Gnomish Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.21 Earth, Land

-gen suf. “*earth”
mar n. “Earth, ground, soil”
maragwast n. “earth quake”

1.212 Ground, Soil

grosgen n. “soil”
groth n. “earth, soil”
ham n. “ground, level of Earth’s service [surface]”

1.213 Dust, Powder

thith n. “dust”
thithrin adj. “dusty”

1.214 Mud, Mire

ôs n. “bog”
ûg n. “mud”
ûgrin adj. “muddy”

1.215 Sand, Grit

armin n. “desert, waste”
marol n. “sand”
ôr n. “dry sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

amon¹ n. “hill, mount, steep slope”
môn n. “bare hill, knoll”
nog n. “hill, knob, prominence”
orod n. “mountain”
tûn n. “[unglossed]”

1.221 Peak, Summit

daroth n. “summit, peak”
dorm n. “summit”
orm n. “hill top, summit”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

falchos n. “cliffs”
numbros n. “incline, slope”
ol n. “cliff, seaward precipice”
rost n. “slope, hill side, ascent”

1.223 Mound, Pile

caum n. “knob”

1.23 Plain, Field

bladwen n. “plain”
eng(a) n. “plain, vale”
fladwen n. “meadow, grassland”
glair n. “meadow”
lais n. “green sward, glade”
ness n. “water meadow, long grass”

1.24 Dale, Valley

engriol adj. “vale like, of the vale”
glith n. “dale, hillslope”
gobli n. “dell”
nal¹ n. “dale, vale”
tûm n. “valley”
tumli n. “dale”
umbel n. “a dell”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

cris(s) n. “cleft, gash, gully, ravine”
falc n. “cleft, gash; cleft, ravine, cliffs”

1.25 Isle, Island

mineth n. “island”
tol n. “isle (with high steep coast)”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falos n. “sea-marge, surf, coast, line, beach; margin, fringe, edge”
flass n. “sea-marge, surf; foam; margin, ragged margin, fringe”
sarofarn n. “the seashore”
thloth n. “breakers, waves, surf”

1.31 Water

asc¹ n. “water”
duivrad n. “canal”
duivrant n. “aqueduct”
glib¹ n. “drop of water”
glib² adj. “liquid”
nen(n) n. “water; river”
ulin n. “liquid”

1.32 Sea

ô n. “the sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ail n. “lake, pool”
ailion n. “lake, pool”
n. “a pool, lake”
muil n. “tarn”
nîn² n. “pool”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falm n. “breaker, wave”
floss n. “breaker”
saros n. “surf, sea”
thloss n. “breaker”

1.351 Foam, Froth

craith n. “foam, froth, spume”
flathwi n. “scud, spray, spindrift”
gwing n. “wave-crest, crest, foam”
gwingil n. “foam maiden, mermaid”
osp(a) n. “foam”
ospa- v. “to seethe, foam, spout”
ospoth n. “froth”

1.352 Splash, Spray

basbos n. “splash”
basbotha- v. “to splash”
fasca- v. “to splash, sprinkle”
gwass n. “rush, rushing, noise of rushing, splash”
gwassiol adj. “rushing, noisy, loud, rustling or splashing”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

acha n. “waterfall”
celu n. “rill, stream, runlet”
duif (duiv-) n. “stream”
gwed n. “*brook, small river”
gwent² n. “brook, small river”
nern n. “brook”
sîr n. “river”

1.37 Spring, Well

aithl n. “spring”
aithla- v. “to spring (from), issue forth, bubble up”
cectha- v. “to spout out”
ectha- v. “to spout, jet”
ecthel(uin) n. “fountain, fount”
gwelwi n. “spring of water”

1.41 Woods, Forest

alos n. “forest”
drui n. “wood, forest”
goloth n. “forest”
taur¹ n. “dense wood or forest”
tavros n. “forest, wooded land”

1.43 Wood, Timber

âl n. “wood (material)”
âlog adj. “of wood, wooden”
durog adj. “wooden”
duru n. “wood; pole, beam, log”
lôg n. “fuel, firewood”
tan n. “firewood”
tund n. “log for the fire”

1.44 Rock, Stone

bringlast n. “alabaster”
cloch n. “stone (small), stone of fruit”
clochiol adj. “stone”
clocthi n. “a pebble”
clogod n. “shingle beach”
clogrin adj. “stony, stone-like”
clogwed adj. “stony, stone-covered”
closs n. “shingle”
dalech n. “(upright) stone”
glast n. “marble”
glastrin adj. “marble”
gonn n. “(great) stone, rock”
gonthos n. “great rock”
gonwed adj. “rocky”
paglant n. “a pavement”
pagra- v. “to pave”
pagri n. “pavement”
sarn n. “a stone”
silc n. “flint”

1.46 Cave

gerd(h)olm n. “mine”
gersauth n. “mine”
grûd n. “cavern”
rodos n. “cavern”
rodrin n. “cavern”
roth n. “cave, grot”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

climli n. “sky, heaven”
dai¹ n. “sky”
ilon n. “sky”
ilwint n. “sky, heavens”
luiston n. “sky”

1.52 Sun

augla n. “ray of sunlight, sunbeam”
auglas n. “bright sunshine”
áugwila adj. “sunny, sunlit”
aur(a) n. “Sun”
auth n. “sunshine, warmth; noontide”
hŷr n. “sun”

1.53 Moon

gilm n. “moonlight, silver light”
Rân n. “Moon”
Sil n. “Rose of Silpion, Moon”
Silma n. “*Moon”

1.54 Star

gail n. “star”

1.55 Flash, Lightning

agla n. “flash”
blectha- v. “to flash”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

rum n. “noise”
rumla- v. “to make a noise”

1.61 Light

dantha- v. “to illuminate, light up, illustrate”
danthos n. “(artificial) light, illumination”
gal(a) n. “daylight, light”

1.62 Darkness

gath² (gadh-) n. “gloom, blight”
morth n. “darkness”
mûri n. “darkness, †night”

1.622 Dark, Murky

fung adj. “dark”
mortha adj. “dim”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

lôm n. “gloom, shade”
lómin adj. and n. “shady, shadowy, gloomy; gloom(iness)”
lomiol adj. “dismal”
lumbrin adj. “overcast”

1.71 Air, Ether

gwail n. “air”
gwailtha- v. “to air; expose to air”

1.72 Wind

gwâ n. “wind”
gwam n. “gust of wind”
gwavwed adj. “windy”
saul n. “great wind”
sôr n. “wave, billow”
n. “noise of wind”

1.723 Breeze

blith n. “air, breeze, zephyr”
gwilith n. “breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

lum n. “cloud”
luv- v. “to hang, lower (of clouds)”
ust n. “cloudy air”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

drim n. “dew”
huir adj. “foggy”
huith n. “fog”
huitha- v. “it is misty”
usc n. “fog, mist”

1.75 Rain (n)

nigor n. “rain, rainy weather”
nigwin adj. “rainy”
noss¹ n. “rain”
tibli n. “drizzle, sleet”
ubra- v. “to rain”
ubri n. “rainfall, rain”
uch n. “rain”

1.752 Rainbow

ilbrant n. “rainbow”

1.76 Snow (n)

fautha- v. “to snow”
n. “snow”
fôtha- v. “to snow”
glui n. “snow”
ith¹ n. “fine snow”
nib n. “snowflake”
nictha- v. “to rain, hail, snow”
nigweth n. “(snow) storm”
nybol adj. “?snowy”

1.77 Ice, Frost

heleg n. “ice”
helfileg n. “frost on panes, etc.”
helfingl n. “icicle”
heloth n. “frost”
hîl n. “frost”

1.772 to Freeze

hel- v. “to freeze”
helon adj. “frozen”
heltha- v. “to freeze, congeal (tr.)”

1.78 Weather

glaim adj. “serene, clear, fair (espec. of weather)”
glaimri n. “serenity, fair weather”
lumbri n. “foul weather”
lust n. “weather; time; tide”

1.81 Fire (n)

n. “fire”

1.82 Flame (n)

blectha n. “a flame”
bleg n. “a flame”
cantha n. “flame”
cantharol adj. “glaring, flaming”
canthor n. “blaze, flare, glare”
gudhri n. “inflammation; conflagration”
gudhrin adj. “inflamed, burning hot”
gudhriol adj. “inflamed, inflammatory”
tang n. “flame, flash”

1.83 Smoke (n)

faug² n. “wood smoke”
fluim n. “(black) smoke, reek”
foltha- v. “to emit smoke, smoulder, reek”
fuctha- v. “to smoke (over a wood fire)”
fug- v. “to smoulder”
fugri n. “smother (of smoke)”
func n. “smoke”
tuim n. “steam”

1.84 Ash(es)

pruin n. “charcoal”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

brantha- v. “to scorch”
gusta- v. “to burn (tr.), destroy”
ras- v. “to scorch, toast”
rasc n. “toast(ed bread)”
torc n. “a sear, mark of a burn”
tortha- v. “to scorch”
urna- v. “to blaze, burn (intr.)”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

cintha- v. “to light, set alight”
galtha- v. “to kindle”
tanga- v. “to set light to, kindle”
tantha- v. “to set light to, kindle”
tusc adj. “inflammable; touchy, irritable; explosive”
tusta- v. “to inflame, kindle, set light to, burn (tr.)”
tustarol adj. “inflammable”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

tuth n. “tinder”
tuthli n. “match”

1.99 Physical World (other)

dorven [nd-] n. “landscape, scene, *(lit.) land-shape”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

an¹ n. “person, -body, one, anyone, someone, they; creature”

2.21 Man

anos n. “man (fullgrown), warrior”
anoth n. “manhood†; man (fullgrown), warrior”
gweg n. “man, male of the Elda”
idhweg n. “*Man (m.)”

2.22 Woman

gwin n. “woman, female”
idhwin n. “*Man (f.)”
nîr² n. “woman”

2.23 Male

anothrin adj. “adult (of men), fullgrown; manly”
gwegri n. “manhood (time or state)”
gwegrin adj. “masculine”
gwegwed adj. “male”
gwegweth n. “male sex, manhood (state)”
nerthu n. “manhood, manliness; virtue”
#-os² suf. “masculine suffix”
-weg suf. “masculine suffix”

2.24 Female

gwenedh adj. “womanly?”
gwineth adj. “female”
gwiniol adj. “feminine”
gwinios n. “womanhood (time or state)”
gwinlaith n. “womanhood (time)”
gwinwed adj. “female”
gwinweth n. “female sex, womanhood (state)”
#-iel suf. “feminine suffix”
#-(r)il suf. “feminine agent”
-win suf. “*female suffix”

2.242 Sex

gwegwin n. “hermaphrodite”

2.25 Boy

nogin n. “boy, lad, urchin”

2.26 Girl

gwenithli n. “maidenhood”
gwennin n. “girl”
gwenniniol adj. “maiden(ly), girlish”
gwethli n. “maiden, little girl”

2.27 Child

hilwed adj. “adolescent”
hithadrin adj. “adolescent”
pui n. “child”

2.28 Infant

gioth n. “germ, foetus, embryon”
giothrin adj. “embryonic”
puthli n. “baby”

2.31 Husband

bedhron n. “husband”
benn¹ n. “husband”
hauthwaid n. “consort, wife or husband”

2.32 Wife

bedhril n. “wife”
bess n. “wife”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

benna- v. “to wed”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

bedhgad n. “wedlock”
bedhin adj. “wedded, married”
bedhiod n. “wedlock”
bedhri n. “wedding”
bedhwen n. “matrimony”
govedhri n. “wedding”
govedhwen n. “matrimony”
hauthwais n. “matrimony, conjugal rights”

2.35 Father

ador n. “father”
athon n. “father”
athonri n. “fatherhood”
bâb n. “father”
(n)ada n. “daddy, father”
nathanwi n. “fatherhood”
nathon n. “father”

2.36 Mother

amil n. “mother”
babi n. “mummy, mamma”
mab(a) n. “mother”
(m)ami n. “mummy”
nan¹ n. “mother”

2.41 Son

arn n. “son”
bo- pref. “son of”
bo(n) n. “son”
go-² pref. “son of”

2.42 Daughter

fwi- pref. “fem. patronymic prefix”
suil n. “daughter”

2.44 Brother

hethos n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

hethir n. “sister”

2.452 Sibling(s)

gedrin adj. “sib, akin”
gochest n. “brother and brother, brother and sister, etc.”
gochethri n. “consanguinity”
gohestri n. “consanguinity”
goredhin [ng-] adj. “related, sib, akin”
hest n. “†consanguinity; brother or sister”
hestri n. “consanguinity”
heth¹ n. “brother or sister”

2.46 Grandfather

dâd n. “grandfather”

2.47 Grandmother

mam n. “grandmother, mother”

2.48 Grandson

ho(n)- pref. “grandson of”
sion n. “grandson”

2.49 Granddaughter

siel n. “granddaughter”
si(n)- pref. “granddaughter of”

2.53 Nephew

fwion n. “nephew”

2.54 Niece

fwîr n. “niece”

2.55 Cousin

gedren n. “second cousin (m.)”
gedres n. “second cousin (f.)”
goredhweg n. “cousin (m.)”
goredhwin n. “cousin (f.)”
gwarest n. “cousinhood, -ship”
hethren n. “first cousin (m.)”
hethres n. “first cousin (f.)”
redhweg n. “cousin [m.]”
redhwin n. “cousin [f.]”
ren(d) n. “cousin (m.), relative”
ress n. “cousin (f.), relative”

2.56 Ancestor(s)

eithog n. “ancestor, †father, sire”
mavwin¹ n. “ancestress, †mother”

2.57 Descendant(s)

bôr n. “descendant”
hilm n. “posterity; one’s descendents, progeny, offspring”

2.65 Brother-in-Law

bedhren n. “brother in law, kinsman by marriage”
gadren n. “*brother in law, kinsman by marriage”

2.66 Sister-in-Law

bedhres n. “sister in law, *kinswoman by marriage”
gadres n. “*sister in law, kinswoman by marriage”

2.81 Relative(s)

gonothri(n) adj. “of same kindred”
gwaid n. “kinsmen, relations; companion”
gwais n. “kinship, relation”
hethrin adj. “of the same family (in a close sense), consanguine”
nos n. “kin, people”
nosied n. “kinsman”
redhin adj. “related”
rest² n. “kinship”

2.82 Family

eithlos n. “family”
gwanos n. “family, birth, heredity”
gwarin(n) n. “family”
renni n. “family”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

cuid n. “animal, living creature”

3.16 to Pasture

masta- v. “to feed, graze”
nesta- v. “to put to grass, graze, pasture, feed”

3.17 Pasture

masgar n. “pasture”

3.18 Herdsman

mathron n. “herd, herdsman, shepherd”
mothweg n. “shepherd”
nethron n. “herd”

3.20 Cattle, Bovines

muin² n. “kine, cattle”

3.22 Ox, Steer

gagron n. “yoke ox, bullock”
n. “ox”
tarog n. “ox”

