S. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

S. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

Order (02500)

Before 02600 final [j] (and [w]) intruded into preceding syllable matwā > madw̯ > S. maud PE17/148
Before 05700 final [w] usually became [u] matwā > madw̯ > S. madu PE17/148

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb]
[Vt] > [Vd]
[Vk] > [Vg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

aekanaur > aeganaur Vk > Vg Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
aklar > aglar Vk > Vg áklara > ᴸN. aglar ✧ PE18/87
aklareb > aglareb Vk > Vg aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
aklaur > aglaur Vk > Vg aklā́ra > aklōra > aglaur > ᴸN. aglor ✧ PE18/87
finek > fineg Vk > Vg finik/fink > S. fineg ✧ PE17/17
grauk > graug Vk > Vg grauk- > S. raug ✧ WJ/415
laek > laeg Vk > Vg laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282
l̥ūk > l̥ūg Vk > Vg (s)lōkō > S. lhûg ✧ PE17/160
lȳk > lȳg Vk > Vg LEWEK > S. lýg ✧ PE17/160
maek > maeg Vk > Vg maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337
magalaur > magalaur Vk > Vg maka-glaur- > S. magalor- ✧ VT41/10
nauk > naug Vk > Vg naukā > S. naug ✧ WJ/413
rauk > raug Vk > Vg RUK > S. raug ✧ PE17/48
serek > sereg Vk > Vg SEREK > S. sereg ✧ PE17/184
takl > tagl Vk > Vg *✶takala > S. #dagol ✧ VT42/8
tauk > taug Vk > Vg TAW > S. taug ✧ PE17/115
tekil > tegil Vk > Vg Q. tekil > S. tegil ✧ VT47/8
turukaun > turugaun Vk > Vg Turukāno > S. Tur(u)gon ✧ PE17/113
turukond > turugond Vk > Vg Turukundā > S. Turgond- ✧ PE17/112
turukond > turugond Vk > Vg Turukondō > S. Turgond ✧ PE17/113
uruk > urug Vk > Vg urku/uruku > S. urug ✧ WJ/390
ȳnek > ȳneg Vk > Vg yūneke > S. ýneg ✧ VT47/41
aplad > ablad Vp > Vb ap’lata > S. ablad ✧ VT47/13
aklarep > aklareb Vp > Vb aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
laep > laeb Vp > Vb laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153
naupad > naubad Vp > Vb nāpata > S. nobad ✧ VT48/5
nipen > niben Vp > Vb nip > nipinā > S. niben ✧ VT48/18
θarapad > θarabad Vp > Vb thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar
atan > adan Vt > Vd Q. Atan > S. Adan ✧ WJ/387
affat- > affad- Vt > Vd ap-pata > S. aphad- ✧ WJ/387
affet- > affed- Vt > Vd at-kwet > S. aphed ✧ PE17/166
aplat > aplad Vt > Vd ap’lata > S. ablad ✧ VT47/13
araut > araud Vt > Vd arātā > S. arod ✧ PM/363
bauta- > bauda- Vt > Vd > S. bauda- ✧ PE17/143
bauta- > bauda- Vt > Vd bā-ta > S. boda- ✧ WJ/372
findaraut > findaraud Vt > Vd findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
maten > maden Vt > Vd matina > S. maden ✧ PE17/131
matw > madw Vt > Vd matwā > madw̯ > S. maud ✧ PE17/148
matw > madw Vt > Vd matwā > madw̯ > S. madu ✧ PE17/148
maet > maed Vt > Vd magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10
naupat > naupad Vt > Vd nāpata > S. nobad ✧ VT48/5
nimfiraet > nimfiraed Vt > Vd ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
nīnatalm > nīnadalm Vt > Vd nēn-talma > S. nindalf ✧ PE17/167
r̥aet > r̥aed Vt > Vd raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185
raut > raud Vt > Vd (a)rātā > S. raud ✧ PE17/49
raut > raud Vt > Vd áratā > (a)rā́tā > S. raud ✧ PE17/118
raut > raud Vt > Vd rāta > S. raud ✧ PE17/186
satr > sadr Vt > Vd satrā > S. sador ✧ PE17/183
tat > tad Vt > Vd atata > (a)táta > S. tad ✧ VT42/27
θarapat > θarapad Vt > Vd thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar

N. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

GS/§4.108 but not aclod @@@

Order (02600)

Before 02700 later [ai] coallesced with [ei] ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig Ety/MERÉK
Before 02800 short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries ON. andatektha > N. andeith
ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon
Ety/TEK
Ety/TUN
Before 03000 initial [pl] became [bl] ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi Ety/PALAP
Before 05600 final [l], [r] sometimes became syllabic ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor Ety/AK
Before 06900 [ei] became [e] in final syllables ? ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered Ety/ÓROT

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb] ✧ PE19/23 (-p- > -b-); PE19/23 (-p- > -b-)
[Vt] > [Vd] ✧ PE19/23 (-t- > -d-)
[Vk] > [Vg] ✧ PE19/23 (-k- > -g-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aklar > aglar Vk > Vg ᴹ√AKLA-R > N. aglar ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
akr > agr Vk > Vg ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor ✧ Ety/AK
alak > alag Vk > Vg ᴹ✶álākō > N. alag ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
alakoss > alagoss Vk > Vg ᴹ√ÁLAK > N. alagon ✧ Ety/NAK
bauk > baug Vk > Vg ᴹ√MBAW > N. baug ✧ Ety/MBAW
baukla- > baugla- Vk > Vg ᴹ√MBAW > N. bauglo- ✧ Ety/MBAW
belek > beleg Vk > Vg ON. beleka > N. beleg ✧ Ety/BEL
breked > breged Vk > Vg ᴹ√BERÉK > N. breged ✧ Ety/BERÉK
breked > breged Vk > Vg ᴹ√MERÉK > N. breged ✧ EtyAC/MERÉK
breik > breig Vk > Vg ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig ✧ Ety/MERÉK
brok > brog Vk > Vg ᴹ✶morókō > N. brôg ✧ Ety/MORÓK
dakr > dagr Vk > Vg ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor ✧ Ety/NDAK
dakra- > dagra- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NDAK > N. dagro ✧ Ety/NDAK
dauk > daug Vk > Vg ON. ndōko > N. daug ✧ Ety/NDAK
deki > degi Vk > Vg ON. ndakie > N. degi ✧ Ety/NDAK
delek > deleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√DYELEK > N. deleg ✧ EtyAC/DYELEK
drauk > draug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶d’rāk > N. draug ✧ Ety/DARÁK
ek > eg Vk > Vg ᴹ√EK > N. êg ✧ Ety/EK
enek > eneg Vk > Vg ᴹ√ÉNEK > N. eneg ✧ Ety/ÉNEK
erek > ereg Vk > Vg ᴹ√ERÉK > N. ereg ✧ Ety/ERÉK
fauk > faug Vk > Vg ON. phauka > N. faug ✧ Ety/PHAU
felek > feleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√PHELÉK > N. feleg ✧ EtyAC/PHELÉK
filik > filig Vk > Vg ᴹ√PHILIK > N. filig ✧ Ety/PHILIK
findekaun > findegaun Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
foek > foeg Vk > Vg ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY
goθombauk > goθombaug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
goθorauk > goθoraug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Gothorauk- > N. Gothrog ✧ EtyAC/MBAW
karak > karag Vk > Vg ᴹ√KÁRAK > N. carag ✧ Ety/KARAK
kelek > keleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KYELEK > N. celeg ✧ Ety/KYELEK
kuku > kugu Vk > Vg ON. kukua > N. cugu ✧ Ety/KŪ
l̥aek > l̥aeg Vk > Vg ᴹ√LAIK > N. lhaeg ✧ Ety/LAIK
l̥akr > l̥agr Vk > Vg ᴹ✶lakra > N. lhagr ✧ Ety/LAK²
