S. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

S. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

At all conceptual stages (Sindarin, Noldorin, Gnomish) the voiceless stops p, t, k became voiced stops medially (and finally) after vowels, a sound change that also took place in Welsh (WGHC/§104i). This became a key feature of Sindarin’s soft-mutation system, whereby p, t, k mutated to b, d, g. This mutation dates back to Gnomish (PE11/7) and continues to be well attested in Tolkien’s later writings. Some representative examples from various time periods:

This sound change must have take place after voiced stops became spirants after vowels, because we see t > d but not t > d > dh [ð]. There is also evidence this sound change took place after short final vowels vanished, as suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.106, GS/§4.108):

However, this sound change must have taken place before short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries, since the second element of compounds consistently show the soft-mutation of p, t, k to b, d, g; this ordering of sound changes was also suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.115):

There a couple of peculiar Noldorin examples where this sound change does not take place, all involving the combination tl:

Absent further information, it’s hard to guess why internal soft-mutation did not occur in these words. There are other examples where tl > dl: S. edlen(n) “exiled” < ✶etlendā (PE17/51), N. adleithian “*release” (EtyAC/LEK).

Conceptual Development: It seems Tolkien adopted this sound change from Welsh in the 1910s and retained it thereafter, with rare exceptions as noted above.

Order (02400)

After 00900 voiced stops became spirants after vowels nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod WJ/414
After 02200 short final vowels vanished nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod WJ/414
Before 02800 final [i], [u] generally vanished Kh. felakgundu > felaggundu > S. Felagund PM/352
Before 02900 short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries aba-kar ā > S. avgaro
Turukondō > S. Turgond
WJ/371
PE17/113
Before 04500 [au], [ae] became [o], [e] in polysyllables akjāwē-n > agauwen > S. agowen PE22/152
Before 06200 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol PE18/88
Before 06400 final [w] usually became [u] matwā > madw̯ > S. madu PE17/148

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb]
[Vt] > [Vd]
[Vk] > [Vg]