3.23 Cow

gach n. “milch cow”
maul n. “the lowing of cattle, bellowing”
muir n. “heifer”
mul- v. “to low, bellow”
mûm n. “lowing”
mûs n. “cow”
mûst n. “byre, cowhouse”

3.24 Calf

mugli n. “calf”

3.25 Sheep

moth n. “sheep”

3.29 Lamb

iol n. “lamb”
iolinc n. “little lamb, lambkin”

3.34 Sow

graus n. “sow, *female pig”

3.35 Pig

hugin n. “young pig”
hunc n. “pig”

3.41 Horse (generic)

brog n. “horse”
lobros n. “steed, horse”
mair n. “horse”
raibrog n. “zebra”
tôdhi n. “paddock”

3.44 Mare

bros(s) n. “mare”

3.51 Hen, Chicken (generic)

porog n. “fowl (domestic)”
porogog n. “the clucking and noise of fowls”
porogwil n. “hen”
uil n. “hen”

3.61 Dog

gab- v. “to bark, bay (of dogs)”
gôbi n. “large hound”
n. “dog”
hûbi n. “hound”
huil n. “bitch, *female dog”
saur n. “hound, wild dog”

3.62 Cat

miaug n. “tomcat”
miaulin n. “she-cat”
miog n. “cat”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

nig(la) n. “mouse”

3.64 Bird

aidha n. “nest”
aigli n. “bird”
aivor n. “rookery, colony of birds”
bil n. “bird”
ciloba- v. “to twitter, chirp, chirrup”
end n. “birds nest”
uitha- v. “to lay eggs, nest”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

inthorn n. “eagle’s nest, eyrie”
ior n. “eagle”
ioroth n. “eagle”
thorn n. “eagle”
thrond n. “(eyrie), pinnacle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

crunc n. “crow”

3.648 Swan

alfa n. “swan”
alfuil(in) n. “swan”
silwin n. “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

amosgarn n. “robin”
amrint n. “lark”
bilin(c) n. “small bird, sparrow”
cilobinc n. “robin”
crinthammos n. “robin, (lit.) red-breast”
duil² n. “swallow”
duilin(g) n. “swallow”
fini(o)s n. “larch”
glindwil n. “a swallow”
lindwil n. “swallow”

3.65 Fish (n)

igli n. “young of fish, small fry”
ing n. “fish”

3.71 Wolf

harach n. “she-wolf”
harog n. “wolf”
urc n. “wolf”

3.72 Lion

rau n. “lion”

3.77 Elephant

funt n. “elephant”

3.79 to Hunt

raust n. “hunt, chase”
rausta- v. “to hunt, chase, pursue (only in actual sense of following game)”
rautha- v. “hunt, chase, pursue”

3.81 Insect

fufril n. “moth”
gwef n. “louse”
gwilbrin n. “butterfly”
gwilbriniol adj. “like a butterfly”

3.811 Spider

cing(win) n. “spider”
gung n. “spider”
gwaidhin n. “web”
gwidh-a-ging n. “cobweb”
ungwi n. “spider”

3.82 Bee

niogrim n. “swarm”
nio(s) n. “bee”
niost n. “hive”
niosturwin n. “queen bee”
niwin n. “female bee”

3.83 Fly (n)

sitha¹ n. “fly”
sithagong n. “dragonfly”
sithaling n. “fly snake, dragonfly”

3.84 Worm

gwem n. “worm”
gwembel n. “weevil”
tereg n. “worm”

3.85 Snake

fent n. “snake”
ling n. “small snake”
lingos n. “snake”
lûg n. “drake, snake”

3.99 Animals (other)

cwildred n. “bat (animal)”
doldrin [nd-] n. “mole”
dolfa [nd-] n. “mole”
dolmeg [nd-] n. “mole”
laboth n. “a hare”
meg n. “any small animal; (esp.) mole”
uimoth n. “whale, (lit.) sheep of the waves”
uin n. “whale, †wave”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

baul n. “body, trunk”

4.12 Skin, Hide

daf- v. “to strip, flay, peel skin”
dafros n. “bark, skin, peel”
dauth n. “skin, hide”
dôf n. “hide, skin”
past n. “skin”
path n. “peel, skin of fruit, fine bark (paper)”

4.13 Flesh

cwim(ri) n. “body, flesh”
harc n. “flesh (on a living body)”

4.14 Hair

faigli n. “hair, long tresses”
faiglim adj. “having long hair”
faiglion adj. “having long hair”
fingl n. “tress”
finn n. “lock of hair, tress”
fith (fidh-) n. “single hair”

4.142 Beard

fang n. “(long) beard”
pau n. “a beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

cingra adj. “plaited”
cingra- v. “to plait”
cingrafindl n. “pigtail”
fidhra n. “collective hair”
fidhrad adj. “hairy, hirsute”
#fidhrin adj. “haired”
logrifidhrin adj. “curly haired”
mairos n. “mane, long hair”
taus adj. “shaggy”

4.15 Blood

carna n. “gore, blood (especially fresh blood)”
mais n. “gore”
mechor n. “gore”

4.16 Bone

asg n. “bone; stone of fruit”
hûn n. “bone”
huniol adj. “bony, rawboned”
lempachùn n. “wishbone”

4.17 Horn (animal)

târ n. “horn”

4.19 Back

alm n. “back (from shoulder to shoulder), shoulders”
hacha n. “the hams, buttocks”
pont n. “the back, reverse or far side”

4.20 Head

cas n. “head, skull”
nôl n. “head”

4.202 Skull

corob n. “skull”

4.204 Face

ant n. “cheek; face”
gwint n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

gag n. “jaw”

4.209 Chin

bectha n. “tip; chin”
beg n. “chin”

4.21 Eye

hen n. “eye”
thed n. “eye; bud”

4.22 Ear

unc² n. “ear, handle (of a jar)”

4.23 Nose

crug n. “beak (espec. of a ship)”
hunt n. “nose, nostrils”
irt² n. “beak (of small birds)”
nûn n. “a nose (of men only)”

4.24 Mouth

gogail n. “mouth”
mem n. “mouth”
môl n. “the (inside of the) mouth”

4.25 Lip

cail n. “lip”

4.27 Tooth

carc n. “jag, point, fang”
gomol n. “the teeth, two rows of teeth”
molnaith n. “molar”
nacthanaith n. “incisor (tooth)”
naith n. “tooth”
sanc n. “jag, tooth”

4.28 Neck

gath¹ n. “neck”

4.29 Throat

cwerc n. “throat”
glod n. “gullet, throat”

4.30 Shoulder

alan n. “shoulder”
egelmion adj. “broadshouldered”
rôma n. “shoulder”

4.31 Arm

n. “arm, strength”
rath n. “the full arm, the extent of one’s arm, one’s reach; a measure = 2 feet”

4.32 Elbow

crig n. “elbow”

4.33 Hand

mab n. “hand(s)”
n. “hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

amabwed adj. “having hands”
gob n. “hollow of hand”
grinn n. “ankle, wrist”
mablad n. “palm of the hand”
mabrin(d) n. “wrist”
mabwed adj. “handed, having hands, dextrous”
mabwedri n. “dexterity”
mavlant n. “*palm (of hand)”

4.34 Finger

alepthog adj. “fingered, having fingers”
alewthion adj. “having fingers”
lemfadrin adj. and n. “of the finger; ring”
lemp¹ n. “crooked finger; little finger”
leptha n. “finger”
lepthadrin adj. “fingered, of fingers”

4.35 Leg

bactha n. “leg”

4.36 Knee

octha n. “knee”

4.37 Foot

tâl n. “foot”
talgrin(d) n. “ankle”
taltha n. “foot (of things), base, pedestal, pediment”
tent n. “toe”

4.39 Nail, Claw

clam(p) n. “grasp, claw”
cog n. “claw, fist”

4.392 Wing

bascovas n. “flapping and beating (especially of wings)”
basga- v. “to flap”
bass n. “wing, pinion”
ram n. “wing, pinion”

4.393 Feather

cwathli n. “plume, spray, tassel”
pectha n. “plume”
pecthon n. “plume, feather”
tuf n. “down, fluff”
tufrin adj. “fluffy”

4.41 Breast of Woman

am² n. “breast, front (chest)”
ammogrint adj. “red-breast[ed]”

4.44 Heart

elf n. “heart”
honn n. “heart”
ilf n. “heart”

4.45 Liver

rôn² n. “liver”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

fam n. “fat belly, paunch”
famfolc adj. “fat-bellied”

4.48 Egg

och n. “egg”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

fest n. “breath, breathing”
festa- v. “to breath[e]”
feth n. “one breath”
ufestog adj. “breathless”

4.56 to Spit

crech n. “spittle”
crectha- v. “to spit”

4.58 to Bite

nactha- v. “bite”
nag- v. “to chew, gnaw”
nanc n. “bite”

4.59 to Lick

lav- v. “to lick”
lavra- v. “to lap (of animals), suck up”
thlib- v. “to sup, lap up, suck”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

hum- v. “to sleep, drowze”
hûm n. “sleep”
humiol adj. “sleepy, drowzy”
lor- v. “to sleep deep, dream (tr.)”
lortha- v. “to put to sleep, send to sleep”
lorwen n. “slumber, sleep”
lûr n. “slumber”
mur- v. “*to slumber, sleep”

4.62 Dream (n)

lorc adj. “drowsy, dreamy, lazy”
maur n. “dream, vision”
murc n. “a nightmare, vision of the night”
murtha- v. “to dream”
olm n. “dream”
olma- v. “to dream”
oloth n. “dream, apparition, vision”
oltha- v. “to appear as an apparition; to dream”

4.63 to Wake

bractha- v. “to refresh; to revive, arouse, awaken”
cwim adj. “awake, alert, alive”
cwimp adj. “alert, vigilant”
cwiv- v. “to be awake”
cwivra- v. “to awaken (intr.)”
cwivros n. “awakening”

4.65 to Urinate; Urine

fafli n. “bladder”
pigla- v. “to make urine”
piglin n. “urine”

4.66 to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement

gorn n. “dung”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

gaibra- v. “to impregnate”
gwaith² (gwaith-) n. “semen”
gwectha- v. “to impregnate, generate”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

gav- v. “to produce, yield, bear fruit”
nôs n. “birthday; nature”
nost n. “birth; blood, high birth; birthday”
nosta- v. “to be born”
nosteg adj. “birth”
nuin adj. “born”

4.73 Pregnant

gaiw adj. “pregnant”
giol adj. “fecund; conceiving, having conceived, just pregnant”
gwivrin adj. “barren”
ilgiol adj. “barren”
ilgioth n. “sterility”
uivrin adj. “barren”

4.732 to Conceive

giothra- v. “to germinate, be conceived”
ivrin adj. “fertile”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

cuib adj. “alive”
cuibri n. “vitality”
cuil n. “life, lifetime”
cuilborn n. “lifetime”
cuilog adj. “alive, lively”
cuilogri n. “liveliness”
cuith n. “life, the vital principle; living body”
cuitha- v. “to live, be alive”
cuithos n. “life (period of life); living, livelihood”
laug adj. “(of plants) alive, having sap, green, vigorous”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

gor-² v. “to die”
gurth(u) n. “death”
gwarth adj. “dead (only of persons)”

4.76 to Kill

ecthadra- v. “to slay, put to the sword”
mactha- v. “to slay, kill”
(n)gôl n. “slaughter”

4.77 Corpse, Body

cweleg n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

cûm n. “mound (especially grave), burial mound”
dal n. “cairn”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

drum adj. “stout, firm, strong”
nert n. “prowess, a feat, strength”
nerthog adj. “stout, vigorous, douty”
ogor n. “might, power, ability”
polm n. “strength (physical)”
polmog adj. “strong (physically)”
polod n. “power, might, authority”
polodrin adj. “mighty”
rôg adj. “doughty, strong”
taur² n. “ability, power”
taura adj. “powerful”

4.82 Weak, Infirm

gôg adj. “clumsy; left (hand)”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

colu n. “pestilence”
coluid adj. “pestilent”
côma n. “disease, illness”
cômathol adj. “diseased, ill”
cwam adj. “ill”
cwanc adj. “sickly, poorly, seedy”
cwancha- v. “to ail”
cwanchri n. “ailment”
gaudhwen n. “fever”
il(d)rim n. “unquiet, disturbance; disease”
lib n. “drop, gout”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

famfa- v. “to maul”
gund n. “boil, pus”
lui n. “blueness, livor, livid mark”
tîl n. “cicatrice, scab, healing of a wound”

4.89 Poison

fem n. “venom (of snakes), poison in general”
fenog adj. “venomous”
fuior n. “deadly nightshade”

4.91 Tired, Weary

drauth adj. “weary, toilworn, tired”
drautha- v. “to weary, tire out”
fadrog adj. “tiresome”
fadros n. “satiety, weariness of anything”

4.93 Bald

cafalon adj. “bald, *(lit.) head-naked”

4.94 Lame

caug¹ n. “hunchback”

4.99 Naked, Bare

dautha adj. “naked, stripped”
falon adj. “naked”
falt adj. “bare”
fôl adj. “empty, bare, leafless (esp. of trees)”
hulc adj. “naked”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

baptha- v. “to feed; to take sup of”
dultha- v. “to dine”
loda- v. “to swallow, gulp down”
mad- v. “to eat”
madrin adj. “edible, fit for food, wholesome”
mal- v. “chew”

5.12 Food

madri n. “food, edibles”
mast n. “feed, food, nourishment; fodder”
môs n. “food (of men)”

5.13 to Drink

bab- v. “to drink, quaff”
soctha- v. “to give to drink, quench”
sog- v. “to drink”
suith n. “drink, draught”

5.14 Hunger (n)

mavri n. “appetite”
saig adj. “hungry”
saigri n. “hunger (great), famine”
saith n. “hunger”
saitha- v. “to have hunger”

5.15 Thirst (n)

luist n. “thirst”
maig adj. “thirst”

5.151 Thirsty

luib adj. “thirsty”
maiglos adj. “thirsty”

5.21 to Cook

brant¹ [mb-] adj. “cooked, done; overdone”
brath- v. “to cook”

5.24 to Bake

bast- [mb-] v. “to bake”

5.25 Oven

bothli [mb-] n. “oven”

5.26 Pot

calph n. “bucket”
ceral n. “jar”
tambos n. “cauldron”

5.33 Bowl

fion n. “bowl, goblet”
salf n. “bowl, basin”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

ulm n. “jar, flagon”

5.35 Cup

socthor n. “a drinking-horn”
sogli n. “a drinking-horn”
sogridâr n. “a drinking-horn”

5.37 Spoon

salfinc n. “spoon”

5.41 a Meal

mâd n. “meal”

5.42 Breakfast

maudrimad n. “breakfast”

5.43 Lunch

authmadri n. “midday meal”
haimadri adj. “lunch, food in morning, elevens”

5.44 Dinner

dultha n. “supper, dinner”

5.51 Bread

basgorn [mb-] n. “loaf (of bread)”
bast [mb-] n. “bread”
corn n. “loaf”
losbas n. “ryebread”

5.55 Meal, Flour

mail n. “flour”

5.61 Meat

hara n. “flesh meat, meat”

5.614 Fat, Grease

lub n. “fat, fat flesh”

5.64 Soup, Broth

thlibri n. “soup”

5.70 Potato

grothorf n. “potato”
podod n. “potato”

5.71 Fruit

aibin n. “cherry (tree)”
gôf n. “fruit (esp. of tree)”
gôf·clochiol n. “stone-fruit”
maros n. “ripe fruit”

5.72 Apple

arwad n. “apple tree”
orf n. “apple”
urf n. “apple (tree)”

5.73 Pear

orfing n. “pear”

5.76 Grape

mirobin n. “grape”

5.77 Nut

cod n. “nut”
codiof adj. “nutbearing”
codomla n. “*chestnut”
codorn n. “*nut tree”
codrin adj. “nutty”
codwalion n. “walnut, chestnut”
codwed adj. “nutbearing”
coth n. “nutshell, husk”
ivangod n. “walnut”
ivogodron n. “walnut tree”
omla n. “a horse chestnut”
ormagod n. “a (Spanish) chestnut”

5.79 Oil

ilbrin adj. “oily, fat, greasy”
ilm n. “oil, fat, grease”

5.80 Berry

dod n. “berry”
pibin n. “small berry, haw”
piog n. “berry”

5.81 Salt

sing n. “salt”
singrin adj. “salt”

5.84 Honey

nectha n. “honey comb”
neglis n. “honey”

5.85 Sugar

glissith n. “sugar”
glist n. “sugar”

5.86 Milk

thim n. “milk after separation”

5.87 to Milk

thin- v. “to skim”

5.88 Cheese

cur- v. “to turn sour, curdle, congeal”
cûr n. “cheese”
curth n. “curd”
curtha- v. “to curdle, to make cheese (tr.)”

