Noldorin Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.11 World

amar n. “Earth”

1.21 Earth, Land

cevn adj. “of earth, earthen”
coe n. “earth”
-ian(d) suf. “-land”

1.212 Ground, Soil

cef n. “soil”

1.213 Dust, Powder

ast n. “dust”

1.214 Mud, Mire

mada adj. “soft, pliant, yielding”

1.215 Sand, Grit

eru n. “waste, desert”
lith n. “sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

amon n. “hill”
orod n. “mountain”
*tilias n. “?mountain range”
tunn n. “hill, mound”

1.221 Peak, Summit

egnas n. “sharp point, peak”
feleg n. “(animal’s) horn; steep mountain peak”
oegas n. “mountain peak”
oeglir n. “range of mountain peaks”
taen¹ n. “height, summit of high mountain”

1.222 Slope, Cliff

aclod adj. “sloping, tilted”
atlant adj. “oblique, slanted”
pendrath n. “passage up or down slope, stairway”
penn¹ n. “declivity”
rhass n. “precipice”
talad n. “incline, slope”

1.223 Mound, Pile

cum n. “mound, heap”
gwastar n. “hummock”
tump n. “hump”

1.23 Plain, Field

dalath n. “flat surface, plane, plain”
lhad n. “plain”
lhand n. “open space, level”
nann n. “wide grassland”
pathw n. “level place, sward”

1.24 Dale, Valley

imlad n. “dell, deep vale, glen”
imm n. “dell, deep vale”
tum n. “(deep) valley”

1.241 Ravine, Pass

cîl n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”
cirith n. “cleft, pass”
criss n. “cleft, cut, slash; pass”
dîn n. “opening, gap, pass in mountains”
iau² n. “ravine, cleft, gulf”
lhonn n. “(narrow) path, strait, pass”
rhis n. “ravine”

1.25 Isle, Island

caer² n. “flat isle on a river”
toll n. “island, isle”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falas n. “beach, shore”
faur n. “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

both [mb-] n. “puddle, small pool”
nen n. “water”
nenn adj. “watery”

1.32 Sea

oer n. “sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

lhîn n. “pool”
oel n. “pool, lake”
rhim² n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.34 Gulf, Bay

hûb n. “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
ia n. “gulf”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falf n. “foam, breaker”

1.351 Foam, Froth

faltha- v. “to foam”
gwing n. “spindrift, flying spray”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

celeth n. “stream, *brook, rill, runlet; (lit.) a flowing”
duin n. “water, river”
duirro n. “*river-bank”
eges n. “mouths”
oll n. “torrent, mountain-stream”
rhaw² n. “bank (especially of a river)”
sîr n. “river”

1.37 Spring, Well

celw n. “spring, source”
eithel n. “issue of water, spring, well, fountain”
ethuil n. “spring”

1.38 Whirlpool

chwinn n. “eddy”

1.41 Woods, Forest

lhant n. “clearing in the forest”
taur¹ n. “forest, great wood”

1.43 Wood, Timber

drafn n. “hewn log”
tawar n. “wood (material), *forest”
tawaren adj. “wooden”

1.44 Rock, Stone

brith n. “gravel”
ceber n. “?limestone, -rock”
gondram n. “hewn stone”
#gondren adj. “*of stone”
gonn n. “rock, stone (as a material)”
sarn n. and adj. “stone as a material”
sarnas n. “cairn”

1.46 Cave

fela n. “cave”
gath n. “cavern”
gathrod n. “cave”
groth n. “cave, tunnel”
rhonn n. “roof, cave”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

#ell n. “sky”
#menel n. “*the heavens”

1.52 Sun

Anor n. “Sun”
glawar n. “sunlight, radiance of Laurelin”

1.53 Moon

cúran n. “crescent moon”
Ithil n. “Moon”
ithil n. “Moria-silver, true-silver”
ithildin n. “*moon-star”
Rhân n. “Moon”

1.54 Star

el n. “star”
geil n. “star”
gildin n. “silver spark”
tint n. “spark, small star”

