S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]

S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]

In Sindarin the diphthongs [ai] and [oi] developed into [ae] and [oe] respectively, a set of sound changes noted by David Salo (GS/§4.190). The development [ai] > [ae] applied to both original primitive diphthongs as well as any diphthongs that arose later from the vocalizations of spirants:

For [oi] > [oe], however, this sound change was different from the development of the primitive diphthong [oi], which became [ui] instead, as Tolkien stated in notes from the late 1960s (VT48/7). Compare the following early and late developments:

In Sindarin it seems the long slack vowel ǭ in combination with i also ultimately became oe, and so perhaps it merged with the later diphthong oi and shared its development, something also suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.190):

In the second example, Tolkien indicated that gwoe later became gwae, possibly a remnant of the Noldorin ae/oe vacillations (see below). There are also a couple of Sindarin examples that hint that sometimes even primitive [oi] may have become [oe]:

These developments are hard to explain, and could represent either conceptual vacillations on Tolkien’s part, or perhaps these nouns originally contained an a-fortified [ǭ] and so developed [ǭi] > [oi] > [oe].

Conceptual Developments: The development of the diphthongs [ai] and [oi] went through a number of conceptual changes over Tolkien’s life.

Gnomish Developments (1910s): As discussed by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonology of Goldogrin (HPG/§1.2), the diphthong [ai] generally survived in the Gnomish of the 1910s. This survival was mentioned by Tolkien himself in a very early chart of Gnome Vowels, though he did say it sometimes became e or i when unstressed (PE15/13). The diphthong ae does not appear in the Gnomish Lexicon, and in fact the reverse development [ae] > [ai] is attested:

Primitive [oi] became [ui] in Gnomish as it did in later Sindarin, but in Gnomish the later diphthongs [oi] that arose from the vocalization of spirants also became [ui] (not [oe]), a development noted by Roman Rausch (HPG/§2.6):

Thus it seems in the 1910s, [oi] did not have distinct early/late developments as it did in Sindarin.

Early Noldorin Developments (1920s): As discussed by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.2.4), the primitive diphthong [ai] became [oi] in (Early) Old Noldorin but then changed back to [ai]:

Primitive [oi] generally became [ui] (as was the case in earlier Gnomish and later Sindarin), but it could become [ai] if it appeared before [w]:

This means the sound change [ai] > [oi] must have been after [oi] > [ui], but [oi] > [ui] may have been inhibited before [w] and so fell in with later [oi] as it shifted back to [ai]. A specialized phonetic development before [w] reappears in a different form in the Noldorin of the 1930s (see below). Where the diphthongs [ai] and [oi] arose from the vocalization of spirants in Early Noldorin, they generally remained unchanged, perhaps indicating these vocalizations occurred after the general diphthongal developments:

In one case, though, an oi arising from a spirantal vocalization became ui:

Noldorin Developments (1930s): Late developments of the diphthong [oi] were mostly not a factor in the Noldorin of the 1930s for two reasons. First, primitive diphthongs [oi] became [ui] (as it did in earlier Gnomish and later Sindarin), but also the diphthongal combination [ǭi] became [ui] very early (in Old Noldorin) as well:

Second, in the 1930s the vocalizations of spirants after the vowel [o] produced [ou] > [au] (PE22/39). Thus, the diphthong [oi] did not reappear later from spirantal vocalizations (as it did in Sindarin).

As for the phonetic development of [ai] in the Noldorin of the 1930s, it is well known that Tolkien vacillated between [ae] and [oe] as the ultimate result. Helge Fauskanger discussed the variation in his article: “AE or OE?” (AL). David Salo also noted the variation in his discussion of Noldorin phonology (GS/§4.230). There are several examples where Tolkien had both [ae] and [oe] in specific entries in The Etymologies:

Other examples in The Etymologies showed just ae or oe without variant forms. Since it seems Tolkien could not make up his mind on the exact phonetic developments, it is hard to determine the conditions that produced either [ae] or [oe] by looking at The Etymologies alone. Some additional information on these phonetic developments have been published since the time Fausganker and Salo did their original analyses, however: a chart of diphthongs appeared in Tolkien’s notes on the Noldorin use of the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s described these phonetic developments in some detail (PE22/39, relevant parts only):

The long diphthongs — ON diphthongs, diphthongization of ON ō, or new diphthongs from short vowel + vowel (in contractions or in contact with vocalized ʒ, χ), or from long vowels + epenthetic ı̯ ...

