUB > N. dofn ✧ Ety/DUB
drama- > drava- Vm > Vv ᴹ√DARÁM > N. dravo ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dramn > dravn Vm > Vv ᴹ√DARÁM > N. drafn ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dramn > dravn Vm > Vv ᴹ√DARÁM > dravn > N. dravon ✧ EtyAC/DARÁM
dūm > dūv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶dōmi > dūmh > N. ✧ SD/302
dūmen > dūven Vm > Vv ᴹ√NDŪ > N. dúven ✧ Ety/NDŪ
dūmilind > dūvilind Vm > Vv ᴹ✶dōmilindē > N. duilin ✧ SD/302
dūmin > dūvin Vm > Vv ᴹ√NDŪ > N. dúvin ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
erum > eruv Vm > Vv ᴹ√ERE > N. eru ✧ Ety/ERE
garam > garav Vm > Vv ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > N. garaf ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
glamra- > glavra- Vm > Vv ᴹ√G-LAM > N. glavro ✧ Ety/GLAM
golomir > golovir Vm > Vv ᴹ√MIR > N. Golovir ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
gorum > goruv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶Górōmē > N. Goru ✧ EtyAC/GÓROM
haem > haev Vm > Vv ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
ham- > hav- Vm > Vv ᴹ√KHAM > N. haf- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
hīm > hīv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶khīmā > N. hiw ✧ Ety/KHIM
kaem > kaev Vm > Vv ᴹ√KAY > N. caew ✧ Ety/KAY
keim > keiv Vm > Vv ᴹ√KEM > N. ceif ✧ Ety/KEM
kelemn > kelevn Vm > Vv ᴹ√KYÉLEP > celefn > N. celevon ✧ Ety/KYELEP
kem > kev Vm > Vv ᴹ√KEM > N. cef ✧ Ety/KEM
kemn > kevn Vm > Vv ᴹ√KEM > N. cevn ✧ Ety/KEM
kemnor > kevnor Vm > Vv ᴹ√KEM > N. cevnor ✧ EtyAC/KEM
komn > kovn Vm > Vv ᴹ√KUM > cofn > N. caun ✧ Ety/KUM
l̥emn > l̥evn Vm > Vv ᴹ✶lebnā > N. lhevon ✧ Ety/LEB
naem > naev Vm > Vv ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK
n̥iom > n̥iov Vm > Vv ON. sniuma/snȳma > N. hniof/hnuif ✧ Ety/SNEW
paum > pauv Vm > Vv ᴹ√KWAM > N. paw ✧ Ety/KWAM
r̥aem > r̥aev Vm > Vv ON. ragme > N. rhaew ✧ Ety/RAK
r̥amn > r̥avn Vm > Vv ᴹ✶ramna > N. rhafn ✧ Ety/RAM
r̥īm > r̥īv Vm > Vv ᴹ√ > N. rhîf ✧ Ety/RĪ
r̥omal > r̥oval Vm > Vv ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofal ✧ Ety/RAM
r̥omeil > r̥oveil Vm > Vv ᴹ✶rāmalē > N. rhofel ✧ Ety/RAM
r̥uim > r̥uiv Vm > Vv ᴹ√ROY¹ > N. rhui(w) ✧ Ety/ROY¹
r̥ūm > r̥ūv Vm > Vv ON. rūma > N. †rhû ✧ Ety/ROM
r̥umen > r̥uven Vm > Vv ᴹ√ > N. †rhufen ✧ Ety/RŌ
saem > saev Vm > Vv ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG
saem > saev Vm > Vv ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/32
silem > silev Vm > Vv ᴹ✶silimā > N. silef ✧ Ety/SIL
silim > siliv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶silimē > N. silif ✧ Ety/SIL
taem > taev Vm > Vv ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK
talam > talav Vm > Vv ᴹ√TALAM > N. talaf ✧ Ety/TAL
tamr > tavr Vm > Vv ᴹ✶tamrō > tafr > N. tavor ✧ Ety/TAM
teim > teiv Vm > Vv ON. tegma > teiw > N. tew ✧ PE22/31
teleim > teleiv Vm > Vv ᴹ√TALAM > N. teleif ✧ Ety/TAL
