S. amar n. “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement, the great habitation” (Category: World)
The usual Sindarin world for “world”, cognate of Q. Ambar, more literally meaning “settlement” or “the great habitation” (PE17/105; NM/226). It was derived from an augmented form of the root √MBAR “settle, dwell”: ✶a-mbar > ammar > amar (PE17/104, 124), with the usual shortening of long mm in Sindarin. For a discussion of its connection to Destiny, see the entry on Q. Ambar. However, in some notes from 1968, Tolkien said this word was not actually found in Sindarin, and was only hypothetical (NM/228).
Conceptual Development: N. amar “Earth” first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, already as a derivative of ᴹ√MBAR “dwell, inhabit”. In the Early Noldorin Grammar and Early Noldorin Wordlists of the 1920s, however, Tolkien used ᴱN. barth for “world, earth” (PE13/120, 138), and in the Gnomish Lexicon the word G. mar meant “Earth” along with “ground, soil” (GL/56).
References ✧ NM/226, 228; PE17/104-105, 124
|√MBAR > amar||[ambar] > [ammar] > [amar]||✧ NM/226|
|✶ambar- > ammar > amar||[ambar] > [ammar] > [amar]||✧ PE17/104|
Reference ✧ Ety/MBAR ✧ “Earth”
|ᴹ√MBAR > ambar > amar||[ambar] > [ambar] > [ammar] > [amar]||✧ Ety/MBAR|
An Early Noldorin word from the 1920s glossed “world” in the Early Noldorin Grammar (PE13/120) and “earth” Early Noldorin Wordlists of the 1920s (PE13/138). Its mutations in the Early Noldorin Grammar make it clear anciently began with mb-, so it was probably derived from the early root ᴱ√MBARA “dwell, live” (QL/63).
References ✧ PE13/120, 138
|i·mairth||nasal-mutation plural; mb-mutation||✧ PE13/120|
|marthor||nasal-mutation plural; mb-mutation||✧ PE13/120|
|i·marth||soft-mutation; mb-mutation||✧ PE13/120|
A word in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “Earth, ground, soil”, apparently derived from the root ᴱ√mar- (GL/56). Tolkien also had G. Môr “the Earth”, so perhaps mar mainly meant “earth” in the more ordinary senses. For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I’d use later S. ceven for “earth”.
References ✧ GL/18, 56