S. final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe]; [-{ae|oe|i}v] > [-{ae|oe|i}w]

S. final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe]; [-{ae|oe|i}v] > [-{ae|oe|i}w]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, any final [v] after the high vowel [i] became [w], as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.173, GS/§4.174), though he posited that this sound change occurred earlier, before [ṽ] and [β] (from [m] and [b]) blended into [v]. The change of [v] > [w] also occurred after the diphthongs [ae] < [ai] and [oe] < [oi], and it is very tempting to assume (as David Salo did) that the change of final [v] > [w] occurred before [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]. Unfortunately, we have a Noldorin counter-example (published after Salo’s Gateway to Sindarin) that clearly shows [ai] > [ae] before [v] > [w]:

Aside from some ambiguity on the ordering of the sound changes, there are plenty examples to make it clear this sound change occurred for [v] of various origins after [i], [ae], [oe]:

The word S. raef “net” < *raima from the late 1960s is a possible counterexample (PE22/159), but this might just be an archaic form since Tolkien gave both raef, raew “net” in another note from the late 1960s (VT42/12).

Conceptual Developments: In Gnomish of the 1910s the sound change [m] > [v] did not occur, so there were far fewer potential examples of [v] > [w], making it difficult to analyze this sound change. There is even one example that seems to hint at a reversed development of [w] > [v] or [f]: ᴱ✶duiwe > G. duif “stream”, extended forms duivrad “canal” and duivrant “aqueduct” (GL/31). Lack of examples make the phonetic developments of the Early Noldorin of the 1920s hard to analyze as well.

Order (06400)

After 03400 [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32
After 06100 non-initial [m] usually became [v] okma > S. oew PE17/170

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-iv] > [-iw] ✧ VT42/26 (iv > iw)
[-aev] > [-aew]
[-oev] > [-oew]

Phonetic Rule Examples

gwaev > gwaew -aev > -aew wagmē > S. gwaew ✧ NM/237
gwaev > gwaew -aev > -aew wagme > S. gwaew ✧ PE17/34
raev > raew -aev > -aew RAY > S. raef ✧ VT42/12
l̥oev > l̥oew -oev > -oew SLOY > S. lhoew ✧ PE17/185
oev > oew -oev > -oew okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170

N. final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe]; [-{ae|oe|i}v] > [-{ae|oe|i}w]

GS/§4.173 GS/§4.174 but S. raef @@@

Order (05400)

After 03200 [ai] became [oe] or [ae] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32

Phonetic Rule Elements

[-iv] > [-iw]
[-aev] > [-aew]
[-oev] > [-oew]

Phonetic Rule Examples

glaev > glaew -aev > -aew ᴹ✶laibē > N. g-laew ✧ Ety/LIB²
glaev > glaew -aev > -aew ON. glaibe > N. glaiw ✧ PE22/32
glaev > glaew -aev > -aew ON. glaibe > glēbe > glaef > N. glaew ✧ TMME/53
haev > haew -aev > -aew ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
kaev > kaew -aev > -aew ᴹ√KAY > N. caew ✧ Ety/KAY
naev > naew -aev > -aew ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK
r̥aev > r̥aew -aev > -aew ON. ragme > N. rhaew ✧ Ety/RAK
saev > saew -aev > -aew ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG
saev > saew -aev > -aew ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/32
taev > taew -aev > -aew ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK
hīv > hīw -iv > -iw ᴹ✶khīmā > N. hiw ✧ Ety/KHIM
kīv > kīw -iv > -iw ᴹ✶kēm > N. cíw ✧ EtyAC/KEM
teiv > teiw -iv > -iw ON. tegma > teiw > N. tew ✧ PE22/31
tīv > tīw -iv > -iw ᴹ✶tekmē > N. tîw ✧ Ety/TEK