1.542 Starlight

gilith n. “starlight”
silef adj. “silver, shining white”
silif n. “light of Silpion, †silver”
silith n. “silver light, starlight”

1.61 Light

calad n. “light”
galad n. “light”

1.62 Darkness

daw n. “night-time, gloom”
maur n. “gloom”

1.622 Dark, Murky

dofn adj. “gloomy”
dûr adj. “dark”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

dae¹ n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), shade”
dú(w)ath n. “night-shade”
gwath¹ n. “shade”
lhum n. “shade”
lhumren n. “shady”

1.71 Air, Ether

gwelw n. “air (as a substance)”
gwelwen n. “air, lower air”
gwilith n. “air (as a region)”

1.72 Wind

gwaew n. “wind”

1.722 Storm

alagos n. “storm (of wind)”

1.723 Breeze

chwest n. “puff, breath, breeze”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

fanui adj. “cloudy”
faun n. “cloud”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

hîth n. “mist”
#hithui adj. “misty”
hithw n. “fog”
mîdh n. “dew”
mith² n. “white fog, wet mist”

1.75 Rain (n)

eil- v. “to rain”
rhoss¹ n. “rain”

1.752 Rainbow

eilian(w) n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”

1.77 Ice, Frost

heleg n. “ice”
hell² n. “frost”

1.81 Fire (n)

bregedur n. “wild fire”
naur n. “flame”
rhuin n. “fire”
ûr¹ n. “fire”

1.83 Smoke (n)

osp n. “smoke”

1.84 Ash(es)

lithui adj. “ash[en]”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

nartha- v. “to kindle”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

iolf n. “brand”
iûl n. “embers”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

feir¹ n. “mortal man, mortal”
firen adj. “human”

2.21 Man

benn n. “man, male, †husband”
dîr n. “man, adult male; agental suffix”
gwe n. “man, warrior”

2.22 Woman

bess n. “woman; †wife”

2.23 Male

anw n. and adj. “male (person or animal)”
-on¹ suf. “masculine suffix”
-we suf. “masculine suffix”

2.24 Female

-iel¹ suf. “feminine suffix; daughter”
*-ien suf. “feminine ending”
inw adj. “female”
-(r)il suf. “feminine suffix”

2.26 Girl

dess n. “young woman”
gweneth n. “virginity”
gwenn n. “maiden”
sell n. “girl, maid”

2.28 Infant

lhaes n. “babe”

2.31 Husband

doer [nd-] n. “bridegroom”
herven n. “husband”

2.32 Wife

herves n. “wife”

2.321 Bride

[nd-] n. “woman, bride, lady”
dineth [nd-] n. “bride”
dîs [nd-] n. “bride”

2.35 Father

ada n. “father (hypocoristic)”
adar n. “father”

2.36 Mother

emil n. “mother”
nana n. “mother (hypocoristic), *mommy”
naneth n. “mother”

2.37 Parent(s)

odhril n. “parent (f.)”
odhron n. “parent”

2.41 Son

-ion¹ suf. “son”
ionn n. “son”

2.42 Daughter

iell n. “daughter”

2.44 Brother

muindor n. “brother”
tôr n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

gwathel n. “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”
muinthel n. “sister”
thêl n. “sister”

2.81 Relative(s)

gwanur n. “kinsman, kinswoman”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

ûn¹ n. “creature”

3.17 Pasture

nadhor n. “pasture”
nadhras n. “pasture”

3.41 Horse (generic)

lobor n. “horse”
roch n. “(swift) horse”

3.56 Goose

gwaun n. “goose”

3.61 Dog

n. “dog”
huan n. “hound”
rhŷn n. “chaser, hound of chase”

3.63 Mouse, Rodent

nâr n. “rat”

3.64 Bird

aew n. “(small) bird”

3.641 Eagle, Hawk

thoron n. “eagle”

3.642 Crow, Raven

corch n. “crow”

3.647 Gull, Petrel

cuen n. “small gull, petrel, sea-bird”
heledir(n) n. “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher”
maew n. “gull”
poen n. “small gull, petrel”

3.648 Swan

alf n. “swan”