5.89 Butter

cwîr n. “cream”
malthin n. “cream”
mang n. “butter”

5.92 Wine

gurmir n. “drink of the Valar, (lit.) *sweet wine”
limfa n. “drink of the fairies”
limp(elis) n. “drink of the fairies”
mîr n. “wine”
mirofor n. “drink of the Gods”
miros n. “wine”
mirwelthin n. “vintage”

5.94 Juice

bith n. “juice, sap”
gwâs n. “juice”
laus n. and adj. “juice, sap; energy, vitality; (aj.) fresh”

5.999 Food (Other)

suithlas n. “tea”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

baidha- v. “to clothe”
bain adj. “clad”
braitha- v. “wrap, swathe”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

baith¹ n. “garment”
baithri n. “clothes, clothing”

6.22 Wool

ocha n. “fleece”
n. “wool”
tûs- v. “to tease wool, comb out”
uf² n. “fine wool, down”

6.31 to Spin

cwir- v. “to stir, stir round, make spin”
cwiruin n. “spinning wheel”

6.32 Spindle

cwiril n. “spindle”
gwiril n. “*spindle”

6.33 to Weave

gwidh- v. “weave (tr.)”
gwidhin n. “woof”
gwidhon adj. “woven”
gwist n. “weft”

6.34 Loom

gwingli n. “loom”
gwithadr n. “shuttle”

6.36 Needle

egli(n) n. “needle”

6.38 Thread

theres n. “tie, ribbon”

6.41 Cloak

brach n. “a shawl, plaid, wrap”
tôl n. “a mantle”

6.412 Overcoat

garob n. “cloak, outer garment”

6.43 Coat

bacha n. “jacket, coat”

6.44 Shirt

laub n. “shirt”

6.51 Shoe

habach n. “big shoe, clog, sabot”
hab(in) n. “shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ôf n. “hood”
tôd n. “hat”
togli n. “cap”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

brithla n. “pearl”
nind n. “blue stone, turquoise”
sî¹ n. “bead, small gem or pearl”

6.73 Finger Ring

grilthi n. “finger-ring”
lemfarilt n. “ring”

6.75 Necklace

fring n. “necklace, carcanet”

6.82 Towel

suithli n. “a towel”

6.92 Brush

fwegli v. “brush”

6.95 Soap

puim n. “soap”

6.999 Adornment (other)

fath n. “tassle”
fathli n. “tasselled fringe”
fathrin adj. “tasselled”
fathwed adj. “tasselled”
flathrin adj. “foamy, tasseled”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

barn [mb-] adj. “tilled, inhabited”
bar(n)a- [mb-] v. “to dwell in, till (land)”
dortha- v. “to settle”
gwadh- v. “to dwell”
gwadhra adj. “habitable”
gwadhril n. “inhabitant (f.)”
gwadhron n. “inhabitant (m.)”
gwar-² v. “*to dwell”
mara- v. “to dwell”
ruin adj. “inhabited, tilled”
rûtha- v. “to dwell, remain”

7.12 House

bad¹ n. “building, outhouse, shed”
baur [mb-] n. “house”
brann n. “dwelling, hall”
gwast n. “dwelling”
ind n. “house, abode”
indos n. “house, hall”
rû¹ n. “dwelling, house”
-vran suf. “dwelling”

7.122 Home

-bar suf. “dweller; home, -ham”
bar [mb-] n. “home, dwelling”
bara [mb-] n. “home, cottage”
baravlid [mb-] adj. “homeless”
barod [mb-] adv. “homewards, home”
barthi [mb-] adv. “at home, home”
barwen [mb-] n. “homestead”
in(d)wed adj. “indoors, at home; homely, domesticated”
inna prep. “in home, to its house/its right place”
inni adv. “home, at home, in right place”

7.13 Hut

tump n. “shed”

7.21 Room

tham n. “chamber, room”
thambros n. “hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

anna n. “door, opening”
tarn n. “gate”
tarnon n. “porter”

7.25 Window

galoth n. “window, (lit.) *light hole”

7.26 Floor

blath n. “floor”
paga n. “court, paved floor”
tôg n. “story, floor (of a house)”

7.27 Wall

bant n. “wall”
oss n. “outer wall (with moat), town wall, moat”
ostor n. “enclosure, circuit of walls”

7.28 Roof

teglos n. “awning”
teld n. “roof”
telm n. “roof; sky”
teloth n. “roofing, canopy, shelter”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

bordd n. “fireplace”
tangar n. “hearthgrate, fireplace”
tôn n. “fire (on a hearth)”
urm n. “a brazier, grate”

7.42 Bed

cumli n. “couch”
haus n. “bed”

7.43 Chair

dorn n. “seat”
doros n. “throne”

7.44 Table

sard n. “table”

7.46 Candle

nith n. “wax”
nitha n. “a candle”
nithla n. “candlestick”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.11 Farmer

nandor n. “farmer”

8.12 Field for Cultivation

garw n. and adj. “sown-field; tilled”
nand n. “field acre”
rust n. “inhabitation; cultivation, tillage”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

tand n. “enclosure, garden”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

dol- [nd-] v. “to dig”
saptha- v. “to dig, bite into”
tumla- v. “to excavate, hollow out”

8.24 Shovel (n)

sabli n. “spade, shovel”

8.29 Blade, Share

cim n. “blade”
paltha n. “blade (of swords, knives, oars, etc.); wide flat leaf; page of book”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

pim n. “bead, any small round thing, seed”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

hanna- v. “to mow, cleave”
salca- v. “to scythe or mow”

8.41 Crop, Harvest

gavon n. “harvest (time)”
gavos n. “yield, crop, produce”
thafwen n. “hay, harvest”

8.42 Grain (generic, British Corn)

gaust n. “corn, crop (espec. of cereal)”

8.43 Wheat

bloss [mb-] n. “wheat”

8.45 Rye

losc n. “rye”

8.46 Oats

rusg n. “oatcake”
ruthla adj. “oaten”
ruthli n. “oats”

8.51 Grass

flad n. “sward, grass”
liscaloth adj. “reedy, reed grown”
lisg n. “reed, sedge”
nethli n. “long lush grass, little meadow”
salc n. “green cut grass, ensilage, *fodder”

8.52 Hay

sirp n. “straw”
thaf n. “hay”

8.53 Plant, Herb

caltha n. “plant, herb”
côl n. “herb, vegetable, edible plant; wort”
lauth n. “a plant, herb”

8.54 Root

tarc n. “root”
tricthon n. “(fibrous fine) root”

8.55 Branch

clann n. “branch”
eilian n. “branch”
fripthon n. “stalk”
ôl¹ n. “forearm; bough”
olf(in) n. “branch, wand, stick”
thrimp n. “stalk”
thripthon n. “stem”

8.56 Leaf

lass n. “leaf; petal”
tethlas n. “petal, *(lit.) bud-leaf”

8.565 Thorn

aith¹ n. “thorn”
aithog adj. “thorny”
aithos n. “thorn bush”
aithr n. “thorn, †sword”
eg¹ n. “point”

8.57 Flower

lôs n. “flower”
lothli n. “floret”
tess(il) n. “little flower; †maiden”

8.571 Bloom

glôs n. “flower, best of anything; blooming time, acme, floruit”
gwethra- v. “to bloom, flourish”
lost n. “blossom, bloom”
lûda- v. “to bloom, grow”
luis n. “florescence, blooming”
luitha- v. “to bloom, blossom”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

altha n. “shoot, sprig, scion, sapling”
calw n. “green shoot, sapling, sprout”
teth n. “bud”
tethla- v. “to bud”
tuig n. “shoot, sapling, sprout”
tuitha- v. “to sprout, spring, gush”

8.575 Lily

nâla n. “yellow-lily”
ninion n. “water lily”

8.599 Flower (other)

glonthen n. “dandelion, (lit.) eye of the day”
glo(r)nethlin n. “meadow gold, buttercup”
hetheglon n. “daisy”
hum(i)los n. “(red) poppy”
maloglin n. “yellow song, daffodil”
malthos n. “butter cup”
nalairin n. “iris”
ninconin n. “snowdrop”

8.60 Tree (generic)

alwen n. “tree”
galdon n. “tree”
ormagodron n. “a (Spanish) chestnut tree”
orn n. “tree”

8.61 Oak

dorn(a) [nd-] n. “(holm) oak, ilex”
grôn n. “oak, oaktree”
grondrui n. “oakwood”
gronduru n. “oakwood (mat)”
grontholas adj. “oakleaved”
gronthorn n. “oaktree”
gronthos n. “oaktree”
gronthos deldrinwed n. “oakleaved beech”

8.62 Beech

deldrinwed [nd-] adj. “beechen”
deldrogod [nd-] n. “beech nut”
deldron [nd-] n. “beech (tree)”
deldron grondolas [nd-] n. “oakleaved beech”
delmos n. “beech nuts, mast [= fruit of beech, oak, chestnut]”

8.63 Birch

cwileg n. “alder”

8.635 Elm

lalm n. “elm, elm-wood”
lalmir n. “elm tree”

8.64 Pine

aigos n. “pine-tree”

8.655 Tree (other)

blantos n. “sycamore”
cwithwiros n. “poplar”
gwindod n. “elder tree; elderberry”
mabinos n. “plane tree, sycamore”
mabinos gwilbriniol n. “sycamore”
mavlantos n. “sycamore”
omlos n. “(horse) chestnut tree”
padhwen n. “bark”
soros n. “ash-tree”
tadhos n. “hawthorn”
tathrin n. “willow”

8.66 Acorn

govin(d)riol adj. “long-acorned”
gronoch n. “acorn”
nocha n. “an acorn”
nochinra adj. “long-acorned”

8.67 Vine

ethl(in) n. “ivy”
-liont suf. “*tendril, vine”

8.68 Tobacco

fugla- v. “to smoke (a pipe)”
fuglas n. “tobacco, *(lit.) smoke leaf”
fuglathrod n. “pipe”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

clum(mi) n. “mushroom”
criscolas n. “holly”
fileg n. “fern”
pibinaith(ros) n. “hawthorn”
sempios n. “holly”
tuthlos n. “a teazle”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

tab- v. “to cut to shape, fashion”

9.112 Doer, Agent

#-(n)ir suf. “(feminine) agent”
#-or suf. “agental suffix”
#-(r)on suf. “agental suffix”

9.114 Action

cara n. “deed, act”
cariod(wen) n. “activity”
carm n. “deed, act, exploit”

9.12 Work, Labor

drab n. “labour, toil, irksome work”
drabri adj. “labouring”
drauthiol adj. “arduous, labourious”
drauthos n. “toil, weariness from labour”

9.13 to Work, Toil

drab- v. “to labour, work; (impersonal) to irk, annoy”
urtha- v. “work, wreak, fashion, make, devise”

9.14 to Bend

cam(m)a- v. “to stoop, bend, bow, cower; to submit”
caug² adj. “humped, bulging; bent”
cav- v. “to bend, make stoop”
crictha- v. “to bend”
crinc adj. and n. “bent and thin; crescent”
cûn adj. “bowed, bent, concave”
cuptha- v. “to bend (tr).”
gwed- v. “to wind, turn, bend (intr.)”
gwedhweg adj. “meandering, twisting, winding, intricate”
gwedhwin n. “bend, loop”
gwedhwion adj. “bending, looping”
loctha n. “a twist, tendril, spiral, coil”
loctha- v. “to curl (tr.), bend, wind, twine, tie knot, tangle”
log- v. “to curl (intr.), bend (intr.), wind (twine round anything), twine”
logrin adj. “curled, curly”
lonc n. “curl”
naud adj. “bowed, bent; ashamed, abashed, bashful”
nud- v. “to incline head, bend face down”

9.16 to Bind

heb- v. “to bind, bind round”
ther- v. “to tie”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hemp n. “a band, bond; cord”
laim n. “thong, rope”
lind n. “twine”

9.192 Knot (n)

thred n. “knot”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

drambor n. “thudder”
palta- v. “to beat”
throsta- v. “to beat, splash”
throth n. “beat”

9.22 to Cut

crista- v. “to slash, cut, slice”
fag- v. “to cut”
fagin adj. “cut”
fanc n. “cut”
flinc n. “chip”

9.23 Knife (tool)

crî n. “knife”
crist n. “knife; slash, slice”

9.25 Ax

peleg n. “axe”

9.26 to Break

ractha- v. “to shatter”
ractha n. “breach”
rag- v. “to break asunder, burst”
ranc n. “a burst, breach”

9.28 to Tear

ruf- v. “to tear”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

dauth(r)a- v. “to strip, flay”
pasta- v. “to skin, peel, flay”

9.31 to Rub

gratha- v. “to rub, scratch, fray”

9.32 to Stretch

lenu- v. “to stretch, extend in length, trail”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

cilt n. “jerk”
ciltha- v. “to tug, jerk (out)”
hal(a)- v. “to drag, draw, pull”
halcha- v. “to drag on ground (roughly)”
halm n. “draught, draft, drawing (of fishes etc.)”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

rictha- v. “to contort, twist, confuse, disarrange, upset”

9.342 to Press

gweltha- v. “to squeeze, press”

9.35 to Pour

gulta- v. “to pour out (tr.)”
ultha- v. “to pour out (tr.)”