telum > teluv Vm > Vv ᴹ√TELU > N. telu ✧ Ety/TEL
tindum > tinduv Vm > Vv ᴹ√DOM > tindumh > tindu > N. tinnu ✧ Ety/TIN
tindūmiell > tindūviell Vm > Vv ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell ✧ Ety/TIN
tīm > tīv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶tekmē > N. tîw ✧ Ety/TEK
tomn > tovn Vm > Vv ᴹ✶tubnā > N. tofn ✧ Ety/TUB
tuim > tuiv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶tuimā > tuiw > N. tui ✧ Ety/TUY
tulum > tuluv Vm > Vv ON. tulugme > N. tulu ✧ Ety/TULUK
θamn > θavn Vm > Vv ON. sthamne > N. thafn ✧ Ety/STAB
udumn > uduvn Vm > Vv ᴹ✶Utubnu > N. Udūn ✧ Ety/TUB
ulum > uluv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶Ulumō > N. Ulu ✧ Ety/ULU
xīlūm > xīlūv Vm > Vv ᴹ✶χīsi-slōmē > N. Cílu ✧ PE21/32
dalm > dalv lm > lv ON. dalma > N. dalf ✧ Ety/DAL
elm > elv lm > lv ᴹ√ÑEL > N. elf ✧ EtyAC/ÑEL
falm > falv lm > lv ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > N. falf ✧ Ety/PHAL
galm > galv lm > lv ᴹ√GALA > N. galw ✧ Ety/GALA
galm > galv lm > lv ᴹ√GAL² > N. galw ✧ EtyAC/GAL²
halm > halv lm > lv ᴹ✶syalmā > N. half ✧ Ety/SYAL
helm > helv lm > lv ᴹ✶skelmā > N. helf ✧ Ety/SKEL
jolm > jolv lm > lv ᴹ√YUL > ON. iolf ✧ Ety/YUL
lalm > lalv lm > lv ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lalf ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lalmen > lalven lm > lv ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lalven ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
l̥almen > l̥alven lm > lv ᴹ√LÁLAM > N. lhalwen ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
l̥almorn > l̥alvorn lm > lv ᴹ√LÁLAM > N. lhalorn ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
lelm > lelv lm > lv ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lelf ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lelmin > lelvin lm > lv ᴹ√ÁLAM > N. lelvin ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
lelmin > lelvin lm > lv ᴹ√LÁLAM > N. lelwin ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
palm > palv lm > lv ᴹ√KWAL > N. palw ✧ EtyAC/KWAL
amb > amb mb > mb ᴹ√AM² > N. am ✧ Ety/AM²
ambar > ambar mb > mb ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > N. amar ✧ Ety/MBAR
ambarθ > ambarθ mb > mb ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT
ambaθ > ambaθ mb > mb ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ambath > N. amath ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
ambon > ambon mb > mb ᴹ√AM² > N. amon ✧ Ety/AM²
damb > damb mb > mb ᴹ√NDAM > N. dam ✧ Ety/NDAM
damba- > damba- mb > mb ᴹ√NDAM > N. damma- ✧ Ety/NDAM
dramb > dramb mb > mb ᴹ√DARÁM > dramb > N. dram(m) ✧ Ety/DARÁM
dumb > dumb mb > mb ᴹ√NDUB/DUB > N. dum ✧ EtyAC/NDUB
emberein > emberein mb > mb ᴹ√MBAR > Emerein > N. Emerin ✧ Ety/MBAR
embyn > embyn mb > mb ᴹ√AM² > emuin > N. emyn ✧ Ety/AM²
gemb > gemb mb > mb ᴹ✶GENG-WĀ > gemb > N. gem ✧ Ety/GENG-WĀ