  • [oi] [<] ON ai. archaic h~B, later > [oe] q.v. ...
  • [a͡i] [<] ON ai after w, or a + i in contraction. archaic ]~B, later > [ae] q.v.
  • [a͡e] [<] older ai, as above; or ă + ʒ, χ. ]l, later G — usually (beside ]l).
  • [o͡e] [<] older oi, as above; or o + e in contraction. hl, later G — usually (beside hl).

Based on these notes, it seems that the normal development of [ai] was to [oi] (as was the case in Early Noldorin of the 1920s) which then went on to become [oe]. However, [ai] after the semi-vowel [w] remained, and it merged with [ai] produced from the vocalization of spirants and later became [ae]. The special development of ai > ae after w was also mentioned elsewhere in the Feanorian Alphabet document:

ae in chwae, awae etc. was the regular development of ON ai after w (PE22/31).

Examples in The Etymologies are consistent with these rules. All examples resulting from vocalization of spirants or appearing after w consistently show ae rather than oe:

All of the examples appearing before final w also consistently show ae, so perhaps this special development applied in this case as well:

The diphthong [oe] was largely produced in cases of a primitive diphthong [ai] that did not appear before or after [w]:

Thus, the seeming inconsistencies in The Etymologies represent a more regular set of rules than it appears at first glance. There are, however, definitely some conceptual vacillations for the development of [ai] on Tolkien’s part in the 1930s, including the exceptions noted above and others. In the somewhat earlier Comparitive Tables of phonetic development, Tolkien described a different phonetic development: ᴹ✶ai, ᴹ✶ǣ > ON. ę̄ > ei > N. ae (PE19/25). There is apparently one example of this development in The Etymologies (asssuming long ē represents ę̄):

In this same entry, Tolkien also vacillated between gae, goe “dread” (see above). This vacillation between ae and oe persisted until quite late in the writing of The Lord of the Rings: in the draft of the appendices, Tolkien first wrote loer for “summer” before revising it to laer (PM/135, 136). By the time The Lord of the Rings was published, however, it seems Tolkien had made up his mind, and the normal development of [ai] was to [ae], never [oe].

Neo-Sindarin: It is usual in Neo-Sindarin writing to revise entries from The Etymologies with [oe] to [ae] for better consistency with the Sindarin of The Lord of the Rings.

Order (03200)