l̥auk > l̥aug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶lauka > N. lhaug ✧ Ety/LAW
leki > legi Vk > Vg ᴹ√LEK > N. †adlegi ✧ EtyAC/LEK
l̥oek > l̥oeg Vk > Vg ON. laika > N. lhoeg ✧ EtyAC/LAIK
l̥ūk > l̥ūg Vk > Vg ᴹ√LOK > N. lhûg ✧ Ety/LOK
maelek > maeleg Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
makl > magl Vk > Vg ᴹ√MAK > magl > N. magol ✧ Ety/MAK
mekil > megil Vk > Vg ᴹ✶makili- > N. megil ✧ EtyAC/MAK
moelek > moeleg Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
naek > naeg Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. naeg ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naekra- > naegra- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. negro ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
nak- > nag- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAK > N. nag- ✧ Ety/NAK
narauk > naraug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶narāka > N. Narog ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
nauk > naug Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naug ✧ Ety/NAUK
naukl > naugl Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
nawak > nawag Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁWAK > N. nawag ✧ Ety/NAUK
nelek > neleg Vk > Vg ON. neleki > N. neleg ✧ Ety/NÉL-EK
nesteki- > nestegi- Vk > Vg ON. nestak- > N. nestegi ✧ Ety/STAK
odok > odog Vk > Vg ᴹ√OT/OTOS/OTOK > N. odog ✧ Ety/OT
oek > oeg Vk > Vg ᴹ√AYAK > N. oeg ✧ Ety/AYAK
pek > peg Vk > Vg ON. pika > N. peg ✧ Ety/PIK
pessek > pesseg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KWES > N. pesseg ✧ Ety/KWES
piken > pigen Vk > Vg ON. pikina > N. pigen ✧ Ety/PIK
puik > puig Vk > Vg ᴹ✶poikā > N. puig ✧ Ety/POY
r̥auk > r̥aug Vk > Vg ᴹ√RUK > N. rhaug ✧ Ety/RUK
r̥oek > r̥oeg Vk > Vg ᴹ√RÁYAK > N. rhoeg ✧ Ety/RÁYAK
sikil > sigil Vk > Vg ᴹ√SIK > N. sigil ✧ Ety/SIK
sok- > sog- Vk > Vg ᴹ√SUK > N. sôg ✧ Ety/SUK
tarak > tarag Vk > Vg ᴹ√TARÁK > N. tarag ✧ Ety/TARÁK
tekl > tegl Vk > Vg ᴹ✶tekla > tegl > N. tegol ✧ Ety/TEK
tok- > tog- Vk > Vg ᴹ√TUK > N. tôg ✧ Ety/TUK
tolok > tolog Vk > Vg ᴹ√TULUK > N. tolog ✧ Ety/TULUK
tūk > tūg Vk > Vg ON. tūka > N. tûg ✧ Ety/TIW
uikal > uigal Vk > Vg ᴹ√KAL > N. uigâl ✧ EtyAC/KAL
xelek > xeleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KHELEK > N. heleg ✧ Ety/KHEL
atap > atab Vp > Vb ᴹ✶atakwē > N. adab ✧ Ety/TAK
delep > deleb Vp > Vb ᴹ√DYEL > N. deleb ✧ Ety/DYEL
erep > ereb Vp > Vb ᴹ✶ereqa > N. ereb ✧ Ety/ERE
gopel > gobel Vp > Vb ᴹ√PEL(ES) > N. gobel ✧ Ety/PEL(ES)
kapr > kabr Vp > Vb ᴹ√KAP > cabr > N. cabor ✧ Ety/KAP
keper > keber Vp > Vb ᴹ√KEPER > N. ceber ✧ Ety/KEPER
kelep > keleb Vp > Vb ON. kelepe > N. celeb ✧ Ety/KYELEP
kopar > kobar Vp > Vb ᴹ√KOPAR > N. cobar ✧ EtyAC/KOPAR
l̥aep > l̥aeb Vp > Vb ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhaeb ✧ EtyAC/LÁYAK
l̥assepelīn > l̥assebelīn Vp > Vb ᴹ✶lassekwelēnē > N. lhasbelin ✧ EtyAC/KWEL
l̥epen > l̥eben Vp > Vb ᴹ√LEPEN > N. lheben ✧ Ety/LEP
l̥epet > l̥ebet Vp > Vb ᴹ√LEPET > N. lhebed ✧ Ety/LEP
lopr > lobr Vp > Vb ᴹ√LOP > N. lobor ✧ EtyAC/LOP
l̥oep > l̥oeb Vp > Vb ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhoeb ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