9.36 to Wash

fas- v. “to wash”
fôs n. “bath”
puidra- v. “to wash, cleanse, soap”
sô- v. “to wash, clean, bathe”
soth n. “bath”

9.37 to Sweep

fwegra- v. “to sweep”

9.38 Broom

fweg n. “broom”

9.41 Craft, Trade

aurin adj. “made (by craft of hand), wrought, fashioned”
fimli n. “skill”
fimlios n. “skilfulness”
mabol adj. “skillful”
sôn² n. “craft, skill”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

ligin n. “curved horn, trump”
ligindon n. “blare of trumps”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

finweg n. “craftsman, man of skill”

9.422 Tool

gaig n. “weapon, tool”

9.44 to Build

bada- v. “to build”
benn² n. “shape, cut, fashion, shapeliness”
bentha- v. “to cut, fashion, shape”
tag- v. “to fix, make firm, construct”
tôb(a) n. “shape, cut, fashion”

9.45 to Hew

flig- v. “to hew”
pelectha- v. “to hew”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

aitha- v. “to prick, sting”
elta- v. “to draw, tug, lug; to thrust, dig, poke (inward)”
ilta- v. “to stick in, prod, prick”
irtha- v. “to peck”
piectha- v. “to pin, prick”
pieg n. “pin”
tigla- v. “to prick”

9.48 Saw (n)

thar- v. “to saw (up)”
tharm n. “saw”
thathri n. “shavings, sawdust”

9.49 Hammer (n)

odrum n. “hammer”

9.51 Beam

bang n. “staff”
gontha¹ n. “pillar, stele, memorial”
talp¹ n. “prop, support”
talpon n. “a slender pillar”
taul n. “pillar”

9.52 Board

thrad n. “a plank, board, shelf”

9.60 Smith

tagor n. “smith”
tagros n. “smith”
ûr n. “smith”

9.635 Metal

ger n. “ore, metal”
gerin adj. “metallic”
giltha n. “white metal”
sinc n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

culu n. “gold”
culwin adj. “golden”
glôr n. “gold”
glôrin adj. “golden, of gold”
glôriol adj. “golden, like gold”

9.65 Silver

celeb n. “silver”
celebrin adj. “of silver”
celebriol adj. “like silver”
celeptha adj. “silvern”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

tam n. “copper”
tambin adj. “of copper”
tambrin adj. “like copper”

9.67 Iron

ang n. “iron”
angrin adj. “of iron, iron”
gais n. “steel”
gaisin adj. “of steel”
gaithrin adj. “like steel”

9.69 Tin, Tin-Plate

ladog n. “tin”

9.71 Potter

arin(g) n. “kiln”

9.74 Glass

brin(in) n. “glassy substance”
celc n. “glass, a glass”
celchin adj. “of glass”
celchwed adj. “glassy”
celeg n. “glass”
celegrin adj. “glassy, like glass”
glint n. “crystal”
sincli n. “crystal”

9.76 Basket

colc n. “chest, box”

9.81 to Carve

rimp n. “shred, slice, sliver”
thas- v. “to shave”
thasc adj. “shaven”
thasgim n. “*razor, (lit.) shave-blade”
thast n. “shaving”
thastril n. “razor”

9.90 Thing

cith n. “affair, matter, thing”
nad n. “*thing”
nath n. “thing, affair, matter”

9.91 Be

na- v. “to be”
nast n. “being (abstract); being (creature)”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

tauga adj. “suitable, fitting, convenient”

9.95 Can, May

og- v. “to be able, can”
ogra prep. “able to”
ogriol adj. “possible”
sana- v. “can; to know how to; to have knowledge, craft or skill”
tur- v. “can, to have power to”

9.96 Easy

trug adj. “easy to handle; convenient, tractable, docile”

9.97 Difficult

archod n. “difficulty”
diriol adj. “tedious”

9.993 to Happen

in n. “a go, a move, turn, occasion”
lûtha- v. “to pass (of time); to come to pass, occur”
tunc n. “chance; occurrence; arrival; hit at shooting; luck”

9.999 Physical Material (other)

taudha n. “phosphorous”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.12 to Turn

drint n. “twist, wrench, turn”
drintha- v. “to turn (tr.), twist”

10.13 to Turn Around

gwer- v. “to wind, turn, bend (tr.); to weave”
gwerb(e)lin n. “top, whirligig, *(lit.) wind-unwind”
gweron adj. “spun, rounded, cylindrical”
gwert n. “a twist”
ponta- v. “to turn round, turn back, retrace”
rig- v. “to twist, contort”
rin- v. “to revolve, return, come back; to do again”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

cang adj. and n. “tangled, confused, mixed up, awry; tangle, confusion, mêllay”
canga- v. “to tangle”
gwith n. “net”

10.15 to Roll

thol- v. “to roll”

10.21 to Rise

amra- v. “to go up and down, live in the mountains, wander”
oros n. “rising”
rosta n. “ascent, uprising, rising”

10.23 to Fall

dod- v. “to fall down, drop”
dodri n. “falling”
dont n. “fall, bump, drop”
iltanc adj. “unsteady”
lantha- v. “to fall onto, settle on, alight”

10.24 to Drop

lib- v. “to drip”
libli n. “small glass; small drop”

10.25 to Throw

hada- v. “to throw at, aim at”
hant² n. “throw, cast; turn or move in games”
hantha- v. “to fling, hurl, aim at, direct”

10.26 to Shake

cwas- v. “to shake, wag, nod, flap”
cwast adj. “shaking”
cwathra- v. “to shake (intr.)”
paptha- v. “to tremble, quiver”

10.31 to Boil (intrans.)

gwel- v. “to boil, bubble (intr.)”
gwelaith n. “boil, bubble”
gwelc n. “bubble”

10.32 to Flow

celu- v. “to trickle”
golaudri n. “deluge, flood”
gul- v. “to ooze, trickle”
laud n. “flood; high tide; tide, motion of the sea”
lud- v. “to flow, stream, float”
olod n. “tide, motion of the sea”
siriol adj. “flowing, fluent, liquid, melliflous”
ulna- v. “to ooze”
ûtha- v. “to emit; to issue”

10.33 to Sink

cavra- v. “to stoop, cower”
nalos n. “sinking, setting, descent, a slope”
num- v. “to sink, decline, slope down, descend”

10.37 to Fly

biltha- v. “to flutter, flit”
duil¹ n. “flight, power of flight; having power of flight, fledged”
duila- v. “to fly”
duileg adj. “having power of flight, fledged”
gwil- v. “to sail, float, fly”

10.38 to Blow

faf- v. “to puff, blow, pant”
sûtha- v. “to blow (of wind)”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

cab- v. “to jump, leap”

10.432 Leaping

camp n. “leap”

10.44 to Dance

lalt n. “dance”
laltha- v. “to dance”
tanta n. “a dance”
tinta- v. “to dance”

10.45 to Walk

bactha- v. “to walk”
padra- v. “to walk”

10.46 to Run

lob- v. “to run, gallop (of animals)”
lobrob n. “gallop; sound of horse’s feet”
nor- v. “to run, roll”

10.47 to Go

bad- v. “to travel”
haitha- v. “to hie, go, fare, walk”
intha-² v. “to go (indefinite), fare, proceed”

10.48 to Come

len adj. “come, arrived”
lendriol adj. “coming, approaching”
lentha- v. “to come towards speaker, approach, draw near”
lenthos n. “coming, arrival”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

hai³ interj. “go!, hence, begone, away”
haithin adj. “gone, departed, lost”
haiva interj. “hence!, begone, be off; (as av.) away, hence, off”
lith- v. “to go, depart, be over, finish, end, die”
lithin adj. “bygone, ended”
mútha- v. “depart, go, leave; (c. gen.) leave the place of/time of/speaker, go forward”
us- v. “to leave, depart”

10.52 to Follow

obra- v. “to follow; to succeed”

10.54 to Overtake

croctha- v. “to catch, snare, trap”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

raith n. “extent, reach; region, sphere, district, scope”
raitha- v. “to reach at, reach for; to reach, extend (intr.)”

10.56 to Approach

artha- v. “to approach”

10.61 to Bear, Carry

-iof suf. “-bearing”
tultha- v. “to lift, carry”

10.62 to Bring

tul- v. “to bring; to come to; †to support”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

amraith n. “nomand, wanderer (f.)”
amrod adj. “wandering, living in wilds”
amrog n. “nomand, wanderer”
amrog-dorn n. “brown wanderer, gipsy”
gwada- v. “to wander, roam, travel (far)”
gwadath(wen) n. “wandering, journey”

10.67 to Push, Shove

northa- v. “to send rolling, speed”

10.71 Road

adhwen n. “approach, avenue”
haig n. “way, road, path”
mal¹ n. “paved way, road”
pad n. “[unglossed]”

10.72 Path

bad² n. “path”
dronn [nd-] n. “race, course, track”
int¹ n. “way, path, track”
rada n. “track, path, way”
taleg n. “(foot)path”

10.73 Street

lant n. “(high) road, level way, street”

10.74 Bridge

rantha n. “arch, bridge”
tram n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

brada n. “wain, waggon, cart”
drogla n. “cart”

10.76 Wheel

drô n. “wheel track, rut”
norn n. “wheel”

10.77 Axle

tholos¹ n. “axle of a wheel”

10.78 Yoke

galt n. “yoke”

10.83 Boat

bent n. “small boat”
lunta n. “ship”
saib n. “boat”

10.85 Oar

plados n. “oar”

10.88 Sail (n)

belon n. “sail”

10.90 Port, Harbor

gobos n. “haven”

11. Possession and Trade

11.12 to Own, Possess

gôtha- v. “to possess, have, hold”
guin² adj. “own, held, possessed”
guinoth n. “property”
guira- v. “to possess”

11.13 to Take

nab- v. “to take, lay hold of”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

clamfa- v. “to grab, claw at”
gen n. “closed hand, grip”
gentha- v. “to grip, seize, lay hold of”
manc n. “grip, grasp, hold”
manca- v. “to grab, seize”
nabos n. “seizure”
naptha- v. “to seize”

11.15 to Hold

bail n. “sheath, case, cover; pod”
fâ- v. “to have, hold, possess”
halthi n. “sheath”
rôn¹ n. “embrace, clasp”
rôtha- n. “embrace”

11.16 to Get, Obtain

tû- v. “to get, receive, take; to become”
tuvrin adj. “acceptable”

11.21 to Give

antha- v. “to give”
ôn² n. “gift”

11.22 to Return, Give Back

abod adv. “again; in return, in exchange; back”
had- pref. “for-, in return for, back, instead of”
raina- v. “to return”
rinta- v. “*to return”

11.23 to Restore

lauthra- v. “to refresh; to revive (intr.)”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

grest n. “succour, salvation”
gretha- v. “to save, rescue, preserve”
grethron n. “saviour”
gwareth n. “watch, guard, ward; vigilance”
gwarieg n. “watchman, warden”
muin¹ adj. “safe, secure”
muinos n. “security”
osta- v. “to surround with walls, build up, fortify, protect; to surround”
rest¹ n. “aid, support, help”
uchirin adj. “secure”

11.27 to Destroy

fectha- v. “to destroy, ruin, spoil”
fecthir n. “destroyer, slayer; bane”
teraith n. “waste, ruin, destruction”
tertha- v. “to devour, destroy”

11.29 to Spoil

cwel- v. “to fade, wither”
cweloth n. “fading”
drib- [nd-] v. “to rot, decay, wear out”
faltha- v. “to strip, despoil, rob, make bare”
hesc adj. “withered, dead; chilled, chill”
narcos n. “rot, decay”
narp adj. “rotten, decayed, corrupt; overripe”

11.32 to Find

tug- v. “to hit, reach mark; to light on, chance on, find; to arrive; to chance, occur; to suit, fit, be convenient, ‘do’”

11.33 to Lose

#laith² adj. “*lost”
laith(r)a- v. “to let slip, lose, mislay, forget; (intr.) to be lost”
laithra adj. “dead and gone, over, former, of yore, forgotten”

11.34 to Release

blid- v. “to free, rid”
botheb- v. “to untie, undo, unloose”
labra adj. “loose, lax, flapping; weak”
laptha- v. “to relax, loosen”
usfeg- v. “to release”
uthra- v. “to get away, escape”
uthwen n. “escape, way out, exit”

11.41 Property

guig n. “piece of property”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

sâd n. “riches, wealth”

11.46 Treasure

fô(tha) n. “hoard”
fuis n. “hoard”
fûn n. “hoard”
fund n. “hoard”
idri n. “treasure, thing of great worth, jewel”

11.48 Heir

hilming n. “inheritance, heritage”
hilmir n. “heir (m. or f.)”

11.51 Rich

ausin adj. and n. “rich; fortune”
malc¹ adj. “rich, powerful”
modron¹ adj. “rich man”

11.56 to Steal

er(e)tha- v. “to isolate, rob, deprive”
nig- v. “to steal, creep, do or go by stealth”
nigla- v. “to thieve, pilfer”

11.73 Gain, Profit

gam(m)a- v. “to gain, profit, increase; to be profitable, bring in revenue”

11.82 to Sell

bag- v. “to sell, trade”

11.83 to Trade

banc n. “trade”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

badweg n. “traveller; pedlar”
bagron n. “trader”

11.85 Market (place)

bageth n. “market”
bagri n. “wares”

11.88 Dear, Expensive

bâl adj. “worthy, important; great, mighty”
idra- v. “to value, prize”
idra adj. “dear, valued, precious”
idreth n. “value, dearness”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

gar(th) (gardh-) n. “place, district”
n. “space, room, place”
pan n. “arrangement, settlement; place, spot”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

pâ- v. “to put”
panta- v. “to arrange, order, settle; to set, put, place; to write a book”
sam- v. “to arrange, put together, adjust, settle, reconcile”
samin adj. “arranged, settled, done”

12.13 to Sit

hag- v. “to sit, sit down”
hagra adj. “seated”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

cum- v. “to lie (down)”
hau- v. “to lie”
hautha- v. “to lay, stretch out, lay flat on ground”
nûda adj. “prone, face down”
nudin adj. “prone”

12.15 to Stand

daltha- v. “to erect, set up”
fast² n. “holder, stand”
talc adj. “upright”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

hadha- v. “to cling, cleave to; to wait on, wait for, abide with patience”
rô- v. “to remain, stay, stand; to endure”
rô¹ adj. “enduring, long suffering; quiet, gentle, docile”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

cwîl adj. “quiet, peaceful, gentle”
gwîl n. “cessation, quiescence, leaving off; peace”
gwilb adj. “quiet, peaceful, full of peace”
gwilm n. “peace, quiet, rest; cessation”
ilrimog adj. “uneasy”
maug adj. “silent”
mugol adj. “taciturn”
munc n. “shut mouth, silence, secretiveness; (aj.) mum”
rim² n. and adj. “peace, quietness, calm; quiet, calm, peaceful”
rimin² adj. “quiet, calm, peaceful”
susc adj. “hushed, quiet; abashed”
suss¹ interj. “hush”
suss² n. “hush, sudden quiet”