After 01000 [ɣ] vocalized before [l], [r], [m], [n] tagra > S. taer
okma > S. oew
PE17/186
PE17/170
After 01100 [x], [ɸ] vocalized between a vowel and [θ] maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha VT47/6
After 03100 [ɣ] otherwise vanished magiti- > S. maed VT41/10
Before 03300 later [ei] became [ai] in final syllables minya > mein > S. main VT42/25
Before 06000 final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [ae] ✧ PE19/91 (aı̯ > ae); VT48/7 (ai > ae)
[oi] > [oe]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aignaur > aegnaur ai > ae Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
aθai > aθae ai > ae aþayā > S. athae ✧ PE17/49
bain > baen ai > ae GWAY > S. baen ✧ PE17/155
dail > dael ai > ae NDAY > S. dael ✧ PE17/151
dair > daer ai > ae daira > S. daer ✧ VT42/11
dair > daer ai > ae NDAY > S. daer ✧ PE17/151
fail > fael ai > ae PHAYA > S. fael ✧ PM/352
gaiar > gaear ai > ae Gayar- > S. gaear ✧ PM/363
gair > gaer ai > ae gaı̯ră > S. gaer ✧ PE17/27
gair > gaer ai > ae gairā > S. #gaer ✧ WJ/400
gwai > gwae ai > ae WAYA > S. gwae ✧ PE17/33
gwai > gwae ai > ae WAYA > S. Gwae ✧ PE17/189
gwaim > gwaem ai > ae wagme > S. gwaew ✧ PE17/34
gwain > gwaen ai > ae AWA/WĀ > S. gwaen ✧ PE17/148
gwaiw > gwaew ai > ae waiwe > S. gwae(w) ✧ PE17/33
gwaiw > gwaew ai > ae WIW > S. gwae(w) ✧ PE17/34
kair > kaer ai > ae KAYA > S. caer ✧ PE17/101
kasrai > kasrae ai > ae cas-raya > S. cathrae ✧ VT42/12
laib > laeb ai > ae laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153
laig > laeg ai > ae laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282
laig > laeg ai > ae LAY > S. laeg ✧ PE17/159
laiw > laew ai > ae LAY > S. laew ✧ PE17/159
mai > mae ai > ae mai > S. mae ✧ PE17/17
maid > maed ai > ae magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10
maig > maeg ai > ae maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337
mail > mael ai > ae MAGA > S. mael ✧ PE17/162
mailig > maelig ai > ae máiliki > S. maelig ✧ PE21/80
main > maen ai > ae MAY > S. maen ✧ PE17/163
mair > maer ai > ae MAY > S. maer ✧ PE17/162
mair > maer ai > ae MAG > S. maer ✧ PE17/172
mairond > maerond ai > ae MAY > S. maeron ✧ PE17/163
maiθ > maeθ ai > ae MAG > S. maeth ✧ PE17/161
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae MAG > S. maetha- ✧ PE17/161
maiθa > maeθa ai > ae maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/6
n̥aið > n̥aeð ai > ae snagdē > S. naeð ✧ PE19/91
nair > naer ai > ae NAY > S. naer ✧ PE17/151
nimfraid > nimfraed ai > ae ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
paiθ > paeθ ai > ae PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126
r̥ai > r̥ae ai > ae SRA/SRAYA > S. rhae ✧ PE17/172
r̥aet > r̥aed ai > ae raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185
raida- > raeda- ai > ae RAY > S. raeda- ✧ VT42/12
raim > raem ai > ae RAY > S. raef ✧ PE22/159
raim > raem ai > ae RAY > S. raef ✧ VT42/12
rain > raen ai > ae RAY > S. raen ✧ VT42/11
rain > raen ai > ae RAYA > S. raen ✧ PE17/182
rain > raen ai > ae RAYA > S. raen ✧ PE17/182
raiw > raew ai > ae RAY > S. raew ✧ VT42/12
taig > taeg ai > ae taika > S. #Taeg ✧ WJ/309
taingyll > taengyll ai > ae tana > S. Taengyl ✧ MR/385
tair > taer ai > ae tagra > S. taer ✧ PE17/186
w̥aiwar > w̥aeiwar ai > ae > S. whaewar ✧ PE17/34
xaið > xaeð ai > ae khagdā > S. haeð ✧ PE19/91
fanoi > fanoe oi > oe FAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/26
fanoi > fanoe oi > oe SPAN > S. fanui ✧ PE17/36
goi > goe oi > oe gāyā > S. goe ✧ PM/363
gwoi > gwoe oi > oe wāyā > gwoe > S. gwae ✧ PE17/34
l̥oim > l̥oem oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoew ✧ PE17/185
loin > loen oi > oe logna > S. loen ✧ VT42/10
l̥oir > l̥oer oi > oe SLOY > S. lhoer ✧ PE17/185
oim > oem oi > oe okma > S. oew ✧ PE17/170
oir > oer oi > oe ugrā > ogra > S. oer ✧ PE22/160
θoin > θoen oi > oe thānĭ- > S. thoen ✧ PE17/81

N. [ai] became [oe] or [ae]; [ai] > [oe|ae]

In The Etymologies, the Noldorin development of the primitive diphthong ᴹ✶ai is unclear. In some cases, it became ae: N. gwaew “wind” < ᴹ√WAIWA (Ety/WĀ). In others, it became oe: N. moed “handy, skilled” < ON. maite (Ety/MAƷ). Tolkien seems to have vacillated between the two results, for example gaer (EtyAC/GAIRĀ) >> goer (Ety/GAY) and lhaeb (EtyAC/LÁYAK) >> lhoeb (Ety/LÁYAK).