map > mab Vp > Vb ᴹ√MAPA > N. mab ✧ EtyAC/MAP
plepi- > plebi- Vp > Vb ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi ✧ Ety/PALAP
r̥ip- > r̥ib- Vp > Vb ᴹ√RIP > N. rhib- ✧ Ety/RIP
salap > salab Vp > Vb ON. salape > N. salab ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
topa- > toba- Vp > Vb ᴹ√TOP > N. tobo ✧ Ety/TOP
θrip- > θrib- Vp > Vb ᴹ√SRIP > N. thribi ✧ Ety/SRIP
xap- > xab- Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHAP > N. hab- ✧ Ety/KHAP
xapad > xabad Vp > Vb ON. skhapa > N. habad ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xopass > xobass Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHOP > N. hobas ✧ Ety/KHOP
xūp > xūb Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHOP > N. hûb ✧ Ety/KHOP
at > ad Vt > Vd ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. ad- ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
atab > adab Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atakwē > N. adab ✧ Ety/TAK
atar > adar Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atar > N. adar ✧ Ety/ATA
atel > adel Vt > Vd ᴹ√TELES > N. adel ✧ Ety/TELES
andateiθ > andadeiθ Vt > Vd ON. andatektha > N. andeith ✧ Ety/TEK
arat > arad Vt > Vd ᴹ√AR¹ > N. arad ✧ Ety/AR¹
atlaut > atlaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > atlaud > N. aclod ✧ Ety/TALÁT
bat > bad Vt > Vd ON. bata > N. bád ✧ Ety/BAT
barat > barad Vt > Vd ᴹ√BARAT > N. barad ✧ Ety/BARAT
barat > barad Vt > Vd ᴹ√MBARAT > N. barad ✧ Ety/MBARAT
brekaul > bregaul Vt > Vd ᴹ✶berékā > N. bregol ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brekaul > bregaul Vt > Vd ᴹ√MERÉK > N. bregol ✧ Ety/MERÉK
dat > dad Vt > Vd ᴹ√DAT > N. dad ✧ Ety/DAT
et- > ed- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ET > N. ed- ✧ Ety/ET
etīnar > edīnar Vt > Vd ᴹ✶at-yēn-ar > N. edinar ✧ Ety/YEN
etleð- > edleð- Vt > Vd ON. etledie > egledhi > N. egledhio ✧ Ety/LED
etleðond > edleðond Vt > Vd ON. etledro > N. egledhron ✧ Ety/LED
etlenn > edlenn Vt > Vd ON. etlenna > N. eglenn ✧ Ety/LED
etra- > edra- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ETER > N. edro ✧ Ety/ETER
exxat- > exxad- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶et-kat > N. echedi ✧ Ety/KAT
finderaut > finderaud Vt > Vd ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
forot > forod Vt > Vd ᴹ✶phoroti > N. forod ✧ Ety/PHOR
gat- > gad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAT > N. gad- ✧ Ety/GAT
gatr > gadr Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAT(H) > gadr > N. gador ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
galat > galad Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAL > N. galad ✧ EtyAC/GAL
gaut > gaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAWA > N. gaud ✧ Ety/GAWA
gwator > gwador Vt > Vd ON. wator > N. gwador ✧ Ety/TOR
katw > kadw Vt > Vd ON. katwe > N. cadw ✧ Ety/KAT
kalat > kalad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KAL > N. calad ✧ Ety/KAL
kanat > kanad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KÁNAT > N. canad ✧ Ety/KÁNAT
l̥aten > l̥aden Vt > Vd ᴹ√LAT > N. lhaden ✧ Ety/LAT
l̥ebet > l̥ebed Vt > Vd ᴹ√LEPET > N. lhebed ✧ Ety/LEP