12.195 Whisper

cwira- v. “to rustle”
cwitha- v. “to murmur, whisper”
cwithri n. “whisper”
rui n. “whisper”
ruitha- v. “to whisper, rustle”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

crib- v. “to gather, pluck”
golesta- v. “to gather (intr.)”
hosta- v. “to gather, collect”
lactha- v. “(tr.) gather together, collect, amass”
lag- v. “to gather, pick up, get”
lesta- v. “to gather, assemble, meet (intr.)”
lim² n. “a sheaf, bundle”

12.22 to Join, Unite

arthaid- v. “to join”
fedhra- v. “to unite in a band”
gad(a) n. “joint, link; small lane, track; isthmus”
gada- v. “to join, connect, unite”
gadr n. “joint, link of chain”
gadu adj. “joined, connected”
gadweth n. “union, joining; wedding”
gôd n. “joint, link of chain”
godra adj. “joined, united, joint”
gofedhin adj. “united, allied, ‘friends’”
gofedhra- v. “to unite in a band”
ilt- v. “to yoke, join”

12.221 Together

carpa adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”
criptha adj. and adv. “together, in a bunch, bunched-up”
go-¹ pref. “together, in one; with”
gomintha adv. “together”
mintha adj. “ūna, in one place, together”

12.222 And

ar² conj. “and, too, besides”

12.223 Also

arthi adv. “also, as well, besides, too”

12.23 to Separate

far- v. “to separate, sever, divide; to depart, leave”
fartha- v. “to divide (tr.)”
thlid- v. “to sort out, sift, sieve, discriminate”
thlid n. “sieve”

12.24 to Open

belin adj. “expanded, unrolled, unfurled, set (of sails)”
beltha- v. “to open out (transitive), expand, unroll, set sail”
belu- v. “to unroll, unfurl (intransitively), belly (of sails), swell”

12.26 to Cover

muthra- v. “to veil”
telt n. “lid”
teltha- v. “cover in”
telthion adj. “roofed in, sheltered, protected”
tub- v. “to cover”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

fuitha-¹ v. “to hide (tr.)”
tubla- v. “to hide (intr.)”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

furion adj. “secret, concealed, hidden”
nigrin adj. “stealthy”
tubrin adj. “hidden”

12.31 High

alw(eg) adj. “lofty (of living things, trees, men)”
annor(in) adj. “lofty”
anthor(in) adj. “lofty (of mountains)”
adj. “high”
dara adj. “lofty”
ôl² n. “height, stature”
ront adj. “high, steep”

12.32 Low

hamra adj. “lowly, lowlying; base”
haug adj. “low”
haugrin adj. “lowly, humble, mean”
um² adj. “lowlying”

12.33 Top

ôn¹ n. “crown of head, top”

12.34 Bottom

clib- v. “to uphold, support; to lean”
fod n. “end, butt, bottom”
hôm n. “ground, base, bottom, seabed”
hum adv. “(right) down, (lit.) to bottom”

12.35 End

laf n. “loose-end, end of rope, hem of robe”

12.352 Point

nel n. “point, end, tip, jutting end”
pleg n. “hedge-stake, stake”
teb n. “point, nib, neb, nose”
teg n. “point, dot, spot”

12.353 Edge

cilm n. “rim, brink, edge”
raim n. “edge, border-line”
tast¹ n. “border, fringe”

12.37 Middle

seg n. “point, middle point”
segrin adj. “middle”
segron adj. “midmost”

12.38 Center

sectha n. and adj. “centre”

12.391 In, Inside

a(d) prep. “into”
ba prep. “in”
bi prep. “in”
bir prep. “in, within, inside”

12.392 Out, Outside

edh prep. “outside, near borders of, near, hard by, beside”
uf¹ prep. “out of, forth, from”
ufra adj. “outer”
ûthi n. “outside”

12.393 Across, Athwart

adr prep. and adv. “across, athwart”
adr(a) adj. “lying athwart; situated on far side”
adros n. “crossing, ford”
had prep. “facing, opposite, over against; (c. allative) against, instead of, in return for, for, as”
hadra- v. “to face, oppose, stand in way; to resist, thwart”
hadra adj. “opposing, facing, opposite; equivalent”
hadron prep. and adv. “opposite”
trath n. “passage, ford”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

am¹ adv. “up, upwards, towards head of, above”
amon² adv. “uphill, against stream”
antha adj. “upper”
anthos adv. “up, above”
or adv. and prep. “(av.) on, on top; (prep.) on, onto”
or- pref. “on, onto, up, in addition to”
ortha adj. “upper”
orthi adv. “up”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

nal² adv. “down, downwards”
naldron adj. “lower down”
naltha adj. “downward, lower, lower-down; (av.) below, beneath”
nunthi adv. “downward”

12.3955 In Front

gwintha- v. “to face”
nod adv. “forward, on, in advance”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

abont adv. “back; backwards”
bod adv. “behind, back, of time ago, ‘a while back’”
bodra adj. “back(ward), hinder, rear”
bodron adv. “behind, further back”
bont adv. “back(wards)”
obra adj. “close behind (of place), following, succeeding, next behind or after (time or place)”

12.397 Beyond

adron adv. “further, beyond, over; on other side”

12.398 To, Towards

ar¹ prep. “at; to, towards”
cint adv. “hither”
hant¹ adv. “thither”

12.399 From, Away

prep. “from”
adv. “away, off”
baron [mb-] adv. “from home, out, away, abroad”
mu¹ prep. “from”
restu adj. “out of land, abroad, away from home”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

fim adj. “clever, right hand”

12.43 Near (adj)

ar- pref. “beside, along with, compared with”
art adv. “beside, along side of”
artha prep. “alongside (of)”
adv. “here”
ed prep. “close by”
edhos prep. “just without, close by”
hath- pref. “close to, by, beside, touching”
lent adv. “near, close to, up by, along side of; (c. dat.) at, towards, up to side of; therewith, with it, withal”
sî² adv. “here”
sith adv. “hither”

12.44 Far (adj)

annai adv. “far away”
eg² adv. “far away, wide, distant, far off”
egiont adj. “further, farther”
egra adj. “distant, far away”
egros adv. “distant, far away”
egwed adj. “far, distant”
entha adv. “there by you, thither”
hai¹ adv. “there (by him)”
lenc adj. and adv. “far, distant”
lenchos n. “distance”

12.46 West

nûmin adj. “the west, sinking”

12.53 to Grow

altha- v. “to shoot up, grow (high)”
calon adj. “grown (of plants), budd[ing], in blade (of corn)”
caltha- v. “to wax, grow, flourish”
calwed adj. “flourishing, adolescent”
ganthan adj. “waxen, grown big, grown up, adult, [originally?] large”
-loth suf. “-grown”

12.54 to Measure

modra- v. “count, measure”
modri n. “measurement”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

beleg adj. “mighty, great”
gwen(n) adj. “big, large; fine”
ûmi adj. “large”

12.56 Small, Little

inc adj. “little”
inig adj. “small”
pinig adj. “tiny, little”

12.565 Bit, Small Thing

n. “anything very small, a bit, mote”

12.57 Long

dîr adj. “long (of time)”
in(d)ra adj. “long (also used of time)”
lenwi n. “length, distance”
sûr adj. “long, trailing”

12.61 Wide, Broad

egrin adj. “wide, vast, broad; far”
land adj. “broad”

12.62 Narrow

fing adj. “narrow”
fingli n. “narrow place, straits, sound, pass in mountains”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

fabwed adj. “corpulent”
lubi adj. “corpulent”
polc adj. “thick, fat”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

glen(d)rin adj. “slender”
glen(d)rinios n. “slenderness”
glen(n) adj. “thin, fine, slender”
glenweth n. “thinness”
thlind adj. “fine, slender”
thribin adj. “lean”

12.67 Deep

dolc [nd-] adj. “deep”

12.71 Flat

amlad n. “surface”
blant adj. “flat, open, expansive, candid, blunt (of words)”
engri n. “flat surface, level, plane”
lad n. “a level, a flat; fair dealing”
ladin adj. “level, smooth; fair, equitable”
ladwen n. “levelness, flatness; plain, heath; plane; surface”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

n. “bow, crescent; the waxing or waning moon”
cub adj. “hollow”
dûl [nd-] adj. “hollow”
rothrin adj. “hollow”
rûdin adj. “hollow, cavernous”
tum n. “hollow”
tumbol adj. “valley-like, hollow, excavated”

12.73 Straight

tîr¹ adj. and n. “†straight, upright, honest (aj.); esteem, regard, honour”

12.74 Crooked

craig adj. “crooked”
fant adj. “crooked, bent, bowed”
gwegla adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

crog n. “hook”
crogin adj. “hooked”

12.76 Angle, Corner

og² n. “sharp corner”

12.77 Cross (n)

taru¹ n. “cross; crossing”
tranc adj. “criss-cross, crossed; cross, at cross purpose, perverse”
trantha- v. “to cross (tr. & intr.); to mark with a cross”
trôn n. “a cross; a crossing”

12.78 Square (n)

cantrib n. “square”

12.81 Round (adj)

corol adj. “round, circular; rolling”
crithog adj. “circular”
crôl adj. “round”

12.82 Circle

corm n. “ring, circle, disc”
crithla- v. “to encircle; to circle, go round”
crithos n. “circle, ring”
drinn n. “ring, disc”
gorin n. “circle of trees”
grail n. “ring, circle, circlet”
grileg adj. “ringed, hooped shape”
rinc adj. and n. “circular; disc, rondure”
rod n. “tube, stem”

12.83 Sphere

cross n. “ball”
crost n. “lump, ball, cake”

12.84 Line

raib adj. “scored, striped”
rib n. “shore; stripe, line; border, fringe”
ribin adj. “striped, edged”
rimin¹ adj. “striped, edged”
n. “mark, line; track; path”
tion n. “a straight line”

12.85 Hole

dolm [nd-] n. “pit”
ôth n. “hole, opening”
sauth n. “a hole, tunnel”

12.91 Equal, Alike

argulthion adj. “equal, equivalent”
felectha- v. “to make equal, equalize”
feleg adj. “equal”
felegra- v. “to equal”
felegrin adj. “equable”
felweg n. “one’s fellow or equal, rival”
gofel adj. and adv. “exactly alike”
gofelthi n. “exact similarity”
gofelweg n. “one’s fellow or equal, rival”
inco pron. “the same, the identical”
ladinios n. “equity”

12.92 Like, Similar

fel prep. and adv. “like; (as av.) as, like”
feltha adj. “similar, like”
felthadrin adj. “probable”
gofeltha adj. “*similar, like”

12.925 Different, Other

elc adv. and n. “else, something else”
eleg adj. “other, else”
elegrin adj. “different, strange”
elfel adj. “different, like something else”
prind n. “distinction”

12.93 to Change

bart¹ n. “change”
bartha- v. “to change, exchange, alter”
bridol adj. “changing, varying, variable”
brigla- v. “to change, vary”
brigli n. “variation”
elt¹ n. “change”
eltha- v. “to alter, change”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

tast² n. “total, amount”
tath- v. “to count”
tathna- v. “to number, count, reckon”
udathnarol adj. “countless, innumerable”
udathriol adj. “countless”

13.12 Number

mod n. “a number, figure”
modwen adj. “a large number”
tant n. “a number”
tathn n. “number”

13.14 All, Every

gôr adj. “each, all”
gor-¹ [ng-] pref. “all, altogether, quite”

13.15 Much, Many

egriol adj. “excessive”
-lim suf. “many”
lim¹ adj. “many”
odog adj. “mighty, great; violent, excessive, exceeding, very”
odrim adj. “(very) many”

13.16 More

dai² adv. “very, exceedingly”
ga- pref. “very, more”
gaid adv. “more”
gant adj. “larger, greater, more, (lit.) increased”
gantha adv. “more”
odra adv. “very”

13.165 to Add, Increase

intha-¹ v. “to join to (intr.), add, increase, add to”

13.17 Few, Little

-(a)vlid suf. “less”
inthi adv. “less”
migin adj. “little”
miginthi n. “littleness”

13.18 Enough

fad adv. “enough”
fadin adj. “sated, saturated”
fadra- v. “to sate, weary, ‘feed up’”

13.181 Sufficiency

fadrin adj. “sufficient”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

glest [ng-] n. “moot, gathering, concourse, assembly”
grim n. “host, folk”
hoth n. “folk, people, †army”
hûs n. “crowd, heap, pile; very great number”
lest n. “gathering, assembly, concourse, moot”
thang n. “a crowd, crush, herd”

13.192 Other Collective Words

carp n. “bundle, bunch”

13.21 Full

cwant adj. “the whole, all the (with article); full”
cwintha- v. “to fill”

13.22 Empty

fôr n. “gulf, gap”
nil adj. “empty”
nilta- v. “to empty (tr.)”
unt n. “nothing”

13.24 Half

elef n. “half, half a ...”
elfeg adj. “half”
lemfin adj. “halved, in half”
lemp² n. “half”

13.32 One

er adj. “one”
ert adv. “once, once only”
min num. card. “one, single”

13.33 Alone, Only

ereg adj. “alone, only”
ereth n. “solitude, oneness, loneliness”
erethrin adj. “isolated, solitary, lonely”
erw adv. “only”
erwed adj. “unique”

13.34 First

caithonwed adj. “original”
thegin adj. “leading, chief”
thegor n. “chief”
thegra adj. “first, foremost”

13.35 Last

fodra adj. “the last, latest, endmost”

13.36 Two

atha² num. card. “two”
gadwi n. “twins”
hethgadwi n. “twins”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

obin adj. “second, next”

13.38 Double, Twice

gwi- pref. “twi-, bi-, di-”

13.54 Cardinal Number

beleth(os) n. “144, a gross; a great number”
cant num. card. “four”
elf(in) num. card. “five”
moth(in) n. “1000; †flock”
odin num. card. “seven (orig[inally] many)”
odinthos num. card. “seventeen”
sath num. card. “ten”
unthos n. “eighteen”
uvin n. “eight”

13.55 Ordinal Number

ungra adj. “eighth”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

lu n. “occasion, time”
lûm n. “time”

14.12 Age

born n. “age, great period”

14.13 New

brag adj. “fresh”
brageth n. “freshness”

14.14 Young

gân adj. “young”
ganos n. “youth”
ganothrin adj. “youthful”
gwioth n. “youth”
gwiw adj. “young”
hiltha n. “youth (more often masculine)”
laibrin adj. “green, fresh, youthful”

14.15 Old

dribin adj. “worn out”
gîrin adj. “bygone, old, belonging to former days, olden, former, ancient”
hôr adj. “old, aged, ancient”
horoth adj. “age, eld, oldness”
hortha- v. “to grow old”
horweg n. “an ancient, old man”

14.16 Early (adv)

hai² adv. “in good time, punctually, early”
haidra adv. “timely, punctual, in good time”
hair adj. “timely, punctual, in good time”
mau adv. “soon, early”
maudra- v. “be early, come first; to prefer, to be preferred”
maudro adv. “sooner, earlier; rather”
maurin adj. “early, betimes, up early; premature”

14.17 Late (adv)

fiont(ha) adj. “later”
fîr adj. “late”

14.18 Now

gui adv. “just, just now, only just, already”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

arog adj. “swift, rushing, torrential”
lint adj. “quick, agile, nimble, light”
raug adj. “swift, rushing”

14.22 Slow (adj)

idhr(a) adv. “long, a long time”

14.24 to Delay

bodra- v. “to hinder, delay, tarry”
gwirth n. “unwillingness, reluctance”
gwirthol adj. “reluctant”

14.252 to Last

hadhol adj. “abiding; enduring, constant, faithful”

14.254 Patience, Endurance

bronweth n. “constancy”
gulin adj. “patient, enduring, long suffering; (lit.) burdened”
rôs² n. “endurance, meekness, patience, gentleness”
rûs n. “endurance, long suffering, patience”

14.26 End (n, temporal)

telfod n. “final end, the very last”
telu n. “end”

14.27 to Finish

carn adj. “done, finished”
cartha- v. “to finish, make”
carthion adj. “complete, perfect”
cranta- v. “to finish, achieve, accomplish, complete”
fodra- v. “to bring to an end, end, finish; to come to an end, end, finish”
telu- v. “to close, end, finish”

14.28 to Cease

gwiltha- v. “to cease, leave off”
hast n. “waiting, wait, pause, rest, stop”
hasta- v. “to tarry, wait, pause, stay, stop”

14.29 Ready (adj)

guin¹ adj. “ready, fresh”
mar(o)n adj. “ripe”

14.31 Always

bóra adv. “always, ever, continuously”
bront adv. “perpetually”
brontha adj. “continual, continuous, unceasing; everlasting”

14.35 Again

bod- pref. “back, again; un- (= backwards)”
no- pref. “re-, back, again”

14.355 Past, Ago

dim adj. “past, over, former”
dimborn n. “the past, past days, olden times”
dîn adv. “once (up a time), long ago, formerly”
diradhin adv. “once upon a time”
in(d)raluin adv. “long ago”
luin¹ adj. and adv. “gone, past; ago”

14.36 Before (temporal)

gî(laith) adv. “once, in past”

14.37 After

no adv. “then, next, again; then, after(wards)”
nodro adv. “farther on, further forward, later, again”
nontha adj. “the next, the succeeding (time only)”
nui adv. “afterwards, again, later”
nuidro adv. “still later”
ob prep. “after, close behind (time and place)”
obron adv. “*next”

14.41 Day

dana n. “day (24 hours)”
glâ n. “day, daytime”
gôl¹ n. “daylight, day”

14.412 Daily

danoriol adj. “daily”

14.42 Night

fui n. “night”
fuitha-² v. “to fall (of night); to grow dark”

14.43 Dawn

am(b)ros(t) n. “dawn”
glô n. “sunrise, dawn, daybreak”
glóna- v. “to dawn”
haurost n. “dawn”
hyrost n. “*dawn”
nuimath n. “‘second twilight’, first signs of dawn”
obromath n. “the twilight that follows the night, ‘second twilight’, just before dawn”
orosaura n. “sunrise”
thegla n. “first lights of dawn”

14.44 Morning

haidri n. “forenoon, after breakfast”
maudri n. “early morn before dawn, time before first meal”

14.45 Noon

authmeg n. “midday, high noon”
nuiri n. “afternoon”
obauthri n. “afternoon”
saidhon n. “noon”

14.46 Evening

mathwen n. “evening”

14.462 Dusk

cwelm n. “dusk”
math n. “dusk”
mathrin adj. “dusk, dusky”
mathusgi n. “twilight”
umboth n. “nightfall”

14.47 Today

ain² n. “today”
aindana n. “today”
aindanathon adj. “today”
cîrin adj. “present (place or time), modern”
sinnai n. “today”

14.48 Tomorrow

nôn n. “tomorrow, the next day on from one mentioned or in thought, the morrow”

14.49 Yesterday

gîr n. “yesterday”

14.61 Week

caineglad n. “fortnight”
ochlad n. “week”

14.71 Month

ranoth n. “month”

14.73 Year

fann n. “year”
lath n. “year”
rain n. “anniversary, year complete”
teglath n. “noted year, special year, feast year”

14.74 Winter

folorin n. “winter”
Gilim n. “winter”
Hess n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

tuil n. “spring”
tuilir n. “spring(time)”

14.76 Summer

aust n. “summer”
ost² n. “summer”
saiwen n. “summer, midsummer”

14.77 Autumn

dodri·lassion n. “autumn, (lit.) *falling of leaves”
lasgweloth n. “leaf-fading, autumn”
narcolas n. “the fall of the leaf, Autumn”

14.79 Festival, Holiday

dulwen n. “feast”

14.99 Time (other)

laith¹ n. “time, the course of time; (properly) lapse”

15. Sense Perception

15.11 to Sense, Perceive; Sense

(g)leg adj. “keen, sharp, piercing”
naus adj. and n. “keen-witted, observant; notice”
nus- v. “to take notice, perceive”
nuthleg adj. “keen-nosed”
uista- v. “not to notice”

15.21 to Smell (subj)

nafra- v. “to nose about in others’ business”
nuf- v. “to get smell of, perceive scent of, smell (tr.)”

15.22 to Smell (obj)

drith- v. “it smells, smacks of, savours of”
fau- v. “to smell, give off a smell”

15.23 Smell (n, subj)

nufri n. “sense of smell”

15.24 Smell (n, obj)

faust n. “smell, odour (neither pleasant nor unpleasant)”
fost n. “odour”
fostrin adj. “odorous”
narth n. “odour”
nûth n. “scent, ‘wind’, odour”

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

drith [nd-] n. “savour, smell, flavour; suggestion, inkling”
narthiel n. “fragrance”
narthol adj. “fragrant, odorous”

15.26 Stinking, Bad Smelling

faug¹ adj. “stinking”
folc adj. “evil-smelling”
gol- v. “to stink”
golod n. “stink, stench”
golog adj. “stinking”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

cautha-¹ v. “to taste (of the taster or person); to get flavour of, perceive, notice”

15.32 to Taste (obj)

caf- v. “to taste (used of the thing)”

15.33 Taste (n, subj)

cafwen n. “sense of taste, taste, judgement”
cauthiol adj. “tasteful, endowed with good taste; discreet, circumspect”

15.34 Taste (n, obj)

côf n. “savour, smack, odour”

15.35 Sweet

glais n. “sweetness”
glis adj. “sweet”
glisc adj. “fond of sweets; fond of saying sweet or flattering things, suave, flattering”
glisca- v. “to have a sweet tooth, like sweet things”
gûri adj. “sweet”

15.37 Bitter

pigwa adj. “bitter”

15.38 Sour, Acidic

caura adj. “sour (of milk)”
paib adj. “sour”

15.41 to Hear

gima- v. “to hear”
gimli n. “(sense of) hearing”

15.42 to Listen, Harken

gimra- v. “to hearken to, listen to”
gimri n. “hearkening, attention”
gimriol adj. “audible, noticeable”
hist n. “listening, attention”
hith interj. “listen! hark!”
hitha- v. “to listen, hearken, listen to”

15.44 Sound (n)

lin- v. “to sound (intr.)”
lin n. “sound”

15.51 to See

gwinta- v. “to see”
thê- v. “to see”

15.52 to Look

gwar-¹ v. “to watch (all senses), guard”
gwir- v. “to look (at)”
gwirith n. “expression, look (on face); look, regard, fixed look; countenance”
las- v. “to look at, glance at”
tir- v. “to look (out) for, watch for, await, expect”

15.53 Sight (subj)

hent n. “eyesight”
last n. “look, glance, flash of the eye”
tair n. “look-out, watch, guard; gaze, regard”
thest n. “sight (sense of); a sight, vision”

15.55 to Show

santha- v. “to show, declare, point out, make known or clear”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

gal- v. “to shine (golden, as the Sun)”
gil- v. “to gleam, shine pale and silver (as of the moon)”
glimri n. “sheen”

15.562 Blinking

gilt n. “a gleam”
glim adj. “shimmering”
gwim n. “spark, wink”
gwimla- v. “to wink, twinkle”
gwimpel n. “sparkling (n.), scintillation”
gwinc n. “spark, flash”
lasta- v. “blink, wink”
sint n. “spark”
sinta- v. “to sparkle”
tim n. “spark, gleam, (star)”
tinc n. “a flicker, a gleam”
tintiltha- v. “to twinkle”
tinwin n. “a small star”
tinwithli n. “group of stars, star-cluster, constellation”

15.57 Bright

blenc adj. “brilliant”
galwed adj. “brilliant, shining”
galwen n. “brilliance”
glar(os) n. “glare, blaze, splendour”
glarossiol adj. “dazzling”
glarosta- v. “to dazzle”
glarw(ed) adj. “bright, light”
glass n. “brilliance, clarity”
glathrin adj. “brilliant, lucent”

15.61 Color

crui n. “colour”
cruim adj. “coloured”
cruith n. “colour, complexion, appearance”
cwil n. “hue, tint”

15.62 Light in Color

cwiliog adj. “bright-hued”
fail adj. “pale, pallid”
failtha- v. “go pale”
failthi n. “pallor”
heth² adj. “white, pallid, wan”
nimp adj. “pallid”

15.64 White

gloss adj. “white, clear white”
glost n. “whiteness”
glothrin adj. “white, clear white”

15.65 Black

colw adj. “black”
morn adj. “dark, black”

15.66 Red

carn(in) adj. “scarlet”
crintha adj. “rosy, pink”
sen adj. “brown-red, russet”
sentha adj. “russet”
torn adj. “sunburnt, swart, dark-brown”

15.67 Blue

luim adj. “blue”
nim adj. “pale blue, blue green”

15.68 Green

laib adj. “green”
laigos n. “verdure, greenness”

15.69 Yellow

malogrintha adj. “orange, tawny”
malon adj. “yellow”
maltha adj. “golden yellow, rich, mellow”

15.70 Grey

musc adj. “grey”

15.71 to Touch

fab- v. “to handle, touch, feel”
tisc adj. “ticklish”
tisca- v. “to tickle”
^tisga- v. “to tickle”

15.72 to Feel of

leb- v. “to pick, pluck, take or feel or touch with fingers, cull”
tentha- v. “feel with the feet, walk on tiptoe”

15.73 Touch (n)

fabli n. “sense of touch”
famp n. “handling, touching, feeling; stroking, caressing, ‘fuss’; fingering, appraising, assay”

15.75 Soft

bless [mb-] n. “grace, kindness, good feeling”
blethrin [mb-] adj. “gracious, kind”
muig adj. “soft, gentle”
muis n. “softness, tenderness, gentleness”

15.77 Smooth

eng adj. and n. “smooth, level”
lada- v. “to smooth out, stroke, caress, soothe, beguile”
lech¹ adj. “smooth, slippery”
lech² n. “smooth place; slide”
lethrin adj. “slippery, peril(o)us”
nûr adj. “smooth, rolling free, easy, easy going”

15.78 Sharp

aisc adj. and n. “sharp, bitter; sharp edge of a blade”
aitheb adj. “sharp, piercing”
aithra adj. “piercing, sharp; thorny”
crisc adj. “sharp”
esc n. “sharp point, sharp edge”
lectha- v. “to sharpen”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

gaul¹ n. “burden”
glum¹ adj. “(over) burdened; dull, heavy, sad”
gultha- v. “to bear up; to weigh, balance it on scales; to be worth, value or be equivalent to; to endure”
gum- v. “to lade”
gûm n. “burden”
gumri n. “burden (metaphoric), worry, trouble”
gumriol adj. “burdensome”
lung n. “heavy; grave, serious”
lungra- v. “to weigh, bear on, hang heavy”
luntha- v. “to balance, weigh”
lunthang n. “balance, scales”

15.82 Light, Nimble

flidhra adj. “‘willowy’, graceful”
thlidhra adj. “‘willowy’, gracile”

15.83 Wet, Damp

glaib adj. “dripping wet”
nosc adj. “damp, wet”
ub¹ adj. “wet, moist, damp”

15.84 Dry, Arid

arp adj. “barren, dry, desert”
luista- v. “to be thirsty; to parch, dry up”
seth adj. “dry”
sethra- v. “dry up”
suib adj. “dry”
suitha- v. “to dry, to wipe”
tarp adj. “dry, stale”
thisc adj. “dry, waterless”
thisin adj. “parched, withered”
thista- v. “to dry up (tr.)”

15.85 Hot, Warm

cluim adj. “warm, cosy”
cluimri n. “pleasant warmth, cosiness”
gauth n. “heat (esp. of body)”
sair adj. “hot”
urin adj. “hot, very hot”

15.855 to Heat, Be Hot

gudh- v. “to be hot (intr.)”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

gweleb adj. “cool, fresh (esp. of water)”
helc¹ adj. “ice-cold, icy, cold”
n. “coolness, cool; a sudden breeze or cold breath”
ring adj. “cool, cold”

15.87 Pure, Clean

fasc adj. “clean”
fast¹ n. “wash, cleaning”
glan adj. “pure, clean, (originally) bright”
glantha- v. “to cleanse, purify, purge”
glant(hi) n. “cleanness”
glanthin adj. “cleanly, pure”
glanweth n. “cleanliness, purity”
glanwethrin adj. “cleanly, pure”
puictha- v. “to clean, wipe out; to condone, do away with, pardon, forgive”
puig adj. “clean, neat, tidy”
sôn¹ adj. “pure, clean”
sovri n. “cleansing”
sovriel n. “purification (religious)”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

morc n. and adj. “stain, smut, black mark; dirty”

15.89 Sticky; Gum

mim n. “gum”
thuctha- v. “to adhere to, cleave”
thug n. “?resin”
thugli n. “resin”
thuith n. “resinous juice; any adhesive substance”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

blaith n. “spirit”
manos n. “spirit that has gone to the Valar”
môna n. “spirits of the air”

16.12 Feeling, Emotion

ist n. “feeling, sensation; notion”

16.13 Passion

cwibra- v. “to arouse (tr.)”
cwiptha- v. “to arouse (tr.)”
ictha- v. “to egg on, excite, arouse, agitate”
ig n. “excitement, fuss, ado”
igin adj. “excited, agitated”
igol adj. “exciting; excitable”

16.14 Care (n)

hîr n. “care, anxiety; heed”
hirilwen n. “anxiety”
hiriol adj. “anxious”
hirtha- v. “to care for, mind, tend; to care, reck, mind”
hirthol adj. “careful, attentive”
sad- v. “to reck, care, value, esteem, show respect for, consider”

16.15 Wonder, Astonishment

elma- v. “to marvel at, admire”
elm(en) n. “wonder; singular, marvelous or unique thing; something strange”
el(u)m interj. “think of that!”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

ausirol n. “fortune”
brith- v. “to chance”
martion adj. “fated, doomed, fey”
mart(os) n. “fate, portion, lot”
umbart n. “fate”

16.18 Good Fortune

avos n. “wealth, fortune, prosperity; luck”
gwalt n. “good luck, any providential occurrence or thought”
gwaltha n. “fortunate, happy”
gwaltha- v. “bless, send good luck to”
gwalthi n. “fortune, happiness”
gwalweth n. “fortune, happiness”

16.19 Misfortune

obruith n. “(evil) consequences”

16.21 to Please

maus n. and adj. “pleasure; pleasant taste, pleasant”
mav- v. “to like”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

dairog adj. “merry (of persons)”
gwîs n. “entertainment”
ospathol adj. “ebullient”

16.25 to Laugh

cacha- v. “to laugh”
cag n. “joke, jest”
cagri n. “joke, jest”
cagrin adj. “funny, amusing”
cagriol adj. “jocular”
canc n. “laughter, mirth, merriment”
dairiol adj. “merry (of things), funny”
dairwed adj. “merry, funny (common)”
dairwen n. “mirth”
teilian n. “mockery”
teilin n. “stunt or jest”

16.26 to Play

dair n. “play, merriment”
dairtha- v. “to play, amuse”
salta n. “a game”
saltha- v. “play”

16.27 to Love; Love

grith (grith-) n. “care, attention, affection”
idril n. “sweetheart”
mel- v. “to love”
meleth n. “love”
melethli n. “darling, sweetheart”
melethril n. “lover”
melethron n. “lover”

16.28 Dear

garth adj. “beloved”
maimelion adj. “dearly beloved”
melon adj. “dear, beloved”

16.29 to Kiss

cailtha- v. “to kiss”
cailthi n. “kiss”
mib n. “little kiss, peck”
mictha- v. “to kiss, bill”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

bal [mb-] n. “anguish, pain; evilness”
fesc adj. “itching, irritating”
fesca- v. “to itch, irritate”
fess n. “itch, itching”
ong n. “great pain”
ongos n. “anguish”

16.315 Torture, Torment

gaist n. “torment, oppression”
gaista- [ng-] v. “to oppress, cause great grief to”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

gumlaith n. “weariness of spirit, depression, grief”
necha n. “woe”
nîr¹ n. “grief, sorrow”
nîriol adj. “sad, sorrowing”

16.33 Anxiety

nurn n. “plaint, lament, a complaint”
nurna- v. “to bewail, lament, complain of”

16.34 to Regret, Repent

tiglath n. “remorse”

16.36 Sad

glumri n. “moroseness, sadness”
naithol adj. “miserable”
naithonwi adj. “misery”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

naitha- v. “to lament, weep, wail for, make moan for”
ninios n. “lamentation, dropping of tears”
ninna- v. “to weep”
nirnaithos n. “great lament”
sibra- v. “to weep, whimper”
sigweth n. “lamentation, weeping”
sigwithiel n. “lamentation; weeping willow”

16.38 Tear (n)

nîn n. “tear”

16.39 to Groan

nur- v. “to growl, grumble”

16.41 Hate (n)

glâm n. “hatred, loathing, fierce hate”
glamog adj. “loathsome”
glamra- v. “to abominate, loath, detest”
mog- v. “to detest, hate”
mogri n. “detestation”
mogrin adj. “hateful”
sagruin adj. “ferocious; full of hate towards”
sagruith n. “hatred; revenge”
thanc n. “loathing, hatred”
thancol adj. “loathsome”
tîf n. “resentment, ill feeling, bitterness”

16.42 Anger

arc adj. “fierce, harsh, ill tempered; awkward, difficult”
archos n. “savagery, evil temper”
lur- v. “to frown, scowl”
lurc n. “a frown, scowl”
naur¹ adj. “ill-tempered, sour, grumbling”
naur² n. “a snarl, ugly grin”
sairin adj. “fiery, fierce”
torod adj. “fierce, violent”
udrug adj. “intractable, fierce, untamed”

16.43 Rage, Fury

gruigarm n. “*deed of horror, angry or violent act, vengeance”
gruith n. “deed of horror, angry or violent act, vengeance”
gruithod n. “ferocious wrath”
gruithodwen n. “ferocity, barbarity”
gruithog adj. “ferocious, mad with wrath”
grum adj. “fierce”
magruluib adj. “bloodthirsty”
magruluist n. “bloodthirstiness”
magrusaig adj. “bloodthirsty”
magrusaith n. “bloodthirstiness”
orcômin adj. “fierce and bloody minded”

16.45 Shame (n)

agrech n. “contempt”
agrectha- v. “to despise, contemn”
agrectharol adj. “despicable, contemptible”
agrecthion adj. “despised”
cactha- v. “to deride, mock, make fun of, laugh at”
flan n. “scorn”
flant n. “expression of scorn, leer, sneer”
flantha- v. “to scorn, utterly despise”
flanthog adj. “scornful”
naudra- v. “to abash, to make ashamed”
rig n. “a snarl, a sneer”
tefla- v. “to scorn”
unandrathrol adj. “unabashed, shameless”

16.46 Honor (n)

gartha- v. “to admire, have affection or respect for”

16.47 Fame, Glory

aglar n. “glory”
aglar(i)ol adj. “glorious”
aglath n. “glory”
emfeg adj. “infamous, of evil name”

16.48 Proud

cam adj. “bent, bowed; submissive, humble”
hamra- v. “to abase, abash; to humble oneself”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

driod [nd-] n. “heroism, valour”
driodwen [nd-] n. “heroism, valour”
driog [nd-] adj. “valiant”
gwionert n. “deed of valour”
odron adj. and n. “dour, mighty, stout, brave; a brave man”

16.53 Fear, Fright

barc n. “dread, terror”
barchol adj. “terrible, awful”
brig- v. “to fear, be afraid of”
brigol adj. “afraid; fearful, timid”
captha- v. “to startle”
grui adj. “ferocity, horror”

16.54 Peril, Danger

uchir n. “recklessness; carelessness; security”
uchirthol adj. “reckless”

16.61 to Will, Wish

erth (erdh-) n. “wish”
irm n. “a wish, intention, resolve”
uir- v. “not to wish, not mean to, mean not to”
uirol adj. “unwilling, reluctant”

16.62 to Desire

gwirtha- v. “*to not to wish, not mean to, mean not to”
irn adj. “desired, wished for”

16.622 Desire

avosaith n. “avarice, money-greed, greed of gold”
buin n. “desire, wish”
idrisaith n. “excessive love of gold and gems and beautiful and costly things”
mavra adj. “eager after”
mavrin adj. “delectable, delightful, desireable”
mavrog adj. “eager”
mavros n. “desire, eager longing”
nauglafel adj. “mean, avaricious, (lit.) dwarf-natured”

16.63 Hope (n)

hodhir n. “hope”
hôth (hôdh-) n. “expectation, hope”
ûna n. “hope”
ûna- v. “to hope”

16.65 Faithful

bron(n) adj. “steadfast, firm”
bronniol adj. “constant, faithful”
tulug adj. “steady, firm”

16.66 True

nathrin adj. “real; possible (in sense possible to exist or think of)”

16.67 Lie, Falsehood

fûr n. “lie”
fur- v. “to conceal; to lie”
unathriol adj. “unreal; impossible”

16.68 Deceit

finc n. “trick”
fintha- v. “to twist; to deceive, cheat, take in”
lûgi n. “a wind, a twist; guile, deceit”

16.71 Good

mai adv. “well”
maien adj. “better”
main adv. “better”
mora adj. “good”
nogra- v. “to excell, exceed”
nogrin adj. “excellent, conspicuous”

16.72 Bad

fecthi adj. “less bad; baddish, naughty”
fêg adj. “bad, poor, wretched”
fegla adj. “worse”
feigien adj. “worse”
fien adv. “worse”

16.73 Right (adj)

(be)bilfir n. “conscience”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

aul adv. “ill, badly”
aulin adj. “wrong”
curdhu n. “sin, wickedness, evil”
cwarth (cwardh-) adj. “evil, bad, wicked”
raig adj. “awry, twisted, distorted, perverse, wrong, leering (of face)”
ulc adj. “bad, evil, wicked”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

curdhweg n. “sinner [m.]”
curdhwin n. “sinner [f.]”
ulcarm n. “sin”
ulcoth n. “wickedness”

16.76 Fault, Guilt

aidra- v. “to expiate”
aidros n. “expiation”

16.77 Error, Mistake

cinga- v. “to go wrong, get tangled”
ul- pref. “miss-, wrongly, ill, badly”

16.79 Praise (n)

belectha- v. “to extol, magnify”

16.81 Beautiful

benin adj. “shapely, pretty”
*cli adj. “?attractive”
gwandra adj. “beautiful”
gwandreth n. “beauty”
gwant adj. and n. “beautiful, fair; loveliness”
gwanthi n. “fairness, beauty; a fair face, pretty”
maivenin adj. “shapely”

16.99 Emotion (other)

balc adj. “cruel, evil”
faig adj. “cruel”
faigri n. “cruelty”
ômgulin adj. “patient”
ômgulwen n. “patience”
tefra adj. “abject, mean”

17. Mind and Thought

17.11 Mind

ôm n. “mind, heart, thought”

17.12 Reason, Intelligence

mablios adj. “cunning”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

cuctha n. “consideration”
cucthol adj. “painstaking”
cug- v. “to ponder, resolve, think, consider”
cunghol adj. “painstaking”
cuno n. “care, thought, ‘pains’”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

naf- v. “to suspect, have inkling of”
nafa n. “suspicion, inkling”
nafol adj. “suspicious (subjective)”
nautha- v. “to hint at, give a hint to”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to know, be aware, perceive, feel”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

ais n. “knowledge, wisdom”
golma n. “lore, wisdom, ancient lore”
santhi n. “knowledge, experience (in) or skill (in)”

17.18 to Seem

feltha- v. “to resemble, seem like; to seem likely, be probable”
felu- v. “to seem”
ol- v. “to appear, seem”

17.19 Idea, Notion

finthi n. “idea, notion”
tung n. “a thought, an idea”

17.21 Wise

nusimos n. “sagacity”
nusiol adj. “sagacious”
tungol adj. “wise, knowing”

17.22 Stupid, Foolish

fôf n. “fool”
fofri n. “folly”
fofrin adj. “foolish”
gwista- v. “to be ignorant of, not to know”

17.24 to Learn

godaithion adj. “educated”
godaithri n. “education, erudition; grammar”
godaithri(o)n adj. “learned, educated”

17.25 to Teach

taitha- v. “to teach”
taithion adj. “educated”

17.33 Meaning

mecthos n. “meaning”

17.34 Clear, Plain (to the Mind)

brinc adj. “clear, transparent”

17.36 Secret

cwist n. “secret”
dum adj. “secret, not to be spoken”
fuin¹ adj. “secret, dark; hoarded”
maugli adj. “secret, hidden”
mugwen adj. “secret”
ruim adj. “secret, mysterious”
rûm n. “secret, mystery”

17.37 Sure, Certain

tanc adj. “firm, steady, settled”
tulga- v. “to make firm, confirm, settle, steady; to comfort”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

îr- v. “to be willing; to will, intend to, mean to”
irthod n. “intent, intention, will”
irthol adj. “intentional”
mectha n. “goal, intention”
mectha- v. “to aim at; to intend, mean”
mutha prep. “will, am going to, am about to”
sectha- v. “to aim at”
uthairiol adj. “unintentional, unintended; reluctant”

17.42 Cause, Reason

caith n. “cause, reason, motive”
caithl n. “source, fount, origin”
caithos n. “causation”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

glin n. “sound, voice, utterance”
ûm n. “voice”

18.12 to Sing

dala- [nd-] v. “to sing or ring”
dólin n. “song”
glingon n. “song, chanting, chant”
glîr n. “song, poem”
lillir n. “a song, lullaby”
lir- v. “to sing”
lul- v. “to sing, hum a lullaby”
lulwi n. “a lullaby”
rala- v. “to sing, carol, trill”
rôl n. “a song”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

auba n. “shout”
gam n. “shout”
gama- v. “to call, shout to”
gôm n. “shout, call; name, nickname”
uptha- v. “to shout”

18.14 Various Cries

ai interj. “oh!”
mumla- v. “stammer, gibber”
mumloth n. “stuttering”
mumol adj. “stammering, gibbering, inarticulate”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

pactha- v. “to utter, speak, talk”
paithri n. “a speech, speech, talk”
paithron n. “orator”
paithwen n. “oratory”
ugwedriol adj. “ineffable, unspeakable, awful”

18.22 to Say

cwed- v. “to say, tell”
cwess n. “saying, proverb”
sara- v. “ait”

18.23 to be Silent

lithra- v. “to cease speaking, become silent”
mug- v. “to keep silent, say nothing (about)”
suthra- v. “to hush, to make or go quiet”

18.24 Language

idhruglin n. “the language of Men”
lam n. “tongue, speech”

18.25 Dialect

Cweneglin n. “*Elvish (Qenya)”

18.26 Word

cweth n. “word”

18.28 Name

em adj. “named, called by name”
embrin adj. “by name, named”
enn n. “name”
enos n. “title”
entha- v. “to name, call, indicate, point out”
enu- v. “to be called, be named”
enweg n. “name sake”
enwiol adj. “nominal”
gôma adv. “by name, nicknamed”
gôma- v. “to nickname”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

dos adv. “when”
dui adv. “where”

18.32 to Answer

nunta- v. “to assent”

18.41 to Call, Summon

lempa- v. “to beckon, crook the finger”

18.51 to Write

tectha- v. “to write”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

taith n. “a letter, mark, sign”

18.56 Paper

paglos n. “parchment”

18.57 Pen

tenc n. “pen, nib”

18.61 Book

pand n. “bark; book”
pant n. “arrangement, grouping; book”

18.63 Line (n)

rim¹ n. “stripe, line; border, fringe”
adj. and n. “straight; line”

18.67 Poet

#(g)lairin n. “*poem”
golairin n. “rime, rhyme; riming poem”
gwaidhi n. “a rime (i.e. the 2 actual rhyming words)”

18.68 Tale, Story

cwedri n. “telling (of tales)”
cwent n. “tale, saying”

18.69 Music

gling n. “music”
glingrin adj. “musical”

18.70 Instrument

lintha- v. “to sound (tr.), strike or ring bell, play an instrument”
linthanin n. “playing or music of instruments”

18.71 Pipe, Flute

rogli n. “little pipe (especially musical)”
ross n. “pipe”
siptha- v. “to whistle”
thibin n. “flute”
thibindon n. “flute-playing”
thibinweg n. “piper”
thimli n. “whistle, piccolo”
thimp n. “the stop on a flute”
thimpa- v. “to play a flute or whistle”
thimpion n. “a piper”
tif- v. “to whistle”
tifin n. “small flute”
timp n. “hoot, note of a flute”

18.72 Harp, Lute

salum n. “*harp”

18.73 Bell, Ringing

lang- v. “to blare, clang, ring”
langon n. “great bell”
nelu- v. “ring (tr. & intr.)”
timpa- v. “to ring, jingle, tinkle”
timpi n. “little bell”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country, Nation

dôr [nd-] n. “land, country (inhabited), people of the land”

19.13 Country (vs. Town)

nandri n. “the country (as opposed to town)”
nandriol adj. “rustic, rural”

19.14 Region, Territory

bardha n. “realm”
hermin n. “realm, tutelage”
malcos n. “lordship, power, a province or principality”

19.15 Town, City

ost¹ n. “enclosure, yard; town”

19.16 Village

baros [mb-] n. “hamlet”
pel suf. “village, hamlet, -ham”

19.17 Boundary

cortheb n. “bounds, boundary”
farn n. “mark, boundary; shore”
faroth n. “boundary”
hebon adj. “bound; (also) bounded, surrounded”
hebrim n. “bound(ary)”
hebwirol adj. “circumspect”
pelu- v. “to fence, enclose”
pless n. “hedge, fence”
tath n. “hedge, fence”

19.21 People, Populace

gadorwen n. “society”
gados n. “union, association, fellowship”
gomod n. “companionship, living together; community, fellowship”
gwaith¹ n. “people”
n. “folk, many people, ‘they’, a crowd of folk”
lieg n. “the folk, the citizens”
lieglest n. “a folk moot”

19.22 a People, Nation

gweithiad n. “nation, folk”
-thlim suf. “race, folk”
thlim n. “race, kind, species, sort”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

fo n. “a clan”
geth¹ n. “clan, kindred, folk”
in- pref. “house of”
nothri n. “family, kinship”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

bardha- v. “to rule, reign”
gomaithri n. “government”
herma n. “protection, lordship, sway”
maith n. “rule, power, permission”
maitha- v. “to rule, govern, wield control, hold”
maithog adj. “having control”
maithri n. “control”
turm n. “authority, rule; strength”

19.32 King

bridhon n. “king, prince”
tûr n. “king”
turioth n. “kingship”

19.33 Queen

bridh(n)ir n. “queen, princess”
turwin n. “queen”

19.35 Prince

hiril n. “princess, †queen”
turinthi n. “princess”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

malcrin adj. “lordly, noble, mighty”
mandra adj. “noble”
nothrin adj. “highborn noble”

19.41 Master

bridhweg n. “liege (m.)”
bridhwig n. “liege (f.)”
gwir¹ n. “master, lord, possessor”
hermon n. “lord”
hiros n. “guardian, overseer, lord, master”
indor n. “master (of house), lord”
malc² n. “lord”

19.412 Lady

gwiniel n. “lady”

19.42 Slave

drog n. “slave, thrall, servant”
drogod n. “slavery, bondage, thraldom”
drogwed adj. “servile, slavish; base, mean”
drogwin n. “slave woman”
guinir n. “slave”
guinog n. “chattel”

19.44 Free (adj)

balt adj. “rid, soluit, free”
faidwen n. “freedom”
faina- v. “to get free”
fair adj. “free, unconstrained”
fairtha- v. “to set free, release”
fairthos n. “liberty”
faith n. “liberty”
faithir n. “liberator, Saviour”
fegrin adj. “free”

19.48 to Compel

caitha- v. “to make to do or be, cause, compel, induce, bring about”

19.51 Friend

fedhin n. and adj. “bound by agreement; ally, friend”
ged n. “kinsman†; friend, chum”
gedfel adj. “friendly, affable, amiable”
gedweth n. “kinship†, friendship”
gethli n. “friendship”
gethlir n. “friend; †kinswoman”
gofedhrog n. “ally”
gwesol adj. “affable”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

forog n. “enemy”

19.53 Companion

gadron n. “fellow, associate”
gomodril n. “companion, associate, fellow (f.); nun”
gomodron n. “companion, associate, fellow; monk”
gwar(e)dhir n. “f. companion, comrade”
gwar(e)dhon n. “m. companion, comrade”

19.55 Stranger

far(o)n adj. “separate, different, strange”
faronwed adj. “foreign”
faronweg n. “foreigner (m.)”
faronwin n. “foreigner (f.)”
gwâd n. “stranger, foreigner, traveller”
lenweg n. “‘arrival’, a stranger”
sarothod n. “voyager, seafarer, (lit.) foreigner from overseas”

19.56 Guest

gwes- v. “to greet, welcome”
gwest¹ n. “greeting, welcome, salute”
gwesta- v. “to entertain”
gwethlir n. “song of welcome”
gwethrin adj. “welcome, acceptable”
gwirn adj. “unwished for, unwelcome”
maiwest n. “welcome”
maiwethrin adj. “welcome”

19.58 to Help, Aid

gresta- v. “to aid, help, succour, support”
grith- v. “to attend to, tend, care, care for, mind”
grithonwed adj. “thoughtful, careful; unselfish”
resta- v. “to support, to aid”
talpa- v. “to prop up, buttress up”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

farc n. “split, crack; division, quarrel”
glamri n. “bitter feud”

19.65 to Meet

gwalest n. “concourse, moot, folkmote”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.11 to Fight

sactha- v. “to fight”

20.12 Battle (n)

gothwen n. “battle”
macha n. “slaughter, battle”
magru n. “slaughter, battle”

20.13 War

goth n. “war, strife”
gothri n. “warfare”
gothriol adj. “warlike”

20.14 Peace

gothwilm n. “armistice”
gwilthi n. “peace”

20.15 Army

hothri n. “army”

20.17 Soldier

aith(i)or n. “warrior, swordsman”
aithrog n. “warrior”
aithron n. “warrior, †swordsman”
aithweg n. “warrior”
drio [nd-] n. “hero, warrior”
driodweg [nd-] n. “hero, warrior”
ecthor n. “warrior, swordsman”
gothweg n. “warrior”
gothwin n. “amazon”
mort n. “warrior, champion, hero; man; †sword, †shepherd”

20.20 Captain

hothron n. “captain”

20.24 Bow

brant² n. “bow (for shooting)”
cwing n. “bow”
cwingfim adj. “skilled at archery”
cwingfimli n. “skill at archery”
cwinglios n. “archery”
cwingron n. “archer”

20.25 Arrow

feng n. “arrow, war arrow”
fengvain n. “quiver”
fengwathil n. “arrow feathering”
gothfeng n. “(war-)arrow, a great arrow; an arrow sent as a summons to war”
piligwathil n. “feathering of an arrow”
pilon n. “arrow, dart”

20.26 Spear

engan n. “spear”
hadang n. “javelin, (lit.) hurling iron”

20.27 Sword

aith² n. “sword”
ectha n. “sword”
falchon n. “great two-handed sword, twibill”
magli n. “great sword”

20.32 Corslet, Breastplate

ammos n. “byrne, hauberk, cuirass”

20.33 Helmet

cathor n. “helmet, (lit.) head-ward”

20.35 Fortress

grann n. “strong place, fort; walled town, city”

20.36 Tower

est(i)rin n. “pinnacle, tower”
gwarestrin n. “watch-tower”
mindon n. “tower”
tirin n. “watch-tower, turret, tower”

20.41 Victory

abair n. “victory”

20.45 Retreat (n)

nam- v. “withdraw, draw out, draw back, take back; (intr.) withdraw, retire”

21. Law and Judgment

21.12 General Law

fedhir n. “law; properly bond, convention, agreement”
fedhwed adj. “lawful”
sôm n. “law, custom, rule”

21.14 Lawyer

fedhirweg n. “lawman, lawyer”

21.162 to Decide

lanc n. “chance; pick, choice, selection”
pridu- v. “to decide”
thaig n. “choice”
thaigra adj. “choice, select, elegant”
thig- v. “to pick out, select, choose”
thinc n. “a pick, a choice; a bunch, posy”

21.17 Judgment

pridwen n. “judgment”

21.18 Judge (n)

pridwir n. “judge”

21.25 Oath

fedhril n. “one bound by oath [f.]”
fedhrog n. “one bound by oath”

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

bodruith n. “revenge”
hadruith n. “revenge”
hadruithog adj. “thirsting for vengeance”
hadruithol adj. “vengeful”
obaidra- v. “to expiate (crime), avenge”

21.38 Fine, Settlement

samri n. “arrangement”
samtha- v. “to settle a matter legally”

21.395 Exile, Outlaw

nifedhin adj. and n. “outlaw, outcast”
uf(f)edhin adj. and n. “outlaw, outcast; one who changes his clan and goes to a new kinship”

21.41 Crime, Misdeed

ufedhron n. “lawless man”
ufedhwed adj. “lawless”

21.999 Law (other)

fedhwen n. “treaty”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.11 Religion

aist n. “reverence, awe”
aista- v. “to revere”
aistog adj. “holy, revered, awful”

22.12 God

ain¹ n. “god”
ainil n. “(female) god”
ainos n. “(male) god”
Ban¹ n. “god, one of the Valar”
Gwala n. “one of the gods”
Gwalon n. “male god”
Gwalthir n. “female god”

22.13 Temple

alc(hor) n. “shrine, fane, temple”
gorthin n. “fane, temple”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

air(in) adj. “holy, sacred”
mani adj. “good (of men and character only), holy”

22.23 to Bless

list n. “grace, favour, kindness”
lista- v. “to bless”

22.31 Heaven

daimoth n. “heaven”
ilbar n. “heaven, the uttermost region beyond the world”

22.32 Hell

band n. “hell”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

graug n. “demon”

22.37 Idol

dungort n. “(evil) idol”
gort n. “idol”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

curu n. “magic”
curusôn n. “witchcraft”
curuthli n. “enchantments, sorcery”
thairin adj. “magic”
thairiniol adj. “magical”
thoth n. “spell, evil enchantment of magic”
thothri n. “black magic”

22.43 Witch, Sorceress

curus n. “witch”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

curug n. “wizard”
thothweg n. “wizard”
throthriol n. “wizardous”

22.44 Elf, Fairy

Cwenn n. “Elf”
Egla n. “fairy, (lit.) being from outside”
Golda [ng-] n. “Gnome, wise one”
Goldogrin n. “Language of the Gnomes”
Goldrin adj. “Gnome”
golweg n. “*Gnomish man”
golwin n. “*Gnomish woman”
im n. “fairy”
inweg n. “*fairy (male)”
inwin n. “*fairy (female)”
tilithli adj. “elfin”
tilithril n. “f. elf”
tilithron n. “m. elf”

22.441 Dryad, Nymph

flathwin n. “foam fay”
nendil n. “waterfay”
nermil n. “a fay that haunts the meadows and riverbanks”
tavor n. “wood fay”

22.442 Dwarf

naug n. “dwarf”
naugla adj. “of or belonging to the dwarves”
naugli n. “dwarf”

22.445 Goblin, Monster

ulvon n. “*monster, giant”

22.446 Orc, Goblin

orc n. “goblin”

22.447 Dragon

fuithlug n. “dragon (who guards treasure)”
gunn n. “?dragon”
lingwir n. “dragon”
uluch n. “she-dragon”
ulug¹ n. “dragon”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

ûl n. “a ghost”

22.46 Guardian Spirit

sulus n. “air-spirit”

22.47 Omen

laur adj. “threatening, foreboding, darkling”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

i article. “the”

23.2 Negation

il- pref. “the opposite, the reversal”
ni prep. “without (both senses)”
u- pref. “negative prefix”
û- v. “not to be, not to do”
u adv. “no, not, nor”
ub² adj. “no, none”
ug- v. “negative verb”
untha adj. and adv. “no, none”
unweg n. “nobody, no one”

23.3 Preposition

a(n) prep. “of”
da prep. “?with, into”
heb prep. “round about, around”
ir prep. “dative and allative”
ma prep. “with instrument or by agent”
na prep. “of (the)”
od¹ prep. “at, up to, against”

23.4 Pronoun

a-¹ pron. “it, they; 3rd-person pronoun”
atha¹ pron. “they, 3rd pl. pronoun”
deg pron. “what (n[euter])”
dir pron. “who (f.)”
don pron. “who”
en pron. “that by you, that already mentioned (by you), that past”
fi- pron. “you, 2nd-person singular”
gwe- pron. “you (plural), 2nd-plural pronoun”
irtha pron. “her”
ith² n. “anything”
ithog adj. “any”
ithrin adj. “of any kind”
ithweg n. “anyone”
madheg n. “something”
madhin adj. “some”
madhir n. “someone (f.)”
madhon n. “someone (m.)”
me- pron. “we, 1st-plural pronoun”
ni- pron. “I, 1st-singular pronoun”
on pron. “he”
ontha pron. “his”
ost³ pron. “yourselves”
oth pron. “ye”
sitha² adj. “this”
thas pron. “thy”
um¹ pron. “we”
unc¹ pron. “ourselves”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-a suf. “genitive suffix”
#-c suf. “noun or adjective suffix”
-chi suf. “dim[inutive] suffix”
-i suf. “dative suffix”
-in¹ suf. “plural suffix”
#-la² suf. “noun suffix”
#-li suf. “noun suffix”
-n suf. “genitive suffix”
#-od suf. “noun suffix”
-odro(n) suf. “augmentative”
-th suf. “plural suffix”
-tt suf. “dual”
-wi¹ suf. “dual”

23.6 Verb Inflection

#-la¹ suf. “verbal suffix”
-r¹ suf. “plural in verbs”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

a-² pref. “?”
ach adv. “too, *excessively”
agra adj. “extreme, vehement, excessive”
agros adv. “excessively, too; excess”
-inci suf. “diminutive superlative”
-inthir suf. “diminutive”
-iont(ha) suf. “*superlative”
-wen² suf. “*augmentative”

23.8 Conjunction

el conj. “or”
eltha adv. “or, otherwise”
far adv. “yet, however”
í pron. “indefinite indeclinable relative particle”
li prep. “with; and”

23.9 Affix

-glin suf. “suffix in the name of languages”
-in² suf. “adjective ending”
#-(i)ol suf. “adjective suffix”
#-(i)on suf. “adjectival suffix”
#-og suf. “adjectival suffix”
#-og² suf. “agental suffix”
#-on suf. “noun suffix”
-onta suf. “superlative”
#-os¹ suf. “abstract noun”
#-(o)th suf. “abstract noun”
#-ra¹ suf. “adjective suffix”
#-ra² suf. “verb suffix”
#-ri suf. “abstract noun”
#-(r)in suf. “adjective suffix”
#-r(i)ol suf. “adjective suffix”
#-st suf. “noun suffix”
#-tha¹ suf. “verb suffix”
#-tha² suf. “noun or adjective suffix”
#-thi¹ suf. “noun suffix”
-thlib suf. “-ly or -like”
*-thol suf. “adjective suffix”
-thwi suf. “[feminine patronymic]”
*-uin suf. “*noun suffix”
-(u)m suf. “?indefinite suffix”
#-wed suf. “adjective suffix”
#-wen¹ suf. “noun suffix”
#-weth suf. “noun suffix”
#-wi² suf. “noun suffix”

23.99 Grammar (other)

godaithrinwed adj. “grammatical”