Possible Phonetic Rules: In the contemporaneous Comparative Tables (PE19/18-28), the phonetic development was primitive ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > ei > N. ae (PE19/25, column 9). There is one example in The Etymologies that seems to follow a similar development: ᴹ✶gaisrā > gǣsra > ON. gērrha > N. gaer “dreadful” (Ety/GÁYAS). It seems likely that entry in the table represents Tolkien’s original idea for the Noldorin development of this diphthong.

Examples in The Etymologies seem to indicate that, where it appeared, the diphthong oe was a further development from ae, for example: ᴹ√GAY > N. gaer, goer (Ety/GAY) and ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae (hoe) (EtyAC/KHAYA). There are several cases in which the diphthong ae is consistently preserved, however:

It is possible that at this stage, Tolkien considered the normal development to be ai > ae > oe, except that ae was preserved in words with the combination aew or its antecedents: ᴹ✶[ai{wbm}]. Furthermore, the shift of ae > oe occurred before the vocalizations of primitive g, p, k, so that:

There are quite a few ae-forms in The Etymologies that cannot be explained by this rule, however:

It seems that Tolkien’s ideas on the Noldorin development of primitive ᴹ✶ai were in flux as he wrote The Etymologies, making it very difficult to discern his intentions.

Conceptual Development: The Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s generally had ae-forms: N. Belegaer (LR/19) and N. Aelin-uial (LR/262) versus the oe-forms in The Etymologies: N. Belegoer (Ety/AY) and N. Oelinuial (Ety/AY). As noted above, the development in the Comparative Tables from the (?early) 1930s was ᴹ✶ai > ON. ę̄ > N. ae (PE19/25). It seems likely that Tolkien introduced the oe-forms as he was composing The Etymologies.

The variations between ae and oe continued in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, for example N. Taragaer “Ruddyhorn” (RS/419) versus earlier goer “ruddy” (Ety/GAY) but N. loer “summer” (PM/135) versus later S. laer¹ (LotR/1107). In the published versions of The Lord of the Rings and in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s, the oe-forms had largely disappeared, making it likely that Tolkien abandoned this particular phonetic rule.

Alternate Theories: I am not sure who first pointed out the ae/oe variation in The Etymologies, but it is well established in the literature. Helge Fauskanger discussed the variation in his article: “AE or OE?” (AL). David Salo also noted the variation in his discussion of Noldorin phonology (GS/68, §4.230). My analysis agrees with the broad outlines of both these treatments, but given the ambiguity of the underlying evidence, the details are open to interpretation.

References ✧ PE22/31, 39

Order (03100)

After 01000 [ɣ], [ŋ] vocalized before [l], [r], [m], [n] ON. magna > N. maen Ety/MAƷ|MAG
Before 03300 [ei] (sometimes) became [ai] in final syllables ᴹ√REG > rhein > N. rhain Ety/REG
Before 05000 non-initial [m] usually became [v] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32
Before 05100 final [v] became [w] after [i], [ae], [oe] ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw PE22/32
Before 06600 initial [θl] sometimes became [fl] ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew Ety/SLIW

