S. short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries; [C{ĭĕăŏŭ}+C] > [Cø+C]

S. short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries; [C{ĭĕăŏŭ}+C] > [Cø+C]

Just as short final vowels vanished in Sindarin and Noldorin at the end of words, they also vanished in the middle of words at morpheme boundaries. As suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.115), this vowel loss at morpheme boundaries was later than the loss at the end of words. There are a couple of examples that support this ordering of sound changes:

This sound change must also have taken place after voiceless stops voiced after vowels, since the second element of compounds consistently show the soft-mutation of p, t, k to b, d, g:

There are examples where the vowel lost at the morpheme boundary was not that of an original primitive vowel, but one that was the result of later reanalysis of the word. The example of Elbereth is illustrative:

If this were a late compound, we would expect to see soft-mutation in the compound êl “star” + bereth “queen”, which would therefore become **Elvereth. Primitively the compound was elen + b-, and the final n became m by assimilation to the following b: elem-b-. By the time the final vowels began to vanish, the primitive final n had vanished in the independent Sindarin word el(e) “star”, so the first part of the compound was reanalyzed as el(e)-mb-. Thus the second e vanished, but the nasal cluster mb inhibited the soft-mutation of the b, and the result was Elbereth.

As indicated by the examples above, this sound change could cause clusters of three and sometimes even four consonants to appear, something that almost never happened in Primitive Elvish or Quenya. In most (but not all) cases, these clusters were later simplified.

Conceptual Developments: Since not all final vowels vanished in Gnomish, perhaps vowel loss at morpheme boundaries was less prevelent in the 1910s, but there are examples showing it happened at least sometimes, in both Gnomish as well as the Early Noldorin of the 1920s:

Order (02900)

After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth PE17/22
After 02200 short final vowels vanished Gondō̆-lindē > Gondolind > Gond-lind > Gondlind/Gonglind > S. **Gonlin/Gonglin PE17/133
After 02400 voiceless stops voiced after vowels aba-kar ā > S. avgaro
Turukondō > S. Turgond
WJ/371
PE17/113
Before 03000 [ɣ] otherwise vanished nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod WJ/414
Before 03800 [ð] vanished before nasals Gala(da)ndil > S. Gelennil
ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor
PE21/83
Ety/ELED
Before 04200 long vowels shortened before clusters mēlā̆-mbar > mîl-mbar > S. milbar PE17/164

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Cĭ+C] > [Cø+C]
[Cĕ+C] > [Cø+C]
[Că+C] > [Cø+C]
[Cŏ+C] > [Cø+C]
[Cŭ+C] > [Cø+C]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aiganaur > aignaur Că+C > Cø+C Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
arnador > arndor Că+C > Cø+C Q. arn(a)dor > S. Arnor ✧ Let/428
aθθara- > aθθra- Că+C > Cø+C atta- > S. athra ✧ PE17/14
avagarau- > avgarau- Că+C > Cø+C aba-kar ā > S. avgaro ✧ WJ/371
caladariɣell > caladriɣell Că+C > Cø+C Kalatā-rigelle > S. †Caladriel ✧ PE17/50
eina- > ein- Că+C > Cø+C MAY > amya- > anya- > S. ein- ✧ PE17/163
findaraud > findraud Că+C > Cø+C findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
finiŋgorn > finŋgorn Că+C > Cø+C Phiniñgornā > S. Fingorn ✧ PE17/113
galadariɣel > galadriɣel Că+C > Cø+C ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > S. Galadriel ✧ PE17/60
galadarīɣell > galadrīɣell Că+C > Cø+C galata-rīg-elle > S. Galadriel ✧ MR/182
galadariɣell > galadriɣell Că+C > Cø+C galata-rĭg-elle > S. Galadriel ✧ MR/470
galadariɣell > galadriɣell Că+C > Cø+C galatā-rigellē̆ > S. Galadriel ✧ PE17/50
galaðaremben > galaðremben Că+C > Cø+C galad(a)rembinā > S. galadhremmen ✧ PE17/127
lebeθθaron > lebeθθron Că+C > Cø+C lepeth-ron > S. lebethron ✧ PE17/89
mīlambar > mīlmbar Că+C > Cø+C mēlā̆-mbar > S. milbar ✧ PE17/109
mīlambar > mīlmbar Că+C > Cø+C mēlā̆-mbar > mîl-mbar > S. milbar ✧ PE17/164
nīnadalm > nīndalm Că+C > Cø+C nēn-talma > S. nindalf ✧ PE17/167
nǭvaɣrod > nǭvɣrod Că+C > Cø+C nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod ✧ WJ/414
tainagyll > taingyll Că+C > Cø+C tana > S. Taengyl ✧ MR/385
θarabad > θarbad Că+C > Cø+C thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar
elembereth > elmbereth Cĕ+C > Cø+C elen-barathi > elmbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ MR/387
elembereth > elmbereth Cĕ+C > Cø+C elen-barathī > el-mbereth > S. Elbereth ✧ PE17/22
geleðendil > geleðndil Cĕ+C > Cø+C Gala(da)ndil > S. Gelennil ✧ PE21/83
lenmembass > lenmbass Cĕ+C > Cø+C ledme-mbassē > S. lembas ✧ PE17/51
lenmembast > lenmbast Cĕ+C > Cø+C ledme-mbasta > lenm(e)mbast(a) > lenmbast > S. lembas ✧ PE17/51
moreŋgoθ > morŋgoθ Cĕ+C > Cø+C Moriñgotho > S. Morgoth ✧ MR/294
moreŋgoθθ > morŋgoθθ Cĕ+C > Cø+C Moringotto > S. Morgoth ✧ MR/194
tennegyll > tenngyll Cĕ+C > Cø+C tana > S. Tengyl ✧ MR/385
gūrigov > gūrgov Cĭ+C > Cø+C gōr(i)kubā > S. gurgof ✧ PE22/155
imbilad > imblad Cĭ+C > Cø+C imbi-lătă > S. imlad ✧ PE17/87
nimfiraid > nimfraid Cĭ+C > Cø+C ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
xīθilūm > xīθlūm Cĭ+C > Cø+C χīþilōmē > hithlũṽ > S. Hithlũ ✧ PE17/133
gondolind > gondlind Cŏ+C > Cø+C Gondō̆-lindē > Gondolind > Gond-lind > Gondlind/Gonglind > S. **Gonlin/Gonglin ✧ PE17/133
gondndor > gondor Cŏ+C > Cø+C Gondo-ndor- > S. Gondor ✧ PE17/28
goroθūh > gorθūh Cŏ+C > Cø+C ñgor(o)-thūsō > Gorthu > S. Gorthaur ✧ PE17/183
turugaun > turgaun Cŭ+C > Cø+C Turukāno > S. Tur(u)gon ✧ PE17/113
turugond > turgond Cŭ+C > Cø+C Turukundā > S. Turgond- ✧ PE17/112
turugond > turgond Cŭ+C > Cø+C Turukondō > S. Turgond ✧ PE17/113