Phonetic Rule Examples

akaur > agaur Vk > Vg akāra > S. agor ✧ WJ/415
akauwen > agauwen Vk > Vg akjāwē-n > agauwen > S. agowen ✧ PE22/152
aklar > aglar Vk > Vg áklara > ᴸN. aglar ✧ PE18/87
aklareb > aglareb Vk > Vg aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
aklaur > aglaur Vk > Vg aklā́ra > aklōra > aglaur > ᴸN. aglor ✧ PE18/87
aikanaur > aiganaur Vk > Vg Aika-nār- > S. Aegnor ✧ PM/347
abakarau- > avagarau- Vk > Vg aba-kar ā > S. avgaro ✧ WJ/371
belek > beleg Vk > Vg mbelek- > S. beleg ✧ PE17/115
belek > beleg Vk > Vg mbelek > S. beleg ✧ PE17/115
belekūr > belegūr Vk > Vg mbelek-óre > S. Belegûr ✧ PE17/115
dak- > dag- Vk > Vg ndak- > S. #Dag- ✧ SA/dagor
dakr > dagr Vk > Vg ndak- > S. dagor ✧ SA/dagor
ekau- > egau- Vk > Vg HEK > hek(e) ā > S. ego! ✧ WJ/365
ekla- > egla- Vk > Vg hekla/heklā > S. Egla- ✧ WJ/365
eklambar > eglambar Vk > Vg ekla-mbar > S. Eglamar ✧ WJ/365
eklan > eglan Vk > Vg heklanā > S. Eglan ✧ WJ/365
eklarest > eglarest Vk > Vg ekla-rista > S. Eglarest ✧ WJ/365
enek > ened Vk > Vg enk- > S. eneg- ✧ PE17/95
enek > ened Vk > Vg eneke > S. eneg ✧ VT48/8
felakgundu > felaggundu Vk > Vg Kh. felakgundu > felaggundu > S. Felagund ✧ PM/352
felek > feleg Vk > Vg PHELEK > S. feleg ✧ PE17/118
finek > fineg Vk > Vg finik/fink > S. fineg ✧ PE17/17
-kaun > -gaun Vk > Vg -kānō > S. -gon ✧ PM/352
gorok > gorog Vk > Vg guruk > S. gorog ✧ WJ/415
grauk > graug Vk > Vg grauk- > S. raug ✧ WJ/415
groka- > groga- Vk > Vg RUKU > S. groga- ✧ WJ/415
gūrikov > gūrigov Vk > Vg gōr(i)kubā > S. gurgof ✧ PE22/155
kelek > keleg Vk > Vg kelekā > S. celeg ✧ VT41/10
kinθok > kinθog Vk > Vg KIT > S. cinnog ✧ PE17/157
laik > laig Vk > Vg laikā > S. laeg ✧ Let/282
lewek > leweg Vk > Vg LEWEK > S. leweg ✧ PE17/160
l̥ūk > l̥ūg Vk > Vg (s)lōkō > S. lhûg ✧ PE17/160
lȳk > lȳg Vk > Vg LEWEK > S. lýg ✧ PE17/160
makaɣlaur > magaɣlaur Vk > Vg maka-glaur- > S. magalor- ✧ VT41/10
maik > maig Vk > Vg maikā > S. maeg ✧ WJ/337
mailik > mailig Vk > Vg máiliki > S. maelig ✧ PE21/80
mekr > megr Vk > Vg mikrā > S. megr ✧ WJ/337
narauk > naraug Vk > Vg Kh. Narâg > S. Narog ✧ PE17/37
narok > narog Vk > Vg Kh. ‽naruka > S. Narog ✧ PE17/47
nauk > naug Vk > Vg naukā > S. naug ✧ WJ/413
neken > negen Vk > Vg NEK > S. neg(e)n ✧ PE17/55
nokoθθ > nogoθθ Vk > Vg nukotto/a > S. Nogoth ✧ WJ/413
odok > odog Vk > Vg otok > S. odog ✧ VT47/42
odok > odog Vk > Vg otok > S. odog ✧ VT47/42
okl > ogl Vk > Vg OKO > S. ogol ✧ PE17/149
okl > ogl Vk > Vg ‽✶UKLA > S. ogl ✧ PE17/149
okl > ogl Vk > Vg oklā > S. ogol ✧ PE17/170
okl > ogl Vk > Vg ū̆k’la > ogl > ᴸN. ogol ✧ PE18/88
okrond > ogrond Vk > Vg OKO > S. ogron ✧ PE17/170
rauk > raug Vk > Vg RUK > S. raug ✧ PE17/48
serek > sereg Vk > Vg SEREK > S. sereg ✧ PE17/184
takl > tagl Vk > Vg *✶takala > S. #dagol ✧ VT42/8
taik > taig Vk > Vg taika > S. #Taeg ✧ WJ/309
tainakylli > tainagylli Vk > Vg tana > S. Taengyl ✧ MR/385
tauk > taug Vk > Vg TAW > S. taug ✧ PE17/115
tekil > tegil Vk > Vg Q. tekil > S. tegil ✧ VT47/8
tennekylli > tennegylli Vk > Vg tana > S. Tengyl ✧ MR/385