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ai] > [oe]
[ai] > [ae]
[ę̄] > [ae] ✧ PE19/25 (ę̄ > ei > ae); PE19/25 (ę̄ > ei > ae)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aiross > aeross ai > ae ᴹ√GOS > N. Aeros ✧ EtyAC/GOS
ais > aes ai > ae ᴹ√AP > N. aes ✧ Ety/AP
aiw > aew ai > ae ᴹ✶AIWĒ > N. aew ✧ Ety/AIWĒ
dai > dae ai > ae ᴹ√DAƷ > N. dae ✧ EtyAC/DAƷ
dai > dae ai > ae ᴹ✶daiā > N. Dae ✧ EtyAC/DAY
dain > daen ai > ae ON. ndagno > N. daen ✧ Ety/NDAK
dair > daer ai > ae ᴹ√NDERE > ON. daer ✧ Ety/DER
gai > gae ai > ae ON. gaia > gae > N. goe/gae ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
gail > gael ai > ae ᴹ√GIL > N. gael ✧ Ety/GIL
gair > gaer ai > ae ᴹ√GAIRĀ > N. gaer ✧ EtyAC/GAIRĀ
glair > glaer ai > ae ᴹ√GLIR > N. glaer ✧ Ety/GLIR
glaiv > glaev ai > ae ᴹ✶laibē > N. g-laew ✧ Ety/LIB²
glaiv > glaev ai > ae ON. glaibe > N. glaiw ✧ PE22/32
gwaið > gwaeð ai > ae ON. waide > N. gwaeð ✧ Ety/WED
gwaita- > gwaeta- ai > ae ᴹ√WAY > N. gwaedo ✧ EtyAC/WAY
gwaiw > gwaew ai > ae ᴹ√WAIWA > N. gwaew ✧ Ety/WĀ
hai > hae ai > ae ᴹ√KHAYA > N. hae ✧ EtyAC/KHAYA
jaiθ > jaeθ ai > ae ᴹ✶yakta- > N. iaeth ✧ Ety/YAK
jaiw > jaew ai > ae ON. yaiwe > N. iaew ✧ Ety/YAY
kail > kael ai > ae ᴹ√KAY > N. cael ✧ Ety/KAY
kair > kaer ai > ae ᴹ✶kaire > N. caer ✧ PE22/126
kair > kaer ai > ae ᴹ√KAYAR > N. caer ✧ Ety/KAYAN
karais > karaes ai > ae ᴹ√KÁRAK > N. #charaes ✧ Ety/KARAK
kiriaiθ > kiriaeθ ai > ae ᴹ✶kirya-k’tō > N. ciriaeth ✧ PE18/62
l̥ai > l̥ae ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhae ✧ EtyAC/LI
l̥aib > l̥aeb ai > ae ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhaeb ✧ EtyAC/LÁYAK
l̥aig > l̥aeg ai > ae ᴹ√LAIK > N. lhaeg ✧ Ety/LAIK
l̥air > l̥aer ai > ae ᴹ✶laire > N. lhaer ✧ EtyAC/LIR¹
l̥ais > l̥aes ai > ae ᴹ√LAP > N. lhaes ✧ Ety/LAP
l̥aiw > l̥aew ai > ae ᴹ✶lai- > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LI
l̥aiw > l̥aew ai > ae ᴹ√LIW > N. lhaew ✧ EtyAC/LIW
mail > mael ai > ae ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. mael ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mail > mael ai > ae ᴹ✶magla > N. mael ✧ Ety/SMAG
m̥ail > m̥ael ai > ae ᴹ√SMAG > N. hmael ✧ Ety/SMAG
mail > mael ai > ae ᴹ✶maglā/ē > N. mael ✧ EtyAC/MAG²
maileg > maeleg ai > ae ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
main > maen ai > ae ON. magna > N. maen ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
mair > maer ai > ae ᴹ✶magrā > N. maer ✧ Ety/MAƷ|MAG
maiθ > maeθ ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maeth ✧ Ety/MAK
maiθa- > maeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√MAK > N. maetha ✧ Ety/MAK
maiw > maew ai > ae ᴹ√MIW > N. maew ✧ Ety/MIW
nai > nae ai > ae ᴹ√NAY > N. nae, nae ✧ Ety/NAY