N. short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries; [C{ĭĕăŏŭ}+C] > [Cø+C]

GS/§4.115 @@@ but compare Magladhûr, Nauglavir

Order (02900)

After 01700 short [a], [o], [u] became [e], [œ], [y] preceding [i] ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin Ety/SMAL
After 02100 short final vowels vanished ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin Ety/SMAL
After 02400 voiceless stops voiced after vowels ON. andatektha > N. andeith
ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon
Ety/TEK
Ety/TUN
Before 03800 [ð] vanished before nasals ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor Ety/ELED
Before 04200 long vowels shortened before clusters

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Cĭ+C] > [Cø+C]
[Cĕ+C] > [Cø+C]
[Că+C] > [Cø+C]
[Cŏ+C] > [Cø+C]

Phonetic Rule Examples

andadeiθ > andeiθ Că+C > Cø+C ON. andatektha > N. andeith ✧ Ety/TEK
banawend > banwend Că+C > Cø+C ON. Bana-wende > Banwend > N. Banwen ✧ Ety/BAN
eleðandor > eleðndor Că+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Eledandore > Eleðndor > N. Elennor ✧ Ety/ELED
goloðomir > goloðmir Că+C > Cø+C ᴹ√MIR > N. Golovir ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
emmelind > emmlind Cĕ+C > Cø+C ON. ammalinde > em(m)elin > N. emlin ✧ Ety/SMAL
findegaun > findgaun Cĕ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
finderaud > findraud Cĕ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
kemenaur > kemnaur Cĕ+C > Cø+C ᴹ√KEM > N. cevnor ✧ EtyAC/KEM
l̥assebelīn > l̥asbelin Cĕ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶lassekwelēnē > N. lhasbelin ✧ EtyAC/KWEL
deiniθaur > deinθaur Cĭ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > N. Dainthor ✧ LR/188
minidond > mindond Cĭ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
nimfired > nimfred Cĭ+C > Cø+C ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
xīhislūm > xīhslūm Cĭ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶χīsi-slōmē > N. Cílu ✧ PE21/32
goθombaug > goθmbaug Cŏ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
goθoraug > goθraug Cŏ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Gothorauk- > N. Gothrog ✧ EtyAC/MBAW
guiɣoloss > guiɣloss Cŏ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Geigolosse > N. Guilos ✧ Ety/GEY
uiɣoloss > uiɣloss Cŏ+C > Cø+C ᴹ✶Eigolosse > N. Uiloss ✧ Ety/EY
uiɣoloss > uiɣloss Cŏ+C > Cø+C ON. Uigolosse > N. Uilos ✧ Ety/OY