turukaun > turugaun Vk > Vg Turukāno > S. Tur(u)gon ✧ PE17/113
turukond > turugond Vk > Vg Turukundā > S. Turgond- ✧ PE17/112
turukond > turugond Vk > Vg Turukondō > S. Turgond ✧ PE17/113
uruk > urug Vk > Vg urku/uruku > S. urug ✧ WJ/390
-wek > -we Vk > Vg WEK > S. weg ✧ PE17/190
-wek > -we Vk > Vg WE > wekā > S. weg ✧ PE17/190
ȳnek > ȳneg Vk > Vg yūneke > S. ýneg ✧ VT47/41
aplad > ablad Vp > Vb ap’lata > S. ablad ✧ VT47/13
aklarep > aklareb Vp > Vb aklariquā > S. aglareb ✧ PE17/24
-ep > -eb Vp > Vb ikwā > -ipā > S. -eb ✧ WJ/412
erep > ereb Vp > Vb erikwa > S. ereb ✧ VT42/10
fīrep > fīreb Vp > Vb PHIRI > S. Fíreb ✧ WJ/387
kelep > keleb Vp > Vb kyelepē > S. celeb ✧ Let/426
kelep > keleb Vp > Vb kelep/kyelep > S. celeb ✧ PE17/36
kelep > keleb Vp > Vb kyelep- > S. celeb ✧ UT/266
laip > laib Vp > Vb laiquā > S. **laeb ✧ PE17/153
lepet > lebed Vp > Vb lepet(ā) > S. lebed ✧ VT47/27
lepen > leben Vp > Vb lepen > S. leb(en ✧ PE17/95
lepen > leben Vp > Vb lepene > S. leben ✧ VT42/24
lepen > leben Vp > Vb lepene > S. leben ✧ VT47/10
lepen > leben Vp > Vb lepenē̆ > S. leben ✧ VT47/24
leper > leber Vp > Vb leper- > S. leber ✧ VT47/10
leper > leber Vp > Vb leper- > S. leber ✧ VT47/24
leper > leber Vp > Vb leper > S. leber ✧ VT48/5
lepeθθaron > lebeθθaron Vp > Vb lepeth-ron > S. lebethron ✧ PE17/89
lepir > lebir Vp > Vb leper- > S. lebir ✧ VT47/10
lepir > lebir Vp > Vb leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT47/24
lepir > lebir Vp > Vb leperī > S. lebir ✧ VT48/5
map > mab Vp > Vb makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/6
map > mab Vp > Vb makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/7
map > mab Vp > Vb makwā > S. mâb ✧ VT47/19
map > mab Vp > Vb MAP > măpo > S. mâb ✧ VT47/20
minip > minib Vp > Vb min(i)k(e)we > minikwē̆ > S. minib ✧ VT48/7
minip > minib Vp > Vb min(i)kewe > minikwē > S. minib ✧ VT48/8
naupad > naubad Vp > Vb nāpata > S. nobad ✧ VT48/5
nipen > niben Vp > Vb nip > nipinā > S. niben ✧ VT48/18
θarapad > θarabad Vp > Vb thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar
at- > ad- Vt > Vd ATA > S. #ad- ✧ PE17/167
atan > adan Vt > Vd Q. Atan > S. Adan ✧ WJ/387
affat- > affad- Vt > Vd ap-pata > S. aphad- ✧ WJ/387
affet- > affed- Vt > Vd at-kwet > S. aphed ✧ PE17/166
aplat > aplad Vt > Vd ap’lata > S. ablad ✧ VT47/13
araut > araud Vt > Vd arātā > S. arod ✧ PM/363
avat > avad Vt > Vd ABA > S. avad ✧ PE17/143
barat > barad Vt > Vd BARAT > S. barad ✧ PE17/22
barat > barad Vt > Vd BARAT > S. barad ✧ PE17/65
barat > barad Vt > Vd BAR-AT > S. barad ✧ PE17/66
bauta- > bauda- Vt > Vd > S. bauda- ✧ PE17/143
bauta- > bauda- Vt > Vd bā-ta > S. boda- ✧ WJ/372
calatariɣell > caladariɣell Vt > Vd Kalatā-rigelle > S. †Caladriel ✧ PE17/50
dalat > dalad Vt > Vd DAL > S. dalad ✧ PE17/150
et > ed Vt > Vd et > S. ed ✧ WJ/367
eteit > edeid Vt > Vd atatya > S. edaid ✧ VT42/26
etlandor > edlandor Vt > Vd etlā-ndōrē > Eglannor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
etlandor > edlandor Vt > Vd etla-ndore > Eglandor > S. Eglador ✧ VT42/4
etlend > edlend Vt > Vd et-lendā > S. edlen(n) ✧ PE17/51