l̥imbit- > limbid- Vt > Vd ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI
l̥ota- > l̥oda- Vt > Vd ᴹ√LUT > N. lhoda ✧ Ety/LUT
mat- > mad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√MAT > N. medi ✧ Ety/MAT
mat- > mad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√MAT > N. mad- ✧ EtyAC/MAT
minitond > minidond Vt > Vd ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
moet > moed Vt > Vd ON. maite > N. moed ✧ Ety/MAƷ
mūta- > mūda- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ > N. mudo ✧ Ety/MŌ
nat > nad Vt > Vd ᴹ√NĀ² > N. nad ✧ Ety/NĀ²
naut > naud Vt > Vd ᴹ√NUT > N. naud ✧ Ety/NUT
neter > neder Vt > Vd ᴹ√NÉTER > N. neder ✧ Ety/NÉTER
nellatell > nelladell Vt > Vd ᴹ√NYEL > N. nelladel ✧ Ety/NYEL
nīt > nīd Vt > Vd ᴹ✶neı̯ti- > N. nîd ✧ Ety/NEI
nimfiret > nimfired Vt > Vd ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
not- > nod- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶not- > N. #nod- ✧ Ety/WŌ
not- > nod- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶nut- > N. nod- ✧ Ety/WŌ
nūt > nūd Vt > Vd ᴹ√NUT > N. nûd ✧ Ety/NUT
nœtia- > nœdia- Vt > Vd ᴹ√NOT > N. nœdia ✧ Ety/NOT
otok > odok Vt > Vd ᴹ√OT/OTOS/OTOK > N. odog ✧ Ety/OT
orot > orod Vt > Vd ON. oroto > N. orod ✧ Ety/ÓROT
pot > pod Vt > Vd ON. poto > N. pôd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
rat > rad Vt > Vd ᴹ✶ratā > N. râd ✧ Ety/RAT
rata- > rada- Vt > Vd ᴹ√RAT > N. rado ✧ Ety/RAT
r̥aut > r̥aud Vt > Vd ON. rauta > N. rhaud ✧ Ety/RAUTĀ
tat > tad Vt > Vd ᴹ√TATA > N. tâd ✧ Ety/TATA
talat > talad Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > N. talad ✧ Ety/TALÁT
taŋxata- > taŋxada- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶tánkā̆ta- > N. tangado ✧ PE17/44
tlaut > tlaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > tlaud > N. claud ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT
θorot > θorod Vt > Vd ᴹ√THOR > N. thôrod ✧ Ety/THOR
utūn > udūn Vt > Vd ᴹ✶Utubnu > N. Udūn ✧ Ety/TUB
vat- > vad- Vt > Vd ON. batie > N. #vedi ✧ Ety/BAT
xat- > xad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > N. had- ✧ Ety/KHAT
xatlaθθ > xadlaθθ Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/KHAT
xatlaθθ > xadlaθθ Vt > Vd ᴹ√LATH/LAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/LATH
xatr > xadr Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > N. hador ✧ Ety/KHAT
xamɸat > xamɸad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
xapat > xapad Vt > Vd ON. skhapa > N. habad ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xarat > xarad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harad ✧ Ety/KHYAR
xeletir > xeledir Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAL¹ > N. heledir ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
xeletir > xeledir Vt > Vd ᴹ√SKAL² > N. heledir ✧ Ety/SKAL²
xeletirn > xeledirn Vt > Vd ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > N. heledirn ✧ Ety/TIR
xūt > xūd Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHOTH > N. hûd ✧ Ety/KHOTH
œrœit > œrœid Vt > Vd ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered ✧ Ety/ÓROT
œrœit > œrœid Vt > Vd N. †œrœid > N. ered ✧ PE22/41