3.649 Bird (other)

cugu n. “dove”
dúlin(n) n. “nightingale”
emlin n. “yellow bird, (lit.) yellow hammer”
fileg n. “small bird”
flinc n. “*finch”
merilin(n) n. “nightingale”
tavor n. “woodpecker, knocker”
tuilinn n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”

3.65 Fish (n)

hâl n. “fish”
lhim n. “fish”
lhimlug n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”

3.71 Wolf

araf n. “wolf, dog”
draug n. “wolf”
garaf [ng-] n. “wolf”
gaul [ng-] n. “wolfhowl”
gaur [ng-] n. “werewolf”
gaw- [ng-] v. “to howl”
gawad [ng-] adj. “howling”
ûn² n. “howl; groan”

3.72 Lion

rhaw³ n. “lion”

3.73 Bear

brôg n. “bear”
megli n. “bear, (lit.) honey-eater”
meglin adj. “*bear-like”
meglivorn n. “blackbear”

3.77 Elephant

annabon n. “elephant”

3.79 to Hunt

fara- v. “to hunt”
faras n. “hunting”
#faron n. “hunter”
feredir n. “hunter”
rewinion n. “of the hunters”
rhui n. “hunt, hunting”

3.81 Insect

gwilwileth n. “butterfly”

3.811 Spider

nath n. “web”
nathron n. “weaver, webster”
thling n. “spider, spider’s web, cobweb”
thlingril n. “spider”
ungol n. “spider”

3.85 Snake

am- pref. “snake”
lhûg n. “dragon”

3.99 Animals (other)

cabor n. “frog”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.14 Hair

finnel n. “(braided) hair”
lhaws n. “hair”

4.142 Beard

fang n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

fast n. “shaggy hair”
lhoch n. “ringlet”

4.15 Blood

iâr n. “blood”

4.17 Horn (animal)

half n. “seashell”
rhas n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
rhasg n. “horn”
tarag n. “horn; steep mountain peak”
till n. “horn”

4.20 Head

dôl [nd-] n. “head, hill”

4.204 Face

crann adj. and n. “ruddy (of face); face, blush, the cheeks”
thîr n. “look, face, expression, countenance”

4.207 Jaw

anc n. “jaw, row of teeth”
carach n. “jaws”
naew n. “jaw”

4.21 Eye

hên n. “eye”

4.22 Ear

lhewig n. “ear”

4.23 Nose

#bonn [mb-] adj. “snouted”
bunn [mb-] n. “snout, nose, cape”
nem n. “nose”

4.24 Mouth

ethir n. “mouth of a river”

4.27 Tooth

naes n. “tooth”
naeth n. “biting, gnashing of teeth”
nêl n. “tooth”
neleg n. “tooth”

4.28 Neck

iaeth n. “neck”

4.29 Throat

lhanc n. “throat”

4.31 Arm

rhanc n. “arm”

4.33 Hand

cam n. “hand”
mab n. “grasp”

4.332 Hand (other)

camland n. “palm of hand”
dalf n. “palm of hand”
drambor n. “clenched fist; blow with a fist”
paur n. “fist”

4.34 Finger

lhebed n. “finger”

4.35 Leg

n. “thigh”

4.37 Foot

pôd n. “animal’s foot”
rhein n. “slot, spoor, track, footprint”
tâl n. “foot; (lower) end”
tellen n. “sole of foot”

4.392 Wing

#blab- v. “to flap, beat (wings etc.)”
rhafn n. “wing (horn), extended point at side”
rhofal n. “pinion, great wing (of an eagle)”

4.44 Heart

hûn n. “heart (physical)”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

thuia- v. “to breathe”
thûl n. “breath”

4.56 to Spit

puia- v. “to spit”

4.58 to Bite

nag- v. “to bite”
narch adj. “*bitter-biting”

4.59 to Lick

laudh n. “licking up (food or drink), gluttonous eating”
#lhav- v. “to lick”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

chwîn n. “giddyness, faintness”
lhorn² adj. “asleep”
lhûr n. “slumber”