etlon > edlon Vt > Vd etlō > S. edlon ✧ PE17/141
etra- > edra- Vt > Vd etr- > S. edra ✧ PE17/45
etreiθ > edreiθ Vt > Vd rekti(e) > S. edraith ✧ PE17/38
enet > ened Vt > Vd HENET > ente > S. ened ✧ VT41/16
eneit > eneid Vt > Vd HENET > enetya > S. enaid ✧ VT41/16
exxat- > exxad- Vt > Vd et-kat- > S. echad- ✧ PE17/42
findaraut > findaraud Vt > Vd findarātō > find-raud > findrod > S. finrod ✧ VT41/9
galat > galad Vt > Vd GAL > S. galad ✧ PE17/84
galat > galad Vt > Vd ñalatā > S. galad ✧ PM/347
galatariɣel > galadariɣel Vt > Vd ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > S. Galadriel ✧ PE17/60
galatarīɣell > galadarīɣell Vt > Vd galata-rīg-elle > S. Galadriel ✧ MR/182
galatariɣell > galadariɣell Vt > Vd galata-rĭg-elle > S. Galadriel ✧ MR/470
galatariɣell > galadariɣell Vt > Vd galatā-rigellē̆ > S. Galadriel ✧ PE17/50
grot > grod Vt > Vd (g)rotā > S. grod ✧ WJ/414
īt > īd Vt > Vd IT > S. íd ✧ PE17/112
itril > idril Vt > Vd Itrā > S. idril ✧ PE17/112
imbilat > imbilad Vt > Vd imbi-lătă > S. imlad ✧ PE17/87
kalat > kalad Vt > Vd KAL > S. calad ✧ PE17/50
kalat > kalad Vt > Vd CAL > S. calad ✧ PE17/84
kanat > kanad Vt > Vd kanata > S. canad ✧ VT42/24
kenet > kened Vt > Vd KENET > S. cened ✧ VT47/41
kitinn > kidinn Vt > Vd KIT > S. cidinn ✧ PE17/157
kovat- > kovad- Vt > Vd KOB- > S. covad- ✧ PE17/16
lepet > lepet Vt > Vd lepet(ā) > S. lebed ✧ VT47/27
maten > maden Vt > Vd matina > S. maden ✧ PE17/131
matw > madw Vt > Vd matwā > madw̯ > S. madu ✧ PE17/148
maɣidi > maɣid Vt > Vd magiti- > S. maed ✧ VT41/10
maut > maud Vt > Vd matwā > madw̯ > S. maud ✧ PE17/148
naupat > naupad Vt > Vd nāpata > S. nobad ✧ VT48/5
neter > neder Vt > Vd net-er > S. neder ✧ PE17/95
nimfirait > nimfiraid Vt > Vd ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
nīnatalm > nīnadalm Vt > Vd nēn-talma > S. nindalf ✧ PE17/167
nǭvaɣrot > nǭvaɣrod Vt > Vd nāba-grota > nǭv-ʒrot > North S. †Novrod ✧ WJ/414
otoh > odoh Vt > Vd Otos > S. odo- ✧ RC/384
otoh > odoh Vt > Vd otoso > S. odo ✧ VT42/25
otok > odok Vt > Vd otok > S. odog ✧ VT47/42
otok > odok Vt > Vd otok > S. odog ✧ VT47/42
orot > orod Vt > Vd OR/ORO > S. orod ✧ PE17/64
pat > pad Vt > Vd pat- > S. pad ✧ PE17/34
pat > pad Vt > Vd pata- > S. pâd ✧ PE17/34
pet- > ped- Vt > Vd quet- > S. pedo ✧ SA/quen
plat > plad Vt > Vd palátā > S. plad ✧ VT47/9
r̥ait > r̥aet Vt > Vd raitē > S. rhaed ✧ PE17/185
raita- > raida- Vt > Vd RAY > S. raeda- ✧ VT42/12
raut > raud Vt > Vd (a)rātā > S. raud ✧ PE17/49
raut > raud Vt > Vd áratā > (a)rā́tā > S. raud ✧ PE17/118
raut > raud Vt > Vd rāta > S. raud ✧ PE17/186
sat > sad Vt > Vd SAT > S. sad ✧ VT42/19
satar > sadar Vt > Vd satarŏ > S. sadar ✧ PE17/183
satr > sadr Vt > Vd satrā > S. sador ✧ PE17/183
satrond > sadrond Vt > Vd satrō > S. sadron ✧ PE17/183
seteir > sedeir Vt > Vd satarŏ > S. sedair ✧ PE17/183
seit > seid Vt > Vd SAT > S. said ✧ VT42/20
tat > tad Vt > Vd atata > (a)táta > S. tad ✧ VT42/27
θarapat > θarapad Vt > Vd thara-pata > S. Tharbad ✧ SA/thar
œryt > œryd Vt > Vd OR/ORO > S. eryd/ered ✧ PE17/64