naig > naeg ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. naeg ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naigra- > naegra- ai > ae ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. negro ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naim > naem ai > ae ᴹ✶nakma > N. naew ✧ Ety/NAK
nais > naes ai > ae ᴹ✶nakse > N. naes ✧ EtyAC/NAK
naiθ > naeθ ai > ae ᴹ√NAK > N. naeth ✧ Ety/NAK
pelθais > pelθaes ai > ae ON. pelthaksa > N. pelthaes ✧ Ety/PEL
r̥aim > r̥aem ai > ae ON. ragme > N. rhaew ✧ Ety/RAK
r̥ain > r̥aen ai > ae ᴹ√RAG > N. rhaen ✧ EtyAC/REG
r̥ain > r̥aen ai > ae ON. ragna > N. rhaen ✧ Ety/RAG
saim > saem ai > ae ᴹ✶sagmā > N. saew ✧ Ety/SAG
saim > saem ai > ae ON. sagma > saʒmh > sae̯mh > N. saęw ✧ PE22/32
sair > saer ai > ae ᴹ✶sagrā > N. saer ✧ Ety/SAG
taim > taem ai > ae ᴹ✶takmā > N. taew ✧ Ety/TAK
tain > taen ai > ae ᴹ✶taʒna > N. taen ✧ Ety/TĀ
tain > taen ai > ae ᴹ√TAY > N. taen ✧ Ety/TAY
tair > taer ai > ae ᴹ✶teñrā > tær > N. taer ✧ Ety/TEÑ
tais > taes ai > ae ᴹ✶taksē > N. taes ✧ Ety/TAK
taiθa- > taeθa- ai > ae ᴹ√TAK > N. taetho ✧ Ety/TAK
θlaiw > θlaew ai > ae ON. thlaiwa > thlaew > N. flaew ✧ Ety/SLIW
xaim > xaem ai > ae ᴹ✶khaimē > N. haew ✧ Ety/KHIM
ɸaianour > ɸaeanour ai > ae ON. Phayanṓr > Feanoúr > N. Féanor ✧ Ety/PHAY
dair > doer ai > oe ON. ndair > N. doer ✧ Ety/NDER
faig > foeg ai > oe ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY
fain > foen ai > oe ᴹ√PHAY > N. foen ✧ Ety/PHAY
gair > goer ai > oe ᴹ√GAY > gaer > N. goer ✧ Ety/GAY
kai > koe ai > oe ᴹ√KEM > N. coe ✧ Ety/KEM
kainel > koenel ai > oe ᴹ√KEN > N. coenel ✧ EtyAC/KEN
l̥aib > l̥oeb ai > oe ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhoeb ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
l̥aig > l̥oeg ai > oe ON. laika > N. lhoeg ✧ EtyAC/LAIK
mai > moe ai > oe ON. maiga > N. moe ✧ Ety/MASAG
maid > moed ai > oe ON. maite > N. moed ✧ Ety/MAƷ
mail > moel ai > oe ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. moel ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
maileg > moeleg ai > oe ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
nair > noer ai > oe ᴹ√NAY > N. noer ✧ Ety/NAY
aiar > oear ai > oe ᴹ√ÁYAR > N. oear ✧ Ety/AY
aig > oeg ai > oe ᴹ√AYAK > N. oeg ✧ Ety/AYAK
ail > oel ai > oe ᴹ✶ai-lin- > N. oel ✧ Ety/AY
air > oer ai > oe ᴹ√AI̯R > N. oer ✧ Ety/AY
aiross > oeross ai > oe ᴹ√GOS > N. Oeros ✧ Ety/GOS
pain > poen ai > oe ON. †paine > N. †poen ✧ EtyAC/KWǢ
r̥aig > r̥oeg ai > oe ᴹ√RÁYAK > N. rhoeg ✧ Ety/RÁYAK
gę̄rr > gaerr ę̄ > ae ON. gērrha > N. gaer ✧ Ety/GÁYAS

G. [ae] became [ai]; [ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ae] > [ai]

Phonetic Rule Examples

gʷaed > gʷaid ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43
gʷaes > gʷais ae > ai ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43