4.62 Dream (n)

ôl n. “dream”
oltha- v. “to dream”

4.63 to Wake

echui(w) n. “awakening”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

edonna- v. “to beget”

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

onna- v. “?to beget, make born”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

cuia- v. “to live”
cuil n. “life”
cuin adj. “alive”
cuina- v. “to be alive”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

delw adj. “hateful, deadly, fell”
fern adj. and n. “dead (of mortals)”
guru [ng-] n. “death (abstract)”
guruth [ng-] n. “death”
guruthos [ng-] n. “fear of death”
gwanath n. “death (act of dying)”
gwann adj. “departed, dead”
gwanna- v. “to depart, die”
gwanw n. “death (act of dying)”

4.76 to Kill

dag- [nd-] v. “to slay”
dangen adj. “slain”

4.77 Corpse, Body

daen [nd-] n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

haudh n. “grave, tomb; (piled) mound, heap”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

bellas n. “bodily strength”
belt adj. “strong in body”
gorf n. “impetus, vigor”
taur² adj. “vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge; high, sublime”
n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

cael n. “lying in bed, sickness”
caeleb adj. “bedridden, sick”
flaew adj. “sick, sickly, ill”
fliw n. “sickness”
gem adj. “sickly”
lhîw n. “disease”
paw n. “sickness”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

harn² adj. “wounded”
harna- v. “to wound”
harw n. “wound”

4.86 to Cure, Heal

athelas n. “a healing plant”
#nesta- v. “to heal”
nestad n. “healing”

4.89 Poison

saew n. “poison”

4.91 Tired, Weary

lhom adj. “weary”

4.99 Naked, Bare

hell¹ adj. “naked”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

mad- v. “to eat”

5.12 Food

mann n. “food”

5.13 to Drink

sautha- v. “to drain”
#sog- v. “to drink”
sûth n. “draught”

5.151 Thirsty

faug adj. “thirsty”

5.26 Pot

calf n. “water-vessel”

5.35 Cup

sûl n. “goblet”

5.51 Bread

basgorn [mb-] n. “loaf”
bast [mb-] n. “bread”
lembas n. “waybread”

5.52 Cake

cram n. “cake of compressed flour or meal”

5.53 Dough

moeas n. “dough”

5.61 Meat

aes n. “cooked food, meat”

5.64 Soup, Broth

salff n. “broth”

5.77 Nut

breth n. “mast, *forest nuts”

5.79 Oil

glaew n. “ointment, salve”

5.84 Honey

glî n. “honey”
nîdh n. “honeycomb”

5.94 Juice

iofog n. “fruit drink”
peich n. “juice, syrup”
pichen adj. “juicy”
saw n. “juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.11 to Clothe, Dress

hab- v. “to clothe”
hamma- v. “to clothe”

6.12 Clothes, Clothing

hammad n. “clothing”
hamp n. “garment”

6.22 Wool

taw adj. “of wool, woollen”

6.28 Fur

halath n. “skin, fell”
heleth n. “fur, fur-coat”
helf n. “fur”

6.29 Leather

lhath n. “thong of (?leather)”

6.31 to Spin

chwinia- v. “to twirl, whirl, eddy”
chwiniol adj. “whirling, giddy, mad, fantastic”

6.38 Thread

thlê n. “fine thread, spider filament”

6.51 Shoe

habad n. “shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

carab n. “hat”
rhî n. “crown”
rhîn adj. “crowned”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

tachol n. “brooch, clasp, pin”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

mîr n. “jewel, precious thing, treasure”

6.95 Soap

glûdh n. “soap”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

dortha- [nd-] v. “to dwell, stay”

7.12 House

adab n. “building, house”
car(dh) n. “house”

7.122 Home

bár n. “home; earth”
caew n. “lair, resting-place”
terch n. “lair”

7.15 Yard, Court

pann² n. “courtyard”

7.21 Room

tham n. “hall”
thamas n. “great hall”

7.22 Door, Gate

annon n. “great gate, door”
fenn n. “threshold, door”

7.26 Floor

panas n. “floor”
talaf n. “ground, floor”
talan n. “flet”