N. voiceless stops voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}] > [V{bdg}]

GS/§4.108 but not aclod @@@

Order (02400)

Before 02900 short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries ON. andatektha > N. andeith
ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon
Ety/TEK
Ety/TUN
Before 03300 [ei] (sometimes) became [ai] in final syllables ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig Ety/MERÉK
Before 03400 initial [pl] became [bl] ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi Ety/PALAP
Before 05900 final [l], [r] usually became syllabic ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor Ety/AK
Before 06700 [ei] sometimes became [e] in unstressed final syllables ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered Ety/ÓROT

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb] ✧ PE19/23 (-p- > -b-); PE19/23 (-p- > -b-)
[Vt] > [Vd] ✧ PE19/23 (-t- > -d-)
[Vk] > [Vg] ✧ PE19/23 (-k- > -g-)

Phonetic Rule Examples

aklar > aglar Vk > Vg ᴹ√AKLA-R > N. aglar ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
akr > agr Vk > Vg ᴹ✶akrā > agr > N. agor ✧ Ety/AK
aik > aig Vk > Vg ᴹ√AYAK > N. oeg ✧ Ety/AYAK
alak > alag Vk > Vg ᴹ✶álākō > N. alag ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
alakoss > alagoss Vk > Vg ᴹ√ÁLAK > N. alagon ✧ Ety/NAK
bauk > baug Vk > Vg ᴹ√MBAW > N. baug ✧ Ety/MBAW
baukla- > baugla- Vk > Vg ᴹ√MBAW > N. bauglo- ✧ Ety/MBAW
belek > beleg Vk > Vg ON. beleka > N. beleg ✧ Ety/BEL
breked > breged Vk > Vg ᴹ√BERÉK > N. breged ✧ Ety/BERÉK
breked > breged Vk > Vg ᴹ√MERÉK > N. breged ✧ EtyAC/MERÉK
breik > breig Vk > Vg ᴹ✶mrekjā > breig > N. braig ✧ Ety/MERÉK
brok > brog Vk > Vg ᴹ✶morókō > N. brôg ✧ Ety/MORÓK
dakr > dagr Vk > Vg ON. ndakro > dagr > N. dagor ✧ Ety/NDAK
dakra- > dagra- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NDAK > N. dagro ✧ Ety/NDAK
dauk > daug Vk > Vg ON. ndōko > N. daug ✧ Ety/NDAK
deki > degi Vk > Vg ON. ndakie > N. degi ✧ Ety/NDAK
delek > deleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√DYELEK > N. deleg ✧ EtyAC/DYELEK
drauk > draug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶d’rāk > N. draug ✧ Ety/DARÁK
ek > eg Vk > Vg ᴹ√EK > N. êg ✧ Ety/EK
enek > eneg Vk > Vg ᴹ√ÉNEK > N. eneg ✧ Ety/ÉNEK
erek > ereg Vk > Vg ᴹ√ERÉK > N. ereg ✧ Ety/ERÉK
erik > erig Vk > Vg ᴹ√ERÉK > N. erig ✧ Ety/ERÉK
faik > faig Vk > Vg ᴹ√SPAY > N. foeg ✧ Ety/SPAY
fauk > faug Vk > Vg ON. phauka > N. faug ✧ Ety/PHAU
felek > feleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√PHELÉK > N. feleg ✧ EtyAC/PHELÉK
filik > filig Vk > Vg ᴹ√PHILIK > N. filig ✧ Ety/PHILIK
findekaun > findegaun Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Findekāno > N. Fingon ✧ Ety/PHIN
goθombauk > goθombaug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Gothombauk- > N. Gothmog ✧ Ety/MBAW
goθorauk > goθoraug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Gothorauk- > N. Gothrog ✧ EtyAC/MBAW
karak > karag Vk > Vg ᴹ√KÁRAK > N. carag ✧ Ety/KARAK
kelek > keleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KYELEK > N. celeg ✧ Ety/KYELEK
kuku > kugu Vk > Vg ON. kukua > N. cugu ✧ Ety/KŪ
l̥akr > l̥agr Vk > Vg ᴹ✶lakra > N. lhagr ✧ Ety/LAK²
l̥aik > l̥aig Vk > Vg ᴹ√LAIK > N. lhaeg ✧ Ety/LAIK
l̥aik > l̥aig Vk > Vg ON. laika > N. lhoeg ✧ EtyAC/LAIK
l̥auk > l̥aug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶lauka > N. lhaug ✧ Ety/LAW
leki > legi Vk > Vg ᴹ√LEK > N. †adlegi ✧ EtyAC/LEK
l̥ūk > l̥ūg Vk > Vg ᴹ√LOK > N. lhûg ✧ Ety/LOK
makl > magl Vk > Vg ᴹ√MAK > magl > N. magol ✧ Ety/MAK
mailek > maileg Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Maeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mailek > maileg Vk > Vg ᴹ✶Mailikā > N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
mekil > megil Vk > Vg ᴹ✶makili- > N. megil ✧ EtyAC/MAK
nak- > nag- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAK > N. nag- ✧ Ety/NAK
naik > naig Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. naeg ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
naikra- > naigra- Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁYAK > N. negro ✧ Ety/NÁYAK
narauk > naraug Vk > Vg ᴹ✶narāka > N. Narog ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
nauk > naug Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naug ✧ Ety/NAUK
naukl > naugl Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. naugol ✧ Ety/NAUK
nawak > nawag Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁWAK > N. nawag ✧ Ety/NAUK
nelek > neleg Vk > Vg ON. neleki > N. neleg ✧ Ety/NÉL-EK
nesteki- > nestegi- Vk > Vg ON. nestak- > N. nestegi ✧ Ety/STAK
neweik > neweig Vk > Vg ᴹ√NÁWAK > neweig > N. neweg ✧ Ety/NAUK
nuik > nuig Vk > Vg ᴹ√NAU̯K > N. nuig ✧ EtyAC/NAUK
odok > odog Vk > Vg ᴹ√OT/OTOS/OTOK > N. odog ✧ Ety/OT
pek > peg Vk > Vg ON. pika > N. peg ✧ Ety/PIK
pessek > pesseg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KWES > N. pesseg ✧ Ety/KWES
piken > pigen Vk > Vg ON. pikina > N. pigen ✧ Ety/PIK
puik > puig Vk > Vg ᴹ✶poikā > N. puig ✧ Ety/POY
r̥aik > r̥aig Vk > Vg ᴹ√RÁYAK > N. rhoeg ✧ Ety/RÁYAK
r̥auk > r̥aug Vk > Vg ᴹ√RUK > N. rhaug ✧ Ety/RUK
sikil > sigil Vk > Vg ᴹ√SIK > N. sigil ✧ Ety/SIK
sok- > sog- Vk > Vg ᴹ√SUK > N. sôg ✧ Ety/SUK
tarak > tarag Vk > Vg ᴹ√TARÁK > N. tarag ✧ Ety/TARÁK
tekl > tegl Vk > Vg ᴹ✶tekla > tegl > N. tegol ✧ Ety/TEK
tok- > tog- Vk > Vg ᴹ√TUK > N. tôg ✧ Ety/TUK
tolok > tolog Vk > Vg ᴹ√TULUK > N. tolog ✧ Ety/TULUK
tūk > tūg Vk > Vg ON. tūka > N. tûg ✧ Ety/TIW
uikal > uigal Vk > Vg ᴹ√KAL > N. uigâl ✧ EtyAC/KAL
xelek > xeleg Vk > Vg ᴹ√KHELEK > N. heleg ✧ Ety/KHEL
atap > atab Vp > Vb ᴹ✶atakwē > N. adab ✧ Ety/TAK
delep > deleb Vp > Vb ᴹ√DYEL > N. deleb ✧ Ety/DYEL
erep > ereb Vp > Vb ᴹ✶ereqa > N. ereb ✧ Ety/ERE
eteip > eteib Vp > Vb ᴹ✶atakwē > N. edeb ✧ Ety/TAK
gopel > gobel Vp > Vb ᴹ√PEL(ES) > N. gobel ✧ Ety/PEL(ES)
kapr > kabr Vp > Vb ᴹ√KAP > cabr > N. cabor ✧ Ety/KAP
keper > keber Vp > Vb ᴹ√KEPER > N. ceber ✧ Ety/KEPER
kepir > kebir Vp > Vb ᴹ√KEPER > N. cebir ✧ Ety/KEPER
kelep > keleb Vp > Vb ON. kelepe > N. celeb ✧ Ety/KYELEP
kopar > kobar Vp > Vb ᴹ√KOPAR > N. cobar ✧ EtyAC/KOPAR
l̥aip > l̥aib Vp > Vb ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhoeb ✧ Ety/LÁYAK
l̥aip > l̥aib Vp > Vb ᴹ✶laı̯k-wā > N. lhaeb ✧ EtyAC/LÁYAK
l̥assepelīn > l̥assebelīn Vp > Vb ᴹ✶lassekwelēnē > N. lhasbelin ✧ EtyAC/KWEL
l̥epen > l̥eben Vp > Vb ᴹ√LEPEN > N. lheben ✧ Ety/LEP
l̥epet > l̥ebet Vp > Vb ᴹ√LEPET > N. lhebed ✧ Ety/LEP
lopr > lobr Vp > Vb ᴹ√LOP > N. lobor ✧ EtyAC/LOP
map > mab Vp > Vb ᴹ√MAPA > N. mab ✧ EtyAC/MAP
plapi- > plebi- Vp > Vb ᴹ√PALAP > plebi > N. blebi ✧ Ety/PALAP
r̥ip- > r̥ib- Vp > Vb ᴹ√RIP > N. rhib- ✧ Ety/RIP
salap > salab Vp > Vb ON. salape > N. salab ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
seleip > seleib Vp > Vb ON. salape > N. seleb ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
topa- > toba- Vp > Vb ᴹ√TOP > N. tobo ✧ Ety/TOP
θrip- > θrib- Vp > Vb ᴹ√SRIP > N. thribi ✧ Ety/SRIP
xap- > xab- Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHAP > N. hab- ✧ Ety/KHAP
xapad > xabad Vp > Vb ON. skhapa > N. habad ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xepeid > xebeid Vp > Vb ON. skhapa > N. hebeid ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xopass > xobass Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHOP > N. hobas ✧ Ety/KHOP
xūp > xūb Vp > Vb ᴹ√KHOP > N. hûb ✧ Ety/KHOP
at- > ad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. ad- ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
atab > adab Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atakwē > N. adab ✧ Ety/TAK
atar > adar Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atar > N. adar ✧ Ety/ATA
atel > adel Vt > Vd ᴹ√TELES > N. adel ✧ Ety/TELES
andateiθ > andadeiθ Vt > Vd ON. andatektha > N. andeith ✧ Ety/TEK
arat > arad Vt > Vd ᴹ√AR¹ > N. arad ✧ Ety/AR¹
atlaut > atlaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > atlaud > N. aclod ✧ Ety/TALÁT
bat > bad Vt > Vd ON. bata > N. bád ✧ Ety/BAT
barat > barad Vt > Vd ᴹ√BARAT > N. barad ✧ Ety/BARAT
barat > barad Vt > Vd ᴹ√MBARAT > N. barad ✧ Ety/MBARAT
brekaul > bregaul Vt > Vd ᴹ✶berékā > N. bregol ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brekaul > bregaul Vt > Vd ᴹ√MERÉK > N. bregol ✧ Ety/MERÉK
breket > breked Vt > Vd ᴹ√BERÉK > N. breged ✧ Ety/BERÉK
breket > breked Vt > Vd ᴹ√MERÉK > N. breged ✧ EtyAC/MERÉK
dat > dad Vt > Vd ᴹ√DAT > N. dad ✧ Ety/DAT
et- > ed- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ET > N. ed- ✧ Ety/ET
eteib > edeib Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atakwē > N. edeb ✧ Ety/TAK
etein > edein Vt > Vd ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. eden ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
eteir > edeir Vt > Vd ᴹ✶atar > edeir > N. eder ✧ Ety/ATA
etīnar > edīnar Vt > Vd ᴹ✶at-yēn-ar > N. edinar ✧ Ety/YEN
etleð- > edleð- Vt > Vd ON. etledie > egledhi > N. egledhio ✧ Ety/LED
etleðond > edleðond Vt > Vd ON. etledro > N. egledhron ✧ Ety/LED
etlenn > edlenn Vt > Vd ON. etlenna > N. eglenn ✧ Ety/LED
etra- > edra- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ETER > N. edro ✧ Ety/ETER
exxat- > exxad- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶et-kat > N. echedi ✧ Ety/KAT
finderaut > finderaud Vt > Vd ᴹ✶Phinde-rauto > N. Finrod ✧ Ety/PHIN
forot > forod Vt > Vd ᴹ✶phoroti > N. forod ✧ Ety/PHOR
gat- > gad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAT > N. gad- ✧ Ety/GAT
gatr > gadr Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAT(H) > gadr > N. gador ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
galat > galad Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAL > N. galad ✧ EtyAC/GAL
gaut > gaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√GAWA > N. gaud ✧ Ety/GAWA
gwator > gwador Vt > Vd ON. wator > N. gwador ✧ Ety/TOR
gwetœir > gwedœir Vt > Vd ON. wator > N. gwedeir ✧ Ety/TOR
katw > kadw Vt > Vd ON. katwe > N. cadw ✧ Ety/KAT
katwaur > kadwaur Vt > Vd ᴹ✶katwārā > N. cadwor ✧ Ety/KAT
kalat > kalad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KAL > N. calad ✧ Ety/KAL
kanat > kanad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KÁNAT > N. canad ✧ Ety/KÁNAT
l̥aten > l̥aden Vt > Vd ᴹ√LAT > N. lhaden ✧ Ety/LAT
l̥aten > l̥aden Vt > Vd ᴹ✶lătĭna > N. laden ✧ PE22/126
l̥ebet > l̥ebed Vt > Vd ᴹ√LEPET > N. lhebed ✧ Ety/LEP
l̥etin > l̥edin Vt > Vd ᴹ√LAT > N. lhedin ✧ Ety/LAT
l̥imbit- > limbid- Vt > Vd ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimmid ✧ Ety/LINKWI
l̥ota- > l̥oda- Vt > Vd ᴹ√LUT > N. lhoda ✧ Ety/LUT
mat- > mad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√MAT > N. medi ✧ Ety/MAT
mat- > mad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√MAT > N. mad- ✧ EtyAC/MAT
mait > maid Vt > Vd ON. maite > N. moed ✧ Ety/MAƷ
minitond > minidond Vt > Vd ᴹ✶minitunda > N. mindon ✧ Ety/TUN
mūta- > mūda- Vt > Vd ᴹ√ > N. mudo ✧ Ety/MŌ
nat > nad Vt > Vd ᴹ√NĀ² > N. nad ✧ Ety/NĀ²
naut > naud Vt > Vd ᴹ√NUT > N. naud ✧ Ety/NUT
neter > neder Vt > Vd ᴹ√NÉTER > N. neder ✧ Ety/NÉTER
nellatell > nelladell Vt > Vd ᴹ√NYEL > N. nelladel ✧ Ety/NYEL
nīt > nīd Vt > Vd ᴹ✶neı̯ti- > N. nîd ✧ Ety/NEI
nimfit- > nimfid- Vt > Vd ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimmid ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimfiret > nimfired Vt > Vd ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
not- > nod- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶not- > N. #nod- ✧ Ety/WŌ
not- > nod- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶nut- > N. nod- ✧ Ety/WŌ
nūt > nūd Vt > Vd ᴹ√NUT > N. nûd ✧ Ety/NUT
nœtia- > nœdia- Vt > Vd ᴹ√NOT > N. nœdia ✧ Ety/NOT
otok > odok Vt > Vd ᴹ√OT/OTOS/OTOK > N. odog ✧ Ety/OT
orot > orod Vt > Vd ON. oroto > N. orod ✧ Ety/ÓROT
pot > pod Vt > Vd ON. poto > N. pôd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
pyt > pyd Vt > Vd ON. poti > N. pŷd ✧ Ety/POTŌ
rat > rad Vt > Vd ᴹ✶ratā > N. râd ✧ Ety/RAT
rata- > rada- Vt > Vd ᴹ√RAT > N. rado ✧ Ety/RAT
r̥aut > r̥aud Vt > Vd ON. rauta > N. rhaud ✧ Ety/RAUTĀ
tat > tad Vt > Vd ᴹ√TATA > N. tâd ✧ Ety/TATA
talat > talad Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > N. talad ✧ Ety/TALÁT
taŋxata- > taŋxada- Vt > Vd ᴹ✶tánkā̆ta- > N. tangado ✧ PE17/44
tlaut > tlaud Vt > Vd ᴹ√TALÁT > tlaud > N. claud ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT
θorot > θorod Vt > Vd ᴹ√THOR > N. thôrod ✧ Ety/THOR
utumn > udumn Vt > Vd ᴹ✶Utubnu > N. Udūn ✧ Ety/TUB
vat- > vad- Vt > Vd ON. batie > N. #vedi ✧ Ety/BAT
xat- > xad- Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > N. had- ✧ Ety/KHAT
xatlaθθ > xadlaθθ Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/KHAT
xatlaθθ > xadlaθθ Vt > Vd ᴹ√LATH/LAT > hadlath > N. haglath ✧ Ety/LATH
xatr > xadr Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAT > N. hador ✧ Ety/KHAT
xamfat > xamfad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
xapat > xapad Vt > Vd ON. skhapa > N. habad ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xarat > xarad Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHYAR > N. harad ✧ Ety/KHYAR
xeletir > xeledir Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHAL¹ > N. heledir ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
xeletir > xeledir Vt > Vd ᴹ√SKAL² > N. heledir ✧ Ety/SKAL²
xeletirn > xeledirn Vt > Vd ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > N. heledirn ✧ Ety/TIR
xepeit > xepeid Vt > Vd ON. skhapa > N. hebeid ✧ Ety/SKYAP
xūt > xūd Vt > Vd ᴹ√KHOTH > N. hûd ✧ Ety/KHOTH
œrœit > œrœid Vt > Vd ON. oroti > ereid > N. ered ✧ Ety/ÓROT
œrœit > œrœid Vt > Vd N. †œrœid > N. ered ✧ PE22/41

G. voiceless stops mostly voiced after vowels; [V{ptk}|{pk}θ] > [V{bdg}|{pk}θ]

HSG/§2.4

Reference ✧ PE12/17 ✧ voiced stops became spirants after vowels

Order (05500)

After 05300 [tl], [dl], [ðl] became [kl], [gl] ᴱ✶tet’l-asse > G. teglos GL/70

Phonetic Rule Elements

[Vp] > [Vb]
[Vt] > [Vd]
[Vk] > [Vg]
[pθ] > [pθ]
[kθ] > [kθ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

akra > agra Vk > Vg ᴱ√aka· > G. agra ✧ GL/17
aikos > aigos Vk > Vg ᴱ✶aikasse > G. aigos ✧ GL/17
ēk > ēg Vk > Vg ᴱ√EI̯KA > G. eg ✧ QL/29
gaik > gaig Vk > Vg ᴱ✶yai-ka > G. gaig ✧ GL/43
grōk > grōg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶ʒǝroukē > G. grôg ✧ QL/32
gʷek > gʷeg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶gu̯eg- > G. gweg ✧ GL/44
gʷekē > gʷegē Vk > Vg ᴱ✶u̯ǝkḗ > G. gweg ✧ PE13/117
hauk > hauk Vk > Vg #ᴱ√haw- > G. haug ✧ GL/48
helek > heleg Vk > Vg ᴱ√χele-k > G. heleg ✧ GL/48
kauk > kaug Vk > Vg ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
kauk > kaug Vk > Vg ᴱ√kava- > G. caug ✧ GL/25
lēk > lēg Vk > Vg ᴱ✶leika > G. leg ✧ GL/53
ndolmek > ndolmeg Vk > Vg ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolmeg ✧ GL/30
ndrok > ndrog Vk > Vg ᴱ✶norokā́ > G. drog ✧ GL/31
smaik > smaig Vk > Vg ᴱ✶smaika- > G. faig ✧ GL/33
tarok > tarog Vk > Vg #ᴱ✶taruku- > G. tarog ✧ GL/69
aipin > aibin Vp > Vb ᴱ√aı̯¹ > G. aibin ✧ GL/18
gop > gob Vp > Vb ᴱ√kop- > G. gob ✧ GL/40
gopos > gobos Vp > Vb ᴱ√KOPO > G. gobos ✧ LT1A/Kópas
hapax > habax Vp > Vb ᴱ✶χı̯ap > G. habach ✧ GL/47
hapin > habin Vp > Vb ᴱ✶χı̯ap > G. habin ✧ GL/47
klip- > klib- Vp > Vb ᴱ√tḷp- > G. clib- ✧ GL/26
kʷipra- > kʷibra- Vp > Vb ᴱ√QIP > G. cwibra- ✧ GL/28
ndrip- > ndrib- Vp > Vb ᴱ√nṛq- > G. drib- ✧ GL/30
saip > saib Vp > Vb ᴱ√SAYAP > G. saib ✧ GL/66
beðiat > beðiad Vt > Vd ᴱ√Beđ > G. †bedhiod ✧ GL/22
blit- > blid- Vt > Vd ᴱ√vḷt > G. blid ✧ GL/23
britol > bridol Vt > Vd ᴱ√vṛt > G. Bridol ✧ GL/24
gat > gad Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gad ✧ GL/36
gata- > gada- Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gada- ✧ GL/36
gatr > gadr Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gadr ✧ GL/36
gatw > gadw Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gadu ✧ GL/36
get > ged Vt > Vd #ᴱ√ʒet- > G. ged ✧ GL/43
gōt > gōd Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. gôd ✧ GL/36
gotra > godra Vt > Vd ᴱ√yat- > G. godra ✧ GL/36
gomot > gomod Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋwa·mat > G. gomod ✧ GL/44
gʷaɣet > gʷaɣed Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > gwa’ed > G. gwaid ✧ GL/43
gʷaɣes > gʷaɣes Vt > Vd ᴱ✶ŋuaʒet- > G. gwais ✧ GL/43
gʷet > gʷed Vt > Vd ᴱ√gwed² > G. gwed ✧ GL/46
gʷet- > gʷed- Vt > Vd ᴱ√gu̯et > G. gwed-¹ ✧ GL/46
kʷet- > kʷed- Vt > Vd ᴱ√QETE > G. cwed- ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
laut > laud Vt > Vd ᴱ√lutu- > G. laud ✧ GL/53
mbritwen > mbridwen Vt > Vd ᴱ√mṛt > G. Bridwen ✧ GL/24
blekθa > blekθa kθ > kθ ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > G. blectha ✧ GL/22
krekθa- > krekθa- kθ > kθ ᴱ√kerek- > G. crectha- ✧ GL/27
trikθon > trikθon kθ > kθ ᴱ√tṛk > G. tricthon ✧ GL/69
kʷipθa- > kʷipθa- pθ > pθ ᴱ√QIP > G. cwiptha- ✧ GL/28
sapθa- > sapθa- pθ > pθ ᴱ√sab- > G. saptha- ✧ GL/67