glamb > glamb mb > mb ᴹ√G-LAM > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/GLAM
glamb > glamb mb > mb ᴹ✶ngalámbe > glamb > N. glamm ✧ Ety/ÑGAL
glambr > glambr mb > mb ᴹ√G-LAM > glambr > glamr > N. glamor ✧ Ety/GLAM
goθmbaug > goθmbaug mb > mb ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
himb > himb mb > mb ᴹ√KHIM > N. him ✧ Ety/KHIM
imb > imb mb > mb ᴹ√IMBE > im(b) > N. imm ✧ EtyAC/IMBE
kamb > kamb mb > mb ᴹ√KAB > camb > N. cam ✧ Ety/KAB
kamb > kamb mb > mb ON. kamba > N. camm ✧ Ety/MAƷ
kramb > kramb mb > mb ᴹ√KRAB > cramb > N. cram ✧ Ety/KRAB
kromb > kromb mb > mb ᴹ✶krumbā > N. crom ✧ Ety/KURÚM
krumb > krumb mb > mb ᴹ✶krumbē > N. crum ✧ Ety/KURÚM
kumb > kumb mb > mb ᴹ√KUB > cumb > N. cum ✧ Ety/KUB
l̥amb > l̥amb mb > mb ᴹ√LAB > N. lham(b) ✧ Ety/LAB
l̥imb > l̥imb mb > mb ᴹ✶liñwi > lhimb > N. lhim ✧ Ety/LIW
limbid- > l̥imbid- mb > mb ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI
l̥omb > l̥omb mb > mb ON. lumba > N. lhom ✧ EtyAC/LUB
l̥umb > l̥umb mb > mb ᴹ√LUM > N. lhum ✧ Ety/LUM
nemb > nemb mb > mb ᴹ✶NEÑ-WI > nemb > N. nem ✧ Ety/NEÑ-WI
r̥amb > r̥amb mb > mb ᴹ✶rambā > rhamb > N. rham ✧ Ety/RAMBĀ
r̥emb > r̥emb mb > mb ON. rimba > rhemb > N. rhem ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imb mb > mb ON. rimbe > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RIM
r̥imb > r̥imb mb > mb ᴹ√RINGI > rhimb > N. rhim ✧ Ety/RINGI
r̥omb > r̥omb mb > mb ON. romba > N. rhom ✧ Ety/ROM
tamba- > tamba- mb > mb ᴹ✶tambā́- > N. tammo ✧ Ety/TAM
tumb > tumb mb > mb ᴹ✶tumbu > N. tum ✧ Ety/TUB
θamb > θamb mb > mb ᴹ✶stambē > thamb > N. tham ✧ Ety/STAB
borommir > borommir mm > mm ON. Boronmíro/Borommíro > N. Boromir ✧ Ety/BOR
emmlind > emmlind mm > mm ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL
gammass > gammass mm > mm ON. gampasse > N. gammas ✧ EtyAC/GAP
hamma- > hamma- mm > mm ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamma- ✧ Ety/KHAP
hammad > hammad mm > mm ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
gamp > gamp mp > mp ᴹ√GAP > N. gamp ✧ Ety/GAP
hamp > hamp mp > mp ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamp ✧ Ety/KHAP
l̥imp > l̥imp mp > mp ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimp ✧ Ety/LINKWI
nimp > nimp mp > mp ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimp ✧ Ety/NIK-W
tump > tump mp > mp ᴹ√TUMPU > N. tump ✧ Ety/TUMPU
farm > farv rm > rv ᴹ√SPAR² > N. farf ✧ EtyAC/SPAR²
formen > forven rm > rv ᴹ√PHOR > N. forven ✧ Ety/PHOR
fœrmein > fœrvein rm > rv ᴹ√PHOR > N. fervein ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
gorm > gorv rm > rv ᴹ√GOR > N. gorf ✧ Ety/GOR
harmen > harven rm > rv ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harfen ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
harmen > harven rm > rv ᴹ√KHYAR > N. herfin ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR
parm > parv rm > rv ON. parma > N. parf ✧ Ety/PAR
perm > perv rm > rv ON. parma > N. perf ✧ Ety/PAR