7.27 Wall

ram(m)as n. “*great wall”
rham n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

daedelu n. “canopy”
orthel- v. “to roof, screen above”
orthelian n. “canopy”
taus n. “thatch”
telu n. “dome, high roof”
tobas n. “roofing, roof”

7.412 Furniture (other)

dolt¹ [nd-] n. “round knob, boss”
farf n. “?carpet”
tharas n. “hassock, footstool”

7.42 Bed

haust n. “bed”
nedhw n. “bolster, cushion”
pesseg n. “pillow”

7.43 Chair

?hand n. “seat”
hanw n. “?chair”

7.45 Lamp

#calardan n. “lampwright”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.12 Field for Cultivation

pêl n. “fenced field”
rîdh n. “‘sown’, sown field, acre”

8.22 to Dig, Delve

rosta- v. “to hollow out, excavate”

8.29 Blade, Share

hathel n. “broadsword-blade, axe-blade”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

eredh n. “seed, germ”
#rhedh- v. “to sow”

8.32 to Mow, Reap

critha- v. “to reap”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

cerch n. “sickle”

8.42 Grain (generic, British Corn)

iau¹ n. “corn”

8.51 Grass

thâr n. “stiff grass”

8.53 Plant, Herb

galas n. “growth, plant”
salab n. “herb”

8.54 Root

dum n. “root, foundation”
solch n. “root (especially as edible)”
thonn n. “base, root, root-word”
thonnas n. “base, root, root-word”

8.55 Branch

golf n. “branch”
telch n. “stem”

8.56 Leaf

lhass n. “leaf”

8.565 Thorn

ech n. “spine”
êg n. “thorn”

8.57 Flower

lhoth n. “flower(s)”
lhothod n. “single flower”

8.571 Bloom

gwaloth n. “blossom, collection of flowers”

8.572 to Sprout, Bud, Blossom

tui n. “sprout, bud”
tuia- v. “to sprout, spring; to swell”

8.58 Rose

beril n. “rose”

8.599 Flower (other)

elanor n. “sun-star”
hmâl n. “pollen, yellow powder”
nifredil n. “(green) snowdrop; *(lit.) pale point”
nínim n. “snowdrop”
palath² n. “iris”

8.60 Tree (generic)

galadh n. “tree”
orn n. “tree”

8.61 Oak

doron n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

brethil n. “beech”
fêr n. “beech-tree”

8.635 Elm

lalf n. “elm-tree”
lalven n. “elm-tree”
lhalorn n. “elm-tree”

8.64 Pine

thaun n. “pine-tree”

8.655 Tree (other)

lebethras n. “Gondorian tree”
mallorn n. “gold tree”
tathor n. “willow-tree”
tathren adj. “of willow”
tulus n. “poplar-tree”

8.68 Tobacco

fuilas n. “pipeweed”
galenas n. “pipeweed”
marlas n. “pipeweed”
romloth n. “pipeweed”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

chwann n. “sponge, fungus”
ereg¹ n. “holly-tree”
eregdos n. “holly, holly-tree”
oeruil n. “seaweed”
*Ogod n. “Ent”
toss n. “bush, low-growing tree”
uil n. “seaweed”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

#car- v. “to do, make”
echad- v. “to fashion, shape; make”

9.112 Doer, Agent

ceredir n. “doer, maker”
#-dis suf. “female agent”
#-or suf. “agental suffix”
#-(r)on suf. “agental suffix”

9.114 Action

carth n. “deed”

9.12 Work, Labor

tass n. “labour, task”

9.13 to Work, Toil

muda- v. “to labour, toil”

9.14 to Bend

cûn adj. “bowed, bow-shaped, bent”

9.16 to Bind

#gwedh- v. “to bind”
naud adj. “bound”
nod-² v. “to tie”
taetha- v. “to fasten, tie”

9.17 Bond (n)

gwedh n. “bond”
nûd n. “bond”

9.18 Chain (n)

angwedh n. “chain, fetter, (lit.) iron-bond”

9.19 Rope, Cord

hniof n. “noose, snare”
nordh adj. “cord”

9.192 Knot (n)

nardh n. “knot”
norn adj. “twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

batha- v. “to trample”
dram n. “heavy stroke, heavy blow”
dringa- v. “to beat”
tamma- v. “to knock”

9.22 to Cut

#osgar- v. “to cut round, amputate”
rhest n. “cut”
rhista- v. “to cut”

9.23 Knife (tool)

sigil n. “dagger, knife”

9.25 Ax

hast n. “axe-stroke”

9.27 to Split

hasta- v. “to hack through”
thanc adj. and n. “cleft, split”

9.28 to Tear

narcha- v. “to rend”
rista- v. “to rend, rip”

9.29 to Flay, Skin

heltha- v. “to strip”

9.32 to Stretch

pelia- v. “to spread”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

rhinc n. “twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move”
rhitha- v. “to jerk, twitch, snatch”

9.41 Craft, Trade

maen adj. “skilled, clever”
maenas n. “craft, handicraft, art”
moed adj. “handy, skilled”

9.413 Horn, Trumpet

rhom n. “horn, trumpet”
rhomru n. “sound of horns”
rhû n. “loud sound, trumpet-sound”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

#tân n. “builder, smith”

9.422 Tool

gaud n. “device, contrivance, machine”

9.423 to Use

iuith n. “use”
iuitha- v. “to employ”
tortha- v. “to wield, control”

9.43 Carpenter

thavron n. “carpenter, wright, builder”

9.45 to Hew

drava- v. “to hew”

9.455 to Poke, Prick, Stab

erch n. “prickle”
ercha- v. “to prick”
nasta- v. “to prick, point, stick, thrust”

9.49 Hammer (n)

dam [nd-] n. “hammer”
damma- [nd-] v. “to hammer”
#dring n. “hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

taes n. “nail”
taew n. “holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple”

9.51 Beam

thafn n. “post, wooden pillar”
tulu n. “support, prop”

9.52 Board

pân n. “plank, fixed board (especially in a floor)”

9.635 Metal

rhaud n. “metal”
rhoss² n. “polished metal”
tinc n. “metal”

9.64 Gold

glaur n. “gold”
gloriel adj. “golden”
mallen adj. “of gold”
malt n. “gold (as metal)”
malthen adj. “of gold”

9.65 Silver

celeb n. “silver”
celebren adj. “of silver, like silver”
celevon adj. “*of silver”
erceleb n. “*true-silver”
mithril n. “*true-silver”
thilevril n. “*true-silver”

9.67 Iron

ang n. “iron”
angren adj. “of iron”

9.71 Potter

cennan n. “potter”
cevnas n. “earthenware”
cevnor n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

hele n. “glass”

9.81 to Carve

thrib- v. “to scratch”

9.90 Thing

nad n. “thing”

9.93 Need, Necessity

baur [mb-] n. “need”
bui [mb-] v. “I must”

9.97 Difficult

tarias n. “stiffness, toughness, difficulty”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.13 to Turn Around

pelthaes n. “pivot”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

gonathra- v. “to entangle, enmesh”
gonathras n. “entanglement”
gwaeda- v. “to enfold”
gwî n. “net, web”
ui² n. “envelope”

10.21 to Rise

eria- v. “to rise”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

hal- v. “to lift”
ortha- v. “to raise”
orthannen adj. “raised”

10.225 to Hang, Dangle

gling- v. “to hang, dangle”

10.23 to Fall

dannen adj. “fallen”
dant- v. “to fall”
dant n. “*fall”
talt adj. “slipping, falling, insecure”

10.25 to Throw

had- v. “to hurl”
hador n. “thrower (of spears and darts)”
hadron n. “thrower (of spears and darts)”

10.26 to Shake

gir- v. “to shudder”
girith n. “shuddering, horror”
prestannen adj. “affected (of vowels), mutated”
prestanneth n. “affection (of vowels), mutation”

10.32 to Flow

#lo n. “flood”
rhib- v. “to flow like a (?torrent)”
siria- v. “to flow”
thórod n. “torrent”

10.34 to Float

lhoda- v. “to float”

10.36 to Sail

rhenia-² v. “to fly, sail”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

thôr¹ adj. “swooping, leaping down”

10.45 to Walk

#trevad- v. “to traverse”

10.46 to Run

nor- v. “*to run”

10.47 to Go

*bad- v. “*to tread, travel”
#ledh- v. “to go”

10.48 to Come

#tol- v. “to come”

10.50 to Fade

#pelin n. “*fading”
thinna- v. “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”

10.54 to Overtake

gad- v. “to catch”

10.57 to Enter

minna- v. “to enter”
#neledh- v. “*to go in, enter”
#nestag- v. “to insert, stick in”
tre- pref. “through”
trî prep. “through”

10.62 to Bring

tog- v. “to bring”
toltha- v. “to fetch”

10.645 to Wander, Stray

mist n. “error, wandering”
mista- v. “to stray about”
mistrad n. “straying, error”
rhandir n. “wanderer, pilgrim”
rhaun adj. “errant”
rhenia-¹ v. “to stray, wander”

10.71 Road

othlon n. “paved way”
#pâd n. “?way”

10.72 Path

bâd n. “beaten track, pathway”
iôr n. “course”
râd n. “path, track”
rant n. “lode, vein”
rath n. “course, river-bed”

10.73 Street

ostrad n. “street”

10.74 Bridge

ianw n. “bridge”

10.78 Yoke

iant n. “yoke”

10.81 Ship

ceir n. “ship”
cirdan n. “shipbuilder”
ciriaeth n. “shipwright”

10.83 Boat

lhunt n. “boat”

10.90 Port, Harbor

cirban n. “haven”
hobas n. “harbourage”
lhorn¹ n. “haven, quiet water, anchorage, harbour”

11. Possession and Trade

11.15 to Hold

gar- v. “to hold, have”

11.21 to Give

anna- v. “to give”
ant n. “gift”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

beria- v. “to protect”
gartha- v. “to defend, keep”

11.29 to Spoil

thaw adj. “corrupt, rotten”

11.32 to Find

rada- v. “to make a way, find a way”

11.34 to Release

†#adleg- v. “*to release”
adleitha- v. “*to release”
adleithian n. “*release, freeing”
breitha- v. “to break out suddenly”
lheithia- v. “to release, set free”
lheithian n. “release from bondage, release, freeing”

11.41 Property

garn n. “‘own’, property”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

gonod- v. “to count (up)”

11.83 to Trade

banga- [mb-] v. “to trade”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

bachor [mb-] n. “pedlar”

11.85 Market (place)

bach [mb-] n. “article (for exchange), ware, thing”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

men² n. “*place”
*sad n. “*place”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

penia- v. “to fix, set”

12.13 to Sit

hadh- v. “sit”
haf- v. “to sit”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

atlanna- v. “to slope, slant”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

dartha- v. “to wait, stay, remain, last, endure”

12.18 to Leave, Relinquish

awarth n. “abandonment”
awartha- v. “to forsake”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

dínen adj. “silent”

12.195 Whisper

floss n. “whispering or rustling sound”
thross n. “whispering or rustling sound”

12.22 to Join, Unite

aderthad n. “reuniting”

12.221 Together

go- pref. “together”
godrebh adv. “abreast; *together-through”

12.222 And

a conj. “and”
ar conj. “and”

12.24 to Open

edra- v. “to open”
panna- v. “to open, enlarge”

12.25 to Shut, Close

forn(en) adj. “closed”

12.26 to Cover

toba- v. “to cover, roof over”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

delia- v. “to conceal”
doltha- v. “to conceal”
haltha- v. “to screen”

12.272 Hidden, Concealed

dolen adj. “hidden, secret”
hall¹ adj. “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”

12.31 High

hall² adj. “exalted, high”

12.32 Low

tofn adj. “lowlying, deep, low”

12.33 Top

caw n. “top”

12.35 End

meth n. “end”

12.352 Point

#caraes n. “*jagged hedge of spikes”
carag n. “spