S. [lð] became [ll]; [lð] > [ll]

S. [lð] became [ll]; [lð] > [ll]

In Sindarin and Noldorin the [lð] that had previously developed from [ld] ultimately developed into [ll], as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.157). Here are some representative examples:

As the last example shows, in polysyllables [-ll] later reduced to [-l]. In Noldorin only, there were a couple of peculiar cases where the result was [-lt] at the end of a word, as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.224):

This is the exception rather than the rule, however: most of the time the result was [-ll]. It is hard to say why [-lt] appeared in these few cases. There were similar phonetic developments in Welsh, where [ld] became (voiceless) [ll] medially but generally became [-lt] finally (WGCH/§105ii). This was likely Tolkien’s inspiration for this Noldorin phonetic development, but there is no sign of it in Sindarin.

Conceptual Developments: As noted Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonology of Goldogrin (HPG/§2.3), the Gnomish developments were rather odd. The combination [ld] became [ll], often further reducing to [l] even in monosyllables with compensatory vowel lengthening:

However, [ð] was part of the phonetic inventory of Primitive Elvish in the 1910s and 1920s, and the phonetic development of primitive [lð] was different, ultimately become [ld]:

For this to work, [ld] > [ll] must have happened first (without passing through [lð]) and then [lð] > [ld], which is a strange set of sound changes. The combination [ld] does not appear in the final form of Early Noldorin words from the 1920s, but we do still see primitive [ld] > [ll], and occasionally [-ld] > [-lt], as noted by Roman Rausch in his Historical Phonologies of Ilkorin, Telerin and Noldorin around 1923 (HPITN/§4.1.5):

Thus, perhaps by the 1920s Tolkien had already adopted the Noldorin paradigm seen in the 1930s, where usually [ld] > [lð] > [ll] but occasionally [-ld] > [-lt].

Order (05000)

After 00500 voiced stops became spirants after liquids tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel
ᴹ√TIL > tild > N. till
PE19/73
Ety/TIL
After 00800 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
After 02300 short final vowels vanished ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
Before 05200 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel PE19/73

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lð] > [ll]

Phonetic Rule Examples

elð > ell lð > ll eldā > S. ell ✧ PE17/141
elð > ell lð > ll eldā > S. Ell- ✧ WJ/363
kolð > koll lð > ll kuldā > S. coll ✧ WJ/414
melðond > mellond lð > ll mel- > S. mellon ✧ SA/mel
terxilð > terxill lð > ll tarkhildī > S. **terchil ✧ PE17/101
tindūmihelð > tindūmihell lð > ll tindōmi-sel(dĕ) > tindúmhihel > S. Tinnúviel ✧ PE19/73

N. [lð] became [ll] or [lt]; [lð|-lð] > [ll|-lt]

GS/§4.157 GS/§4.224 WGCH/§105ii, possibly also lt in dolt (Ety/DUL) @@@

Order (05000)

After 00600 voiced stops became spirants after liquids ON. belda > N. belt
ᴹ√TIL > tild > N. till
Ety/BEL
Ety/TIL
After 01100 short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
After 02100 short final vowels vanished ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll Ety/ULU
Before 05600 [mb], [nd] became [mm], [nn] ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell
ON. tindūmhiell > Tinnúviel > N. Tinúviel
Ety/TIN
Ety/TIN

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lð] > [ll]
[-lð] > [-lt]

Phonetic Rule Examples

belð > belt -lð > -lt ON. belda > N. belt ✧ Ety/BEL
malð > malt -lð > -lt ON. malda > N. (h)malt ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
galðor > gallor lð > ll ᴹ√GALA > Galdor > N. Gallor ✧ Ety/GALA
golð > goll lð > ll ᴹ✶ngolda > N. goll ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
jelð > jell lð > ll ᴹ√YEL > N. iell ✧ Ety/YEL
kolð > koll lð > ll ᴹ✶kuldā > N. coll ✧ Ety/KUL
malðen > mallen lð > ll ᴹ√SMAL > N. mallen ✧ Ety/SMAL
malðen > mallen lð > ll ᴹ√SMAL > N. Mellin ✧ Ety/SMAL
melð > mell lð > ll ᴹ√MEL > N. mell ✧ Ety/MEL
melðond > mellond lð > ll ᴹ√MEL > meldon > N. mellon ✧ EtyAC/MEL
olð > oll lð > ll ᴹ✶ulda > old > N. oll ✧ Ety/ULU
selð > sell lð > ll ᴹ√SEL-D > N. †sell ✧ Ety/SEL-D
tilð > till lð > ll ᴹ√TIL > tild > N. till ✧ Ety/TIL
tindūmihelð > tindūmihell lð > ll ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde > ON. tindūmhiell ✧ Ety/TIN

G. [ld] became [ll]; [ld] > [ll]

HPG/§2.3

Order (04800)

Before 04900 [ll] became [l] lengthening preceding stressed vowel ᴱ✶nalda > nalla > G. nâla GL/59
Before 05200 [lð] became [ld] medially, [l] finally ᴱ✶ŋolđō > G. golda GL/41

Phonetic Rule Elements

[ld] > [ll]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ald > all ld > ll ᴱ✶alda > G. âl ✧ PE13/109
bald > ball ld > ll ᴱ√vḷd > bald- > G. Bâl ✧ GL/21
gʷild > gʷill ld > ll ‽ᴱ√u̯il > gu̯ild- > G. gwîl ✧ GL/45
krold > kroll ld > ll ᴱ✶korolda > G. crôl ✧ GL/27
nalda > nalla ld > ll ᴱ✶nalda > nalla > G. nâla ✧ GL/59
olda > olla ld > ll ᴱ✶oldō > G. ôla ✧ GL/62
tifild > tifill ld > ll ᴱ✶Tefíldŭ > G. Tifil ✧ GL/38

G. [lð] became [ld] medially, [l] finally; [lð|-lð] > [ld|-l]

HPG/§2.3

Order (05200)

After 04800 [ld] became [ll] ᴱ✶ŋolđō > G. golda GL/41

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lð] > [ld]
[-lð] > [-l]
[rð] > [rd]

Phonetic Rule Examples

nalð > nal -lð > -l ᴱ√NḶDḶ > G. nal ✧ LT1A/Murmenalda
nalð > nal -lð > -l ᴱ√NḶDḶ > G. nal ✧ LT1A/Murmenalda
ŋgolða > ŋgolda lð > ld ᴱ✶ŋolđō > G. golda ✧ GL/41