G. voiceless stops mostly voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}|{pk}θ] > [V{bdg}|{pk}θ]

HSG/§2.4

Reference ✧ PE12/17 ✧ voiced stops became spirants after vowels

Order (05300)

After 05100 [tl], [dl], [ðl] became [kl], [gl] ᴱ✶tet’l-asse > G. teglos GL/70

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb]
[Vt] > [Vd]
[Vk] > [Vg]
[pθ] > [pθ]
[kθ] > [kθ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

akra > agra Vk > Vg ᴱ√aka· > G. agra ✧ GL/17
aikos > aigos Vk > Vg ᴱ✶aikasse > G. aigos ✧ GL/17
ēk > ēg Vk > Vg ᴱ√EI̯KA > G. eg ✧ QL/29
gaik > gaig Vk > Vg ᴱ✶yai-ka > G. gaig ✧ GL/43
grōk > grōg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶ʒǝroukē > G. grôg ✧ QL/32
gʷek > gʷeg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > G. gweg ✧ GL/44
gʷekē > gʷegē Vk > Vg ᴱ✶u̯ǝkḗ > G. gweg ✧ PE13/117
hauk > hauk Vk > Vg #ᴱ√haw- > G. haug ✧ GL/48
helek > heleg Vk > Vg ᴱ√χele-k > G. heleg ✧ GL/48
kauk > kaug Vk > Vg ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
kauk > kaug Vk > Vg ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
lēk > lēg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶leika > G. leg ✧ GL/53
ndolmek > ndolmeg Vk > Vg ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolmeg ✧ GL/30
ndrok > ndrog Vk > Vg ᴱ✶norokā́ > G. drog ✧ GL/31
smaik > smaig Vk > Vg ᴱ✶smaika- > G. faig ✧ GL/33
tarok > tarog Vk > Vg #ᴱ✶taruku- > G. tarog ✧ GL/69
aipin > aibin Vp > Vb ᴱ√aı̯¹ > G. aibin ✧ GL/18
gop > gob Vp > Vb ᴱ√kop- > G. gob ✧ GL/40
gopos > gobos Vp > Vb ᴱ√KOPO > G. gobos ✧ LT1A/Kópas
hapax > habax Vp > Vb ᴱ✶χı̯ap > G. habach ✧ GL/47
hapin > habin Vp > Vb ᴱ✶χı̯ap > G. habin ✧ GL/47
klip- > klib- Vp > Vb ᴱ√tḷp- > G. clib- ✧ GL/26
kʷipra- > kʷibra- Vp > Vb ᴱ√QIP > G. cwibra- ✧ GL/28
ndrip- > ndrib- Vp > Vb ᴱ√nṛq- > G. drib- ✧ GL/30
saip > saib Vp > Vb ᴱ√SAYAP > G. saib ✧ GL/66
beðiat > beðiad Vt > Vd ᴱ√Beđ > G. †bedhiod ✧ GL/22
blit- > blid- Vt > Vd ᴱ√vḷt > G. blid ✧ GL/23
britol > bridol Vt > Vd ᴱ√vṛt > G. Bridol ✧ GL/24
gat > gad Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gad ✧ GL/36
gata- > gada- Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gada- ✧ GL/36
gatr > gadr Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gadr ✧ GL/36
gatw > gadw Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gadu ✧ GL/36
get > ged Vt > Vd #ᴱ√ʒet- > G. ged ✧ GL/43
gōt > gōd Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gôd ✧ GL/36
gotra > godra Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. godra ✧ GL/36
gomot > gomod Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋwa·mat > G. gomod ✧ GL/44
gʷaɣet > gʷaɣed Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43
gʷaɣes > gʷaɣes Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43
gʷet > gʷed Vt > Vd ᴱ√gwed² > G. gwed ✧ GL/46
gʷet- > gʷed- Vt > Vd ᴱ√gu̯et > G. gwed-¹ ✧ GL/46
kʷet- > kʷed- Vt > Vd ᴱ√QETE > G. cwed- ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
laut > laud Vt > Vd ᴱ√lutu- > G. laud ✧ GL/53
mbritwen > mbridwen Vt > Vd ᴱ√mṛt > G. Bridwen ✧ GL/24
blekθa > blekθa kθ > kθ ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > G. blectha ✧ GL/22
krekθa- > krekθa- kθ > kθ ᴱ√kerek- > G. crectha- ✧ GL/27
trikθon > trikθon kθ > kθ ᴱ√tṛk > G. tricthon ✧ GL/69
kʷipθa- > kʷipθa- pθ > pθ ᴱ√QIP > G. cwiptha- ✧ GL/28
sapθa- > sapθa- pθ > pθ ᴱ√sab- > G. saptha- ✧ GL/67