Sindarin Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

amar n. “world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement”

1.21 Earth, Land

ceven n. “*Earth”
-ian(d) suf. “-land”

1.214 Mud, Mire

both n. “fen, marsh”
madha n. “mud”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

achad n. “rock ridge, neck (geographically)”
amon n. “hill, mountain with steep sides; lump, clump, mass”
orod n. “mountain”
orodben n. “mountaineer, one living in the mountains”
pind n. “crest, ridge”

1.221 Peak, Summit

#aeglir n. “line of peaks”
min¹ n. “peak”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

avras n. “precipice”
brass n. “great cliff”
îf n. “cliff, sheer descent”
pend n. and adj. “slope, steep incline, hill side; sloping (down), steeply inclined”

1.223 Mound, Pile

cerin n. “circular mound, artificial hill”
coron n. “mound”
mâf [mb-] n. “pile or mass of rock or earth”

1.23 Plain, Field

dalath n. “plain, low lying/flat ground”
lad n. “plain, valley”
ness n. “headland”
parth n. “field, enclosed grassland, sward”
sâdh n. “sward, turf”
talath n. “flat lands, plain”
talf n. “wang, flat field, topographical flat area”

1.24 Dale, Valley

im³ n. “valley”
imlad n. “deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides, gap, gully”
imrath n. “long narrow valley with road or watercourse running through it lengthwise, (lit.) *valley course”
nan(d) n. “vale, valley”
tum n. “valley, vale”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

cirith n. “cleft, ravine, defile”
criss n. “cleft”
#falch n. “*cleft, ravine”
n. “chasm, pit; void, abyss”
imrad n. “path or pass between mountains or trackless forest, (lit.) *valley path”

1.25 Isle, Island

#cast n. “cape, headland”
ras(t) n. “cape, shore”
tol(l) n. “island, (high steep-sided) isle”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falas n. “beach, shore, strand, surf(line)”

1.31 Water

nen n. “water; lake, pool; (lesser) river”

1.32 Sea

duinen n. “flood, high tide”
gaear n. “sea”
gaearon n. “ocean, (lit.) great sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

#ael n. “lake, pool”
lîn n. “pool, mere”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

côf n. “bay”

1.35 Wave, Surge

faloth n. “large foamy wave”

1.351 Foam, Froth

gwing n. “foam, spray”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

duin n. “(large) river”
lanthir n. “waterfall”
sîr n. “river, stream”

1.37 Spring, Well

eithel n. “source [of water], spring, well”
ethuil n. “spring”

1.41 Woods, Forest

eryn n. “wood, forest (of trees)”
glad n. “wood”
taur n. “forest, wood”
tauron n. “forester”
tawar n. “forest”

1.43 Wood, Timber

taw¹ n. “wood as material”
tawen adj. “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”

1.44 Rock, Stone

brith n. “gravel”
?brithon adj. “pebbly”
gond n. “stone, rock”
sarn n. and adj. “(small) stone, pebble; stony (place)”
serni n. “shingle, pebble bank”

1.46 Cave

fela n. “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwelling; minor excavations, den”
feleg n. “cave, mine, underground dwelling”
groth n. “large excavation, delving, underground dwelling”
rond n. “(vaulted or arched) roof; vaulted chamber or cavern; heavens [as a roof of the world]”
torech n. “(secret) hole, lair, excavation”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

menel n. “the heavens, firmament, region of the stars”

1.52 Sun

Anor n. “Sun”
#fael¹ n. and adj. “gleam of the sun; *gleaming”
glaw n. “sunshine”

1.53 Moon

cýron n. “new-moon”
Ithil n. “Moon”
ithildin n. “magical alloy that glows in moonlight, (lit.) moon-star”
#Raun n. “Moon”

1.54 Star

êl n. “star”
gil [ng-] n. “star; (bright) spark, silver glint, twinkle of light”

1.542 Starlight

silivren adj. “(white) glittering”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

lhôn n. “noise”

1.61 Light

calad n. “light, fire, brightness, shining”
galad [ng-] n. “radiance, glittering reflection; light, fire, brightness, shining; bliss”
glae(gal) n. “light [substance]”
#narthan n. “beacon”

1.62 Darkness

môr n. and adj. “dark(ness); †night”
thû¹ n. “horrible darkness, black mist”

1.622 Dark, Murky

dûr [nd-] adj. “dark (with evil implications), gloomy, hellish”
muil n. and adj. “drear[iness]”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

dae n. “shadow”
dúath n. “night shadow, dark/black shadow”
esgal n. “veil, screen, hiding; cast shadow, shade”
gwath n. “shadow, dim light”
gwathra- v. “to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure”
gwathren adj. “shadowy, dim”
#gwathui adj. “*shadowy”
#morchant n. “dark shape, shadow cast by light”

1.72 Wind

gwael n. “?wind”
gwaeren adj. “windy”
gwae(w) n. “wind”
sûl n. “wind”

1.722 Storm

gwaew n. “storm”

1.723 Breeze

hwâ n. “breeze[?]”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

fân n. “(white) cloud; veil; shape, vision; spirit [embodied]”
fanui adj. “cloudy, (lit.) having much cloud”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

faen n. “vapour; [disembodied] spirit”
hîth n. “mist”
#hithui adj. “misty”
mîdh n. “dew”

1.75 Rain (n)

ross¹ n. “rain; foam, spindrift, spray”
#rost adj. “rainy”

1.752 Rainbow

ninniach n. “rainbow”

1.76 Snow (n)

loss n. “snow”
lossen adj. “snowy”

1.77 Ice, Frost

aeglos n. “snowthorn; icicle”

1.81 Fire (n)

naur n. “fire”
?uir adj. “*fiery”
*ûr n. “fire”

1.82 Flame (n)

bragollach n. “sudden flame; ?wild fire”
lach n. “(leaping) flame”
#lacha- v. “to flame”
ruin n. and adj. “red flame; fiery red”

1.84 Ash(es)

lith n. “ash”
lithui adj. “ashen, ashy, of ash”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

thoniel adj. “kindler (in the past)”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Adan n. “Man (as a race)”
Feir n. “Mortal”
Fíreb n. “Mortal”
fíreb adj. “mortal”
-we suf. “person, being, individual”

2.21 Man

dîr¹ [nd-] n. “man”
Firion n. “(Male) Mortal”

2.22 Woman

adaneth n. “(mortal) woman”
Firieth n. “(Female) Mortal”

2.23 Male

-on¹ suf. “masculine suffix”

2.24 Female

-iel¹ suf. “feminine suffix; daughter”
-ien suf. “feminine ending”
-il suf. “feminine suffix”
-wen n. “maiden, *female suffix”

2.26 Girl

gwend n. “maiden”
gweneth n. “maidenhood”

2.27 Child

hên n. “child”

2.28 Infant

gwinig n. “little-one, baby”

2.32 Wife

bess n. “wife”

2.35 Father

adar n. “father”
atheg n. “(little) father; thumb”

2.36 Mother

emel n. “mother”
emig n. “(little) mother, *mommy”

2.41 Son

-ion¹ suf. “-son”
ion(n) n. “son”

2.42 Daughter

sell n. “*daughter”

2.44 Brother

hanar n. “brother”
hawn n. “brother”
honeg n. “brother (diminutive)”

2.45 Sister

neth n. “sister (diminutive); (little) girl”
nethel n. “sister”
nethig n. “sister, girl (diminutive)”
nîth n. “sister”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

gwê n. “living creature”
lavan n. “animal”

3.21 Bull

mund n. “bull”

3.41 Horse (generic)

roch n. “horse”

3.61 Dog

huan n. “great dog, hound”

3.64 Bird

aew n. “(small) bird”
#aewen adj. “of birds”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

thoron n. “eagle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

craban n. “bird of crow-kind, *raven”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

#maew n. “gull”
#mŷl n. “gull”

3.648 Swan

alph n. “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

dúlin n. “nightingale”
flinc n. “finch”

3.71 Wolf

baw² [mb-] n. “howling”
draug n. “wolf”
gaur [ng-] n. “werewolf”

3.73 Bear

graw n. “bear”

3.74 Fox

rusc n. “fox”

3.75 Deer

aras n. “deer”

3.79 to Hunt

faroth n. “?hunting, hunters”

3.811 Spider

ungol n. “spider”

3.83 Fly (n)

budhu n. “large fly”
cáfru n. “?flea”

3.84 Worm

leweg n. “worm”

3.85 Snake

lhûg n. “snake, serpent, reptile, worm”
lŷg n. “snake”

3.99 Animals (other)

felagund n. “den-dweller; brock, badger”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.11 Body

rhond n. “body”
rhû² n. “matter”

4.12 Skin, Hide

#flâd n. “skin”
#rîf n. “bark”

4.13 Flesh

rhaw² n. “flesh”

4.14 Hair

fîn n. “(single) hair, filament”
find n. “tress; single hair”
findel adj. and n. “having fine or beautiful hair; head of hair, fax, mass of long hair”
fing n. “lock of hair”

4.142 Beard

fang n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

esbin n. “thin thread, tress”
gwain² adj. “fair-haired (yellow to golden)”
gwân adj. “pale, fair”

4.15 Blood

#agar n. “blood”
sereg n. “blood”

4.17 Horn (animal)

rass n. “horn”

4.20 Head

dol(l) n. “head, hill”

4.204 Face

thîr n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

carach n. “jaws, rows of teeth”

4.21 Eye

hen n. “eye”

4.212 Sharpeyed

maecheneb adj. “sharp-eye[d]”

4.22 Ear

lheweg n. “ear”

4.24 Mouth

ethir¹ n. “mouth of a river, (lit.) outflow”

4.27 Tooth

carch n. “fang”

4.28 Neck

ach¹ n. “neck”
lang n. “passage; neck”

4.33 Hand

mâb n. “hand”
maw n. “hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

cam n. “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful”
dond n. “fist”
molif n. “wrist, (lit.) hand-link”
paur n. “fist, (closed) hand”
plad n. “palm, flat of the hand”

4.34 Finger

lebdas n. “index finger”
lebenedh n. “middle finger”
lebent n. “fourth finger”
leber n. “finger”
lebig n. “little finger”
niged n. “little finger”
tas n. “index finger”
toleg n. “*sticker-up”

4.342 Thumb

lebed n. “thumb”
naub n. “thumb”
nobad n. “thumb and index finger as a pair, (lit.) *pickers”

4.37 Foot

tâl n. “foot; [lower] end”

4.392 Wing

raw n. “wing”
roval adj. and n. “winged”

4.58 to Bite

narch adj. “bitter-biting”

4.59 to Lick

laudh n. “gluttonous eating”

4.62 Dream (n)

?fanwos n. “mind-picture (of apparition in dream)”

4.63 to Wake

echui n. “awakening”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

#onna- v. “to beget, make born”
#onnen adj. “born”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

#cuia- v. “to live”
#cuina- v. “to be alive”

4.742 Immortal

alfirin adj. and n. “immortal, (lit.) not dying; a species of flower”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

#fern adj. and n. “dead”
#fir- v. “to fade, die”
firin adj. “mortal, dying”
gurth [ng-] n. “death”
guru [ng-] n. “death”
guruthos [ng-] n. “death-horror, shadow of death”

4.76 to Kill

#dag- [nd-] v. “to slay”
dagnir [nd-] n. “slayer, bane”
dangen [nd-] adj. “slain”

4.77 Corpse, Body

#gorth¹ [ng-] n. “dead (person)”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

haudh n. “(funeral) mound, grave; heap, piled mound”
sarch n. “grave”
tor n. “the Dead”
torn¹ n. “burial mound”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

belaith [mb-] adj. “mighty”
tharan adj. “vigorous”

4.83 Well; Health

*alu adj. “wholesome”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

naedh n. “wounding, wound”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

athae n. and adj. “?healing”
athelas n. “kingsfoil, a healing herb”
athra-² v. “to treat medically”

4.89 Poison

lhoer n. “venom, poison(ousness)”
lhoew n. “poison(ous substance)”

4.93 Bald

rûdh n. “bald”

4.97 Blind

dom adj. “blind”

4.99 Naked, Bare

lanc² adj. “naked”
paran adj. “bare, naked; smooth, shaven”
parch adj. “naked (of persons)”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

#mad- v. “to eat”
madweg adj. “gluttonous”

5.13 to Drink

#luithia- v. “to quench”
uluithiad adj. “unquenchable”

5.151 Thirsty

faug adj. “gape”

5.35 Cup

ylf n. “drinking-vessel”

5.51 Bread

#bas(t) [mb-] n. “bread”
lembas n. “waybread, journey-bread”

5.72 Apple

cordof n. “pippin, *(small red) apple”

5.92 Wine

miruvor n. “a special wine or cordial”

5.94 Juice

nîdh n. “juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.38 Thread

#lain n. “thread, warp, ‽twine”

6.41 Cloak

#coll¹ n. “cloak, mantle”

6.55 Hat, Cap

n. “wreath, garland”

6.57 Belt, Girdle

lest n. “girdle”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

tachol n. “clasp, brooch”

6.71 Adornment (personal)

cathrae n. “tressure, *net for containing hair”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

mîr n. “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
#mírdan n. “jewel smith”
míria- v. “to sparkle like jewels”
míriel adj. “sparkling like jewels, like a jewel”

6.75 Necklace

sigil n. “necklace”

6.96 Mirror

cenedril n. “mirror, looking-glass, (lit.) looking-crystal”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.12 House

barthan [mb-] n. “large building of masonry used as a dwelling”

7.122 Home

bâr [mb-] n. “home, house, dwelling”
bardh [mb-] n. “home”
bardor [mb-] n. “home land, native land”
milbar n. “beloved dwelling, dear home”

7.14 Tent

echad n. “camp”
estolad n. “encampment”

7.21 Room

#sam n. “chamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

annon n. “(great) gate, door”
fen(n) n. “door”
fennas n. “doorway, great door”

7.25 Window

henneth n. “window”

7.26 Floor

talan n. “flet, flat space, platform (in a tree)”

7.27 Wall

caras n. “circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks”
ram n. “wall”
rammas n. “great wall”

7.31 Hearth, Fireplace

ruist n. “fireplace, hearth”

7.412 Furniture (other)

#dim n. “stair”

7.43 Chair

arahadhw n. “throne, (lit.) high seat”
hadhu n. “seat”

7.45 Lamp

calar n. “(portable) lamp”
calardan n. “lampwright”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.12 Field for Cultivation

haedh n. “fenced enclosure”
#pêl n. “*fenced field”
rîdh n. “sown field”

8.13 Garden, Orchard

sant n. “garden, field, yard”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

#sabar n. “delving”

8.51 Grass

glae n. “grass”
#lisg n. “reed”

8.54 Root

thond n. “root”

8.56 Leaf

golas n. “foliage, collection of leaves”
lass n. “leaf”

8.57 Flower

elloth n. “single flower”
loth n. “flower, single blossom; inflorescence, head of small flowers”
lotheg n. “single flower”

8.571 Bloom

goloth n. “inflorescence, collection of flowers”
lûth n. “inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)”

8.58 Rose

meril n. “rose”

8.599 Flower (other)

amloth n. “uprising flower”
eirien n. “daisy”
elanor n. “a golden star-shaped flower, (lit.) sun-star”
lissuin n. “a fragrant flower”
mallos n. “golden flower”
ninglor n. “golden water-flower”
niphredil n. “white flower (similar to a snowdrop); *(lit.) pale point”
pirin n. “flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light”
uilos n. “flowers like ‘white stars’”

8.60 Tree (generic)

galadh n. “tree”
galadhremmen adj. “tree-meshed”
orn n. “(tall) tree”

8.61 Oak

nordh n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

neldor n. “beech”

8.63 Birch

brethil¹ n. “silver birch”
hwinn n. “birch”

8.635 Elm

alaf n. “elm”

8.64 Pine

thôn n. “pine-tree”

8.655 Tree (other)

faran n. “rowan”
huorn n. “?Spirit Tree”
lebethron n. “Gondorian hardwood, (lit.) *finger tree”
mallorn n. “gold tree, yellow tree”
tathar n. “willow (tree)”
tathren adj. “of willow”

8.68 Tobacco

galenas n. “pipeweed, nicotiana, *tobacco”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

ereg n. “holly, thorn”
Onod n. “Ent”
seregon n. “plant with red flowers, (lit.) blood of stone”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

car- v. “to do, make”
echad- v. “to form, make, shape, cut out; (lit.) to shape out”

9.112 Doer, Agent

#-or suf. “agental suffix”
#-(r)on suf. “agental suffix”

9.114 Action

athragared n. “interaction”
#cared n. “action”
#carn n. “deed”
#carth n. “deed”
carweg adj. “active; busy”
úgarol adj. “not now doing or making, idling”

9.18 Chain (n)

nadha n. “fetter”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hithlain n. “mist thread, grey elvish rope”
#raph n. “?rope, strap”

9.22 to Cut

#rest n. “*cut”
tewch n. “(?chip)”

9.25 Ax

hathol n. “axe”

9.27 to Split

riss adj. and n. “cleft, cloven, separate; cleft”
#thanc adj. and n. “forked”

9.41 Craft, Trade

curu n. “skill (of the hand), craft; power, ability”
maed² adj. “handy, skillful”
ravaed adj. “skillful”
tavn n. “a thing made by handicraft”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

rom n. “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

#tân n. “builder, smith, wright, artificer”

9.423 to Use

maetha- v. “to handle, manage, wield, use, treat, deal with”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

eitha-¹ v. “to prick with a sharp point, stab; to treat with scorn, insult”

9.49 Hammer (n)

#dring n. “hammer”

9.51 Beam

#tagol n. “post, mark”

9.635 Metal

galvorn n. “type of dark metal devised by Eöl, (lit.) *shining-black”
#raud² n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

glaur n. “gold [light or colour]”
glawar n. “gold (light or colour)”
#glóriel adj. “golden”
#glórin adj. “*golden”
mallen adj. “golden”
malt n. “gold”

9.65 Silver

celeb n. “silver”
celebrin adj. “like silver (in hue or worth)”
mithril n. “Moria-silver, true-silver”

9.66 Copper, Bronze

rust n. “copper”
rustui adj. “copper”

9.67 Iron

ang n. “iron”
angren adj. “of iron”

9.74 Glass

[Ilk.] ?bril n. “glass, crystal”
glathralvas n. “flashing glass/crystal, *heliograph”
heledh n. “glass”
silef n. and adj. “crystal (white)”

9.91 Be

#na- v. “to be”

9.92 Become

tho- v. “?to become”

9.96 Easy

ath- pref. “easily”
athgar adj. “easy (easy to do)”
rhae adj. “easy”

9.97 Difficult

dîr² adj. “hard, difficult”
dirbedui adj. “hard to utter, difficult to pronounce”
gor-¹ pref. “hard, difficult”
gordh¹ adj. “difficult, laborious”
rhanc adj. “awkward, hard”

9.98 to Try

dev- [nd-] v. “to try”
raitha- v. “to try, strive”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

raef n. “net”
raen¹ adj. “netted, enlaced”
rem n. “mesh, net (for catching)”
remmen adj. “entangled, meshed, netted, woven”

10.21 to Rise

brasta- v. “to tower up, loom”
reth n. “*climber”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

#ortha- v. “to raise”
orthad n. “*raising”

10.23 to Fall

danna- v. “to fall”
dant n. “*fall”
dúnad n. “descent”
penna- v. “to come down (in a slant), fall”

10.26 to Shake

#gir- v. “to shudder”
girith n. “shuddering”

10.32 to Flow

dannen [nd-] n. “ebb, lowtide”
(h)lô n. “flood, fenland”
sirith n. “flowing”

10.38 to Blow

faw n. “*breath, puff of breath”
thos n. “puff (of air)”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

#cab- v. “to leap”
#laba- v. “to hop”

10.432 Leaping

cabed n. “leap”

10.45 to Walk

pad- v. “to step, walk”
padra- v. “to walk”

10.46 to Run

nor- v. “to run (or leap) of animals or men”

10.47 to Go

ban- v. “?to go”
#glenna- v. “*to travel”
#men- v. “to go”

10.48 to Come

dadwen- [nd-] v. “to return, go back”
dandol- [nd-] v. “to return, come back”
#tol- v. “to come”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

#gwae- v. “to go [depart]”
gwanwen adj. “departed”

10.50 to Fade

#pel- v. “to fade, wane”
#peleth n. “waning”

10.51 to Flee

#drega- v. “to flee”

10.52 to Follow

aphad- v. “to follow”
#echil n. “follower”

10.54 to Overtake

raeda- v. “to catch in a net”

10.56 to Approach

#anglenna- v. “to approach”

10.57 to Enter

minna- v. “to go in, enter”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

rain n. “erratic wandering”
randir n. “wanderer, wandering man, pilgrim”

10.66 to Ride

north n. “riding, race (of people running), charge or gallop”
northa- v. “to make run”
rochben n. “rider”
#talraph n. “stirrup”

10.71 Road

men² n. “road, way”
pâd n. “a step (action); track, road; ford”

10.72 Path

? n. “path”
#râd n. “path, pass”
rant n. “course, water-channel; lode”

10.73 Street

rath n. “street”

10.74 Bridge

iant n. “bridge”

10.75 Cart, Wagon, Carriage

rasg n. “wain, *wagon, cart”

10.81 Ship

cair n. “ship”
círdan n. “shipbuilder, shipwright”

10.90 Port, Harbor

lond n. “(land-locked) haven”
#lonnas n. “harbourage”

11. Possession and Trade

11.11 to Have

#sav- v. “to have”

11.17 to Keep, Retain

#heb- v. “to keep”

11.21 to Give

ann¹ n. “gift”
#anna- v. “to give, †add to”
oneth n. “*giving”

11.23 to Restore

cŷl n. “*renewal”
cŷr adj. “renewed”
cýra- v. “to renew”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

edraith n. “rescue, saving”
natha- v. “to bring help to, save, rescue”

11.27 to Destroy

dangar- [nd-] v. “to undo”

11.29 to Spoil

saur adj. “bad (of food), putrid”

11.34 to Release

#leithia- v. “to release”
leithian n. “release from bondage”

11.41 Property

said adj. “private, separate, not common, excluded”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

maelig n. “wealth, abundance”

11.43 Money

mirian n. “Gondorian coin”

11.46 Treasure

maen n. “a treasure”

11.48 Heir

advir n. “heirloom”
#hîl n. “heir”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

#genedia- v. “to reckon”
genediad n. “reckoning”
gornodui adj. “hard to count”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

sad n. “place, spot”

12.13 to Sit

hadhwa- v. “to seat”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

reth- v. “to remain in same place”
#send n. “?rest”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

ego interj. “be off!”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

dîn n. and adj. “silence; silent, quiet”
dínen adj. “silent”

12.22 to Join, Unite

#adertha- v. “to reunite”
aderthad n. “reuniting”
#ertha- v. “to unite”
#lîf n. “link”

12.221 Together

go- pref. “together, co-, com-”

12.222 And

conj. “and; †by, near, beside”

12.223 Also

eithro adv. “*also”

12.23 to Separate

edregol adv. “in especial”
seidia- v. “to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner”

12.24 to Open

edra- v. “to open (out)”

12.25 to Shut, Close

#hol- v. “to close, shut”
hollen adj. “closed, shut”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

*fanna- v. “to veil, cloak”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

dolen adj. “hidden”
torn² adj. “hidden, secret”

12.31 High

taer adj. “lofty”

12.35 End

methed n. “end”

12.352 Point

ceber n. “stake, spike”
till n. “point, spike, (sharp) horn, tine, ending”
trunc n. “great stake”

12.353 Edge

glân² n. “hem, border”
lanc¹ n. “sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end”

12.37 Middle

enaid adj. “central, middle”
enedh n. “centre, middle”

12.371 Between

im² prep. “between”
mîn n. “[thing] between; gap, space, barrier; anything intervening between two other things”

12.391 In, Inside

mi prep. “*in”

12.392 Out, Outside

ed¹ prep. and pref. “out, out of”

12.393 Across, Athwart

athra-¹ v. “to cross (to and fro)”
athrad n. “ford, crossing”
#iach n. “ford”
thar prep. and pref. “across, athwart, over”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

#am adv. “up”
bo prep. “*on”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

di¹ [nd-] prep. “beneath, under”
nu prep. “under”

12.398 To, Towards

na¹ prep. “to, towards, at”

12.399 From, Away

#gwahae adj. “*far away”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

forvo n. “right hand, right side”
fuir adj. “north”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

harvo n. “left hand, left side”

12.43 Near (adj)

ar- pref. “without; by; **beside”
nef prep. “hither, on this (the speaker’s) side of; †beyond [loose translation]”
adv. “here, in this place (of speaker)”

12.44 Far (adj)

ennas adv. “there”
hae adj. and adv. “far, very far away”
haer adj. “remote”
haered n. “remoteness, (remote) distance”
haeron adj. “*distant”
palan adv. “afar, abroad, far and wide”
palan-díriel n. “far-gazer”
taw² adv. “thither”

12.45 East

rhûn n. “east”
rhúnen adj. “eastern”

12.46 West

annui adj. “west[ern]”
annûn n. “sunset, west; (lit.) going down”
dûn [nd-] n. “west”

12.47 North

forn adj. “north”
forod n. “north”

12.48 South

harad n. “south”
harn adj. “south, southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

#cannas n. “[abstract] shape”
#cant n. “shape”

12.53 to Grow

gala- v. “to grow”
theria- v. “to be vigorous, flourish”

12.54 to Measure

daur n. “league; †stop, pause”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

beleg adj. “great, mighty; large, big”
daer¹ adj. “great, large”

12.56 Small, Little

#pîn adj. “little”

12.57 Long

anann adv. “(for) long”
and adj. “long”

12.58 Tall

brand¹ adj. “towering; tall and massive”
orchal adj. “tall”

12.59 Short

esten(t) adj. “short”
thent adj. “short”

12.61 Wide, Broad

iaun adj. “wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge”
#land adj. “wide, broad”

12.62 Narrow

úlan(n) adj. “narrow, (lit.) not broad”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

delch adj. “dense”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

fim adj. “slender, slim”

12.71 Flat

#laden adj. “flat, wide”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

coll² adj. “hollow”
naw adj. “hollow”

12.75 Hook, Crook

gamp n. “hook, crook”

12.76 Angle, Corner

naith n. “spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow prominitory; angle”

12.82 Circle

cor n. “ring, circle”
echor n. and adj. “outer circle; encircling”

12.84 Line

#lîr n. “line”

12.92 Like, Similar

#be prep. “in; ?as, like”

12.925 Different, Other

sennui adv. “?rather, instead”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

arnediad adj. “unnumbered”
arnoediad adj. “unnumbered, without reckoning”
#nedia- v. “to count”
#nod- v. “to count”
pennod adj. “without count”
pennoediad adj. “innumerable”
únodui adj. “countless”

13.14 All, Every

il adj. “*all”
#pân adj. “all”

13.16 More

íd adv. “extremely, very”
ro- pref. “*superlative”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

hoth n. “host, horde”
rim n. “host, great number, people (of one kind or origin)”

13.21 Full

#pant adj. “full”

13.22 Empty

#lost adj. “empty”

13.24 Half

#per- pref. “half”
Perian n. “Halfling, Hobbit”

13.25 Fraction, Division

canath n. “quarter”

13.32 One

er adj. “one, alone”
min² num. card. “one”

13.33 Alone, Only

air adj. “lonely”
ereb adj. “single, alone, lonely”
ero adv. “*only, alone”

13.34 First

main adj. “prime, chief, pre-eminent”
mein num. ord. “first”
minui num. ord. “first”
ned n. “first”

13.35 Last

medui adj. “end, final, last”
#meth adj. “last”

13.36 Two

gwanunig n. “twin”
tâd num. card. “two”
#tad-dal adj. “two-legged”
#ui- pref. “twi-”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

edwen num. ord. “second”
tadui num. ord. “second”
taid adj. “supporting, second in command”

13.38 Double, Twice

adu adj. “double”
edaid adj. “double”

13.41 Three

neledh num. card. “three”

13.42 Third (ordinal)

nail num. ord. “third”
nelui num. ord. “third”

13.54 Cardinal Number

caen num. card. “ten”
canad num. card. “four”
eneg num. card. “six”
leben num. card. “five”
#meneg num. card. “thousand”
minib num. card. “eleven”
neder num. card. “nine”
odog num. card. “seven”
pae num. card. “ten”
tolodh num. card. “eight”
yneb num. card. “*twelve”
ýneg num. card. “twelve”

13.55 Ordinal Number

caenui num. ord. “tenth”
canthui num. ord. “fourth”
enchui num. ord. “sixth”
levnui num. ord. “fifth”
nedrui num. ord. “ninth”
nelchaenen num. ord. “*thirtieth”
nerthui num. ord. “ninth”
othui num. ord. “seventh”
paenui num. ord. “tenth”
tollui num. ord. “eighth”
#tolothen num. ord. “eighth”

14. Time

14.13 New

cîw adj. “fresh, new, renewed”
laew adj. “fresh”

14.14 Young

#gwain¹ adj. “young, *new”
gwîn n. “youth”

14.15 Old

einior adj. “elder”
iaur adj. “old”
*iphant adj. “*aged”

14.18 Now

adv. “now”

14.19 Soon, Immediately

fergar adj. “soon done”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

#bregol adj. “quick, sudden”
celeg adj. “*hasty”
fair adj. “quick, ready, prompt”
lim adj. “quick, swift”

14.254 Patience, Endurance

andreth n. “long-suffering, patience”

14.28 to Cease

#dar- v. “*to stop, halt”

14.29 Ready (adj)

feria- v. “to make ready (promptly)”
ferui adj. “ready to hand, (quickly) available”

14.31 Always

#him¹ adv. and adj. “ever”
ui adv. “ever”

14.35 Again

#ad- pref. “back, again, re-”
dan [nd-] prep. “back to, (back in return) against, down upon, back on, back again”

14.36 Before (temporal)

#eb prep. “?before”

14.37 After

#ab prep. “after”
atha- v. “will (future)”
#cad adv. “*after”

14.41 Day

aur n. “(whole) day”
calan n. “day(light)”
erin ? “on the ... day”
or- pref. “-day”

14.412 Daily

ilaurui adj. “*daily”

14.42 Night

n. “night, dimness; dim, dark”
fuin n. “night, gloom, darkness”

14.43 Dawn

amrûn n. “sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising”
minuial n. “(dawn) twilight”

14.462 Dusk

aduial n. “(evening) twilight”
moth n. “dusk”
#tinnu n. “*twilight”
uial n. “twilight, evendim”

14.47 Today

sír n. “*today, this day”

14.62 Sunday

Oranor n. “(lit.) *Sun-day, Sunday”

14.63 Monday

Orithil n. “*Moon-day, Monday”

14.64 Tuesday

Orgaladh n. “Day of the Tree, *Tuesday”
Orgaladhad n. “Day of the Two Trees, *Tuesday”

14.65 Wednesday

Ormenel n. “*Heavens-day, Wednesday”

14.66 Thursday

Oraeron n. “Sea-day, *Thursday”

14.67 Friday

Orbelain n. “*Day of the Valar, Friday”
Rodyn n. “alternate name of the last day of the Eldarin six-day week”

14.68 Saturday

Orgilion n. “*Star-day, Saturday”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cadlaer n. “July, *After-summer”
Cerveth n. “July”
Eblaer n. “June, ?Before-summer”
Girithron n. “December, *Shuddering-one”
Gwaeron n. “March, *Windy-one”
Gwirith n. “April, *Freshness”
Hithui n. “November, *Misty-one”
Ivanneth n. “September, *Yavanna-ness”
Lothron n. “May, *Flower-ness”
Narbeleth n. “October, Sun-fading, Sun-waning”
Narwain n. “January, (lit.) *New Fire”
Nínui n. “February, *Watery”
Nórui n. “June, *Fiery”
Urui n. “August, *Hot-one”

14.73 Year

#în¹ n. “year”

14.74 Winter

rhîw n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

echuir n. “early Spring, (lit.) stirring”
#tuil n. “spring”

14.76 Summer

laer¹ n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

firith n. “fading; [late] autumn”
iavas n. “autumn”

14.79 Festival, Holiday

mereth n. “feast”

14.81 History

ínias n. “annals”

14.99 Time (other)

eno adv. “*still”

15. Sense Perception

15.25 Fragrant, Good Smelling

?liss adj. “fragrant”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

caw- v. “to taste”

15.35 Sweet

laich adj. “sweet”

15.42 to Listen, Harken

lasta- v. “to listen, give ear”
lasto interj. “listen, *hark”

15.44 Sound (n)

#brui adj. “loud”
glam n. “din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts”

15.441 Echo

#lam² n. “echo”
?lamma- v. “to echo”
lammad n. “*echoing”
loven adj. “echoing”

15.51 to See

alae interj. “?behold”
#cen- v. “to see, perceive, look”
fergenol adj. “quick to see or perceive, sharp-sighted or witted”
#tíra- v. “to see”

15.52 to Look

#cened¹ n. “looking”
#ethir² n. “spy”
glintha- v. “to glance (at)”
#tir- v. “to look (towards), watch (over), guard”
tiria- v. “to watch, gaze; to ward, guard”
tirith n. “watching, guarding, watch, ward, guard”
#tirnen adj. “guarded”

15.53 Sight (subj)

foen n. “long sight”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

athgen adj. “easily seen”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

#cal- v. “to shine”
fain adj. and n. “white, shimmering, shining; white and shining [thing]; dim, dimmed; filmy, fine-woven; (vague) apparition; cloud”
gal- [ng-] v. “to shine clear”
#síla- v. “*to shine”

15.562 Blinking

glîn(n) n. “gleam, glint”
tîn¹ n. “spark, sparkle, twinkle of stars”

15.61 Color

rhaed n. “peculiar hue, (special) fashion”

15.62 Light in Color

nimp adj. “pale, pallid, white”
niphred n. “pallor”

15.64 White

#glân¹ adj. “white”
gloss adj. “(dazzling) white”
glosui adj. “snow white”
nim adj. “white”

15.65 Black

morn adj. and n. “black, dark; night”

15.66 Red

caran adj. “red”
#rhosc adj. “russet”
ross² adj. “red-haired, copper-coloured”

15.67 Blue

luin adj. “blue”

15.68 Green

calen adj. “green; fresh, vigorous; †bright”
laeg adj. “fresh and green, viridis, green (of leaves/herbiage)”

15.69 Yellow

baran adj. “brown, golden-brown”

15.70 Grey

hithren adj. “grey”
mith adj. “grey, light grey, pale grey”
#mithren adj. “grey”
thind adj. “grey”

15.72 to Feel of

leutha- v. “to pick (up/out)”

15.74 Hard

dern adj. “tough, thrawn”
dorn adj. “tough, stiff, thrawn, obdurate”
gorn² adj. “hard, stiff, thrawn”
#norn adj. and n. “hard; dwarf”
taug adj. “firm, strong, (?withstand)”

15.76 Rough

tarch adj. “stiff, rough (or tough)”

15.77 Smooth

lhim adj. “sliding, gliding, slippery, sleek”
ron adj. “smoothed by polishing”

15.78 Sharp

#aeg adj. “sharp”
maeg adj. “sharp, piercing”
megr adj. “sharp-pointed”
negen adj. “sharp, angular”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

caul n. “great burden, affliction”
cûl n. “load”
grond adj. “weighty, ponderous”
#lung adj. “heavy”

15.82 Light, Nimble

#legol adj. “[Ilk.] nimble, active, running free”

15.83 Wet, Damp

loen adj. “soaking wet, swamped”
?mêd(h) adj. “[Ilk.] wet”
nîn¹ adj. “wet”

15.85 Hot, Warm

ast n. “light or heat of the sun”
born¹ [mb-] adj. “hot, red”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

him² adj. “cool”
#oel adj. “cool”
ring adj. “cold, chill”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

#gwaen adj. “stained”
saw n. “filth, putrescence”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

fae n. “incarnate spirit”
faer n. “spirit (in general)”
thû² n. “movement of spirit”

16.15 Wonder, Astonishment

elo interj. “behold!”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

amarth n. “fate, doom”
amartha- v. “to define, decree, destine”

16.18 Good Fortune

alwed adj. “prosperous, fortunate”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

al-² pref. “well, happily”
gelir adj. “merry”

16.25 to Laugh

gladh- v. “to laugh”
#lala- v. “to laugh”
lalaith n. “laughter”

16.255 Smile

raen² adj. “smiling, gracious, sweet-faced”

16.27 to Love; Love

#mel- v. “to love”
melui adj. “lovely, sweet”
seron n. “lover”
úvelui adj. “not amiable, unloveable”

16.28 Dear

mell adj. “dear, beloved”

16.315 Torture, Torment

bauglir [mb-] n. “constrainer; tyrant, oppressor”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

gorbedui adj. “only to be said with horror or grief, lamentable to tell”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

naergon n. “woeful lament”
naeth n. “woe”
nirnaeth n. “tears”

16.38 Tear (n)

#nîn² n. “tear”

16.41 Hate (n)

deloth n. “abhorrence”

16.42 Anger

balch adj. “fierce, ferocious”
rhaw¹ adj. “wild”

16.43 Rage, Fury

oroth n. “rage, anger”
rûth n. “wrath, anger”
ruthra- v. “to rage”

16.45 Shame (n)

eithad n. “*insult”
niben adj. “petty”

16.46 Honor (n)

fael² adj. “fair-minded, just, generous”

16.47 Fame, Glory

aglar n. “glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance”
aglareb adj. “glorious, brilliant”
aglor adj. “brilliant, glorious”

16.48 Proud

tarlang adj. and n. “proud, (lit.) stiff-necked; stiff neck (a nickname applied to men of haughty carriage or mood); the stiff/tough passage”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

thalion adj. and n. “strong, dauntless”

16.53 Fear, Fright

anwar n. “awe”
dae- [nd-] pref. “dreadful, abominable, detestable”
daedelos [nd-] n. “horrible fear”
dael [nd-] n. “horror”
daer² [nd-] adj. “dreadful, abominable, detestable”
del n. “horror”
#gaer¹ adj. “awful, fearful”
goe n. “terror, great fear”
goeol adj. “*fell, terrible, dire”
gor [ng-] n. “horror, dread, fear”
gorgor [ng-] n. “extreme horror, terror, haunting fear”
gorog n. “horror”
goroth [ng-] n. “horror, dread”
gorthob [ng-] adj. “horrible”
groga- v. “to feel terror”
gruitha- v. “to terrify”
naer adj. “dreadful, horrible, unendurable”
thaur adj. “abominable, horrible”
thoss n. “fear”

16.61 to Will, Wish

nidh- v. “to will”
nídha- v. “to be determined to”

16.62 to Desire

#aníra- v. “to desire”
ídhra- v. “to long for, desire”

16.63 Hope (n)

amdir n. “hope [based on reason], (lit.) looking up”
estel n. “hope, trust”

16.65 Faithful

astor n. “loyalty”
astorad n. “loyalty”
?born² adj. “[stead]fast”
sador adj. “steadfast, trusty, loyal”
thorn¹ adj. “steadfast”

16.69 to Forgive

#díhena- v. “*to forgive”
#gohena- v. “*to forgive”

16.71 Good

ein- pref. “excellent, admirable”
ma interj. “good, excellent, that’s right”
mae adv. and adj. “well; excellent, admirable”
mael adj. “well”
maer adj. “good, excellent, fair”

16.72 Bad

oer adj. “nasty”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

#neitha- v. “to wrong, deprive”
ogol adj. “bad, evil, wrong; gloom(y)”
ogron n. “wicked or evil person”
oth- pref. “[wrong] with a bad sense; unsuitable, bad, improper, useless, wrong”
othgar(ed) n. “doing wrong, *wrong doing”
othgarn n. “misdeed”
rhu- pref. “evil-”
rhû¹ n. and adj. “evil, wicked”
rhudol adj. and n. “unwelcome, coming with evil omen or intent”
rhugarol adj. “wicked, doing evil”

16.75 Sin, Impiety

oew n. “an evil deed”
rhugar n. “evil deed”
#úgarth n. “trespass, (lit.) *misdeed”
úthaes n. “inducement to do wrong, *temptation”

16.77 Error, Mistake

#dew- v. “to fail, miss”
dýgar n. and adj. “mistaken act; doing a wrong thing”
dŷl n. “mistake”
dŷr adj. “mistaken, off point, not right”

16.79 Praise (n)

#egleria- v. “to glorify”

16.81 Beautiful

bain adj. “fair, beautiful; good, wholesome, favorable; fair-haired”
dail adj. “beautiful, fine, delicate, lovely”
edhelvein adj. “elven fair”
írui adj. “desirable, lovely”
#lind² adj. “fair”
maed¹ adj. “shapely”
rovaed adj. “*most shapely”
wanedhel adj. “elven fair”

17. Mind and Thought

17.11 Mind

gûr n. “heart (inner mind)”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

geria- v. “to ponder”
gordh² n. “deep thought”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

aen adv. “should be; ?may it be that”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

dorgannas n. “shapes of the lands, *geography”

17.21 Wise

#sael adj. “wise”

17.27 Teacher

golodh [ng-] n. “lore-master, sage”
pengolodh n. “teaching sage, doctor (of lore), teacher of lore”

17.31 to Remember

ephola- v. “?to remember”
rîn n. “remembrance”

17.34 Clear, Plain (to the Mind)

limp adj. and n. “clear, sparkling; (bright/clear/gleaming) liquid”

17.36 Secret

thurin adj. “secret, hidden”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

ind n. “some particular purpose or intention of an individual; heart”
innas n. “*will”
nidh n. “full vigorous purpose, exertion of will”
thel- v. “to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

#glim n. “voice”

18.12 to Sing

laer² n. “song”
lind¹ n. “song, chant, singing; singer”
linna- v. “to sing, chant”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

can- v. “to cry out, shout, call”
caun² n. “outcry, clamour”

18.14 Various Cries

interj. “O!”
ai¹ interj. “hail!”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

athrabeth n. “conversation, debate, (lit.) interchange of words”
carfa- v. “to talk, speak, use tongue”
paeth n. “speech”
ped- v. “to say, speak”
pedweg adj. “talkative, saying a lot”
penbed adj. “not pronouncable”
úbedui adj. “not fit to say, unspeakable”

18.22 to Say

adbed- v. “to rephrase”
ephed- v. “to say out”

18.24 Language

lam¹ n. “(physical) tongue; language”
lammen adj. “of tongue, spoken with tongue”

18.26 Word

peth n. “word”

18.28 Name

#en- v. “*to name”
eneth n. “*name”
#esta- v. “to be called”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

man pron. “*what, who”

18.32 to Answer

aphed- v. “to answer”
danbeth [nd-] n. “*answer, (lit.) back-word”
dangweth [nd-] n. “answer, (lit.) *back-report”
gweth n. “*report”

18.37 to Refuse

#ava- v. “will not, do not”
avad n. “refusal, reluctance”

18.38 to Forbid

ablad n. “prohibition, refusal”
boda- v. “to ban, prohibit, refuse, forbid”

18.41 to Call, Summon

nalla n. “call”
#nalla- v. “to cry”

18.51 to Write

teitha- v. “to write, draw, inscribe, make marks or signs”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andaith n. “long-mark”
angerthas n. “runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows”
certh n. “rune”
certhas n. “runes-rows, runic alphabet”
taith n. “sign, symbol, mark”
têw n. “letter”

18.57 Pen

tegil n. “pen”

18.66 Author, Writer

pethron n. “speaker, reciter”

18.67 Poet

linnod n. “type of poem, (lit.) ?seven-chant”
maeron n. “artist, poet”
minlamad n. “?alliteration, (lit.) first-echoing”

18.68 Tale, Story

glaer n. “tale”
narn n. “tale”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country, Nation

aranarth n. “*kingdom”
arnad n. “*kingdom”
dôr [nd-] n. “land”

19.13 Country (vs. Town)

rhovan n. “wilderness; wild beast”

19.14 Region, Territory

arthor n. “realm”
gardh n. “region”
?gardhon n. “province”
-ion² suf. “-region, -land”
#trann n. “shire, *county, adminitrative region”

19.15 Town, City

ost n. “fort, fortress, stronghold, citadel; fortified town; enclosure”

19.16 Village

gobel n. “village, town (enclosure)”

19.17 Boundary

cai n. “hedge”
cail n. “fence, palisade of spikes or sharp stakes”
ephel n. “outer fence, surrounding ring”
glandagol n. “boundary mark”
glan(n) n. “boundary”
gleina- v. “to bound, enclose, limit”
iath n. “fence”
#taeg n. “boundary, limit, boundary line”

19.21 People, Populace

gwaith n. “people; region”
n. “people (of one kind or origin)”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

nos(s) n. “family, kindred, clan, house; race, tribe, people”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

maeth n. “management”

19.32 King

aran n. “king, lord, chief, (lit.) high or noble person”
-dor suf. “*king, lord”

19.33 Queen

bereth n. and adj. “queen, spouse; supreme, sublime”
#rían n. “queen”

19.35 Prince

brethil² n. “princess, (lit.) queen-daughter”
caun¹ n. “prince, chief, head”
^#cund n. “*prince”
ernil n. “prince”
-gon suf. “lord, prince”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

condir n. “mayor, (lit.) *chief-man”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

ar(a)- pref. “noble, royal, high”
arod adj. “noble”
arphen n. “noble, knight”
besain [mb-] n. “the Lady, breadgiver”
raud¹ adj. “noble, eminent; lofty, high, tall; excellent”

19.41 Master

#herdir n. “master”
hîr n. “lord, master”
#tûr n. “master”

19.412 Lady

heryn n. “lady”
híril n. “lady”
-riel suf. “crowned maiden”
rodel n. “lady, high lady”

19.48 to Compel

gor-² v. “to warn, urge”
thang n. “oppression, pressure”

19.51 Friend

#-dil suf. “friend, lover”
mellon n. “friend”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

#coth n. “enemy, foe”
#cûd n. “foe”

19.53 Companion

aphadon n. “follower”
sadron n. “trusty follower, loyal companion”

19.54 Neighbor

sammar n. “*neighbor”

19.55 Stranger

edlon n. “outsider, stranger”

19.56 Guest

nathal n. “guest”
othol n. “stranger, guest”
sennas n. “guesthouse”
#suila- v. “to greet”
suilad n. “greeting”
#suilanna- v. “to greet, *give greeting”

19.58 to Help, Aid

eitha-² v. “to ease, assist”
elia- v. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

gurgof n. “traitor”
nuitha- v. “to stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue”

19.65 to Meet

cova- v. “to come together, meet; to gather, assemble”
covad(a)- v. “to bring together, make meet”
govan- v. “to meet, come to same place”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.12 Battle (n)

dagor [nd-] n. “battle”

20.14 Peace

îdh n. “rest, repose, peace, tranquility”

20.15 Army

dírnaith [nd-] n. “wedge-shaped battle-formation, (lit.) man-spearhead”

20.17 Soldier

rochir n. “knight, horse-lord”

20.24 Bow

n. “bow”

20.27 Sword

crist n. “cleaver”
#magor n. “swordsman”
megil n. “sword, longsword”

20.33 Helmet

castol n. “helmet”
thôl n. “helmet, helm”

20.34 Shield

#thand n. “shield”
thangail n. “shield-fence, shield-wall”

20.35 Fortress

othrond n. “underground stronghold”

20.36 Tower

barad n. “tower, great towering building”
brand² n. “steeple”
minas n. “tower, fort, city (with a citadel and central watch tower)”

21. Law and Judgment

21.37 Penalty, Punishment

#achar- v. “to avenge, do back, react, requite”
achared n. “vengeance”
acharn n. “vengeance, (an act of) revenge”

21.38 Fine, Settlement

danwedh [nd-] n. “ransom”

21.39 Jail, Prison

band [mb-] n. “prison, custody, duress”

21.395 Exile, Outlaw

edlen(n) adj. “exiled”
eglan adj. “forsaken”
neithan n. “one deprived, exile whose rights and goods have been confiscated”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

bal- v. “*to have power”
Balan n. “Vala”

22.16 to Worship

gorn¹ [ng-] adj. “revered”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aer adj. “*hallowed, holy”
aerlinn n. “*hymn, (lit.) holy song”

22.24 to Curse

daebeth [nd-] n. “blasphemy”
#rhach n. “curse”

22.33 Angel

Rodon n. “Vala”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

raug n. “demon, powerful hostile and terrible creature”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

gûl [ng-] n. “black arts, sorcery, (evil) knowledge”
guldur [ng-] n. “black arts, sorcery”
morgul n. “black arts, sorcery, necromancy”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

curunír n. “wizard”
ithron n. “Wizard”

22.44 Elf, Fairy

Edhel n. “Elf”
edhellen adj. “elvish”
Eledh n. “Elf”
Ell n. “Elf”
Elleth n. “Elf-maid”
Ellon n. “Elf-man”
Golodh [ng-] n. “one of the wise folk, Noldo”
penedh n. “Elf”
teleir adj. “*Telerin”

22.442 Dwarf

cadhad n. “dwarf”
Hadhod n. “Dwarf”
naug n. “dwarf; dwarf(ed), stunted”
Nogoth n. “[Greater] Dwarf”

22.446 Orc, Goblin

glamog n. “orc”
orch n. “Orc”
Torog n. “Troll”
urug (urcu-) n. “bogey”

22.45 Ghost, Specter, Phantom

auth n. “dim shape, spectral or vague apparition”
gorthad [ng-] n. “wraith, spirit of Dead”
n. “spirit, shadow”
nivol n. “phantom, a seeming”

22.47 Omen

albeth n. “(word of) good omen”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

article. “the”

23.2 Negation

al-¹ pref. “no, not”
baw¹ interj. “no, do not!”
pen- v. “to have not”
pen¹ prep. and pref. “without, lacking, -less”
ú- pref. “no, not, negative; impossible”
û adv. and interj. “no, not”

23.3 Preposition

an prep. “to, for”
di² prep. “with”
en¹ prep. “of the”
na(n) prep. “of; with, along with, accompanied by, provided with or by, associated with, marked with”
o prep. “from, of”
os prep. “*about”
sui prep. “*as”

23.4 Pronoun

ai² pron. “*those who”
ci pron. “thou”
de pron. “you”
e pron. “he”
ech pron. “?you, yourself (singular)”
-ed² suf. “3rd person singular possessive suffix”
ed² pron. “*it”
-eg² suf. “2nd person singular familiar possessive suffix”
-egir suf. “2nd person plural familiar possessive suffix”
-el suf. “2nd person singular polite possessive suffix”
-elir suf. “2nd person plural polite possessive suffix”
-emir suf. “1st person plural exclusive possessive”
-en² suf. “my, 1st sg. poss. suffix”
en² pron. “1st sg pronoun”
-enc suf. “our (inclusive), 1st pl. incl. poss. suffix”
-ent suf. “their, 3rd pl. poss. suffix”
ent pron. “they, 3rd pl. pronoun”
est¹ pron. “he, she, it, 3rd sg. pronoun”
im¹ pron. “I, I myself; reflexive, self(same)”
în² pron. “his, *reflexive possessive = his own”
î(r) pron. “impersonal plural pronoun”
le pron. “thee, you (polite)”
lín pron. “*thy”
men¹ pron. “us”
mín pron. “our”
nin pron. “me”
nín pron. “my”
pen² n. “one, somebody, anybody”
#san pron. “that”
sen pron. “this”
#ten pron. “*it, passive voice marker”
#ti pron. “*they”
#tîn² pron. “his”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-a suf. “[old] genitive suffix”
-ad suf. “dual”
#-ad¹ suf. “noun-suffix”
#-as suf. “abstract noun”
-ath suf. “collective or group plural”
-i suf. “adjectival suffix”
-rim suf. “collective or group plural”

23.6 Verb Inflection

-ant suf. “3rd person past tense”
#-ed¹ suf. “gerund”
-iel³ suf. “perfective-participle”
-ir suf. “past of intransitive verbs”
-nt suf. “past of transitive verbs”
-o suf. “imperative”
-ol suf. “continuative participle”
-th suf. “abstract noun”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

#an- pref. “intensive prefix”
-oth suf. “augmentative suffix”

23.8 Conjunction

ach² conj. “*but”
egor conj. “or”
pron. “who, that”
ir conj. “?when, while”

23.9 Affix

-eb suf. “adjective suffix”
-eg¹ suf. “diminutive/singular ending”
#-en¹ suf. “adjective suffix”
-eth suf. “feminine ending”
#-iel² suf. “adjective suffix”
#-og suf. “singular suffix”
-on² suf. “augmentative suffix”
#-ren suf. “adjective suffix”
-u suf. “a person or being”
-ui suf. “-ful, having quality, adjective suffix; possibility, suitability [as verbal suffix], *-able”
-weg² suf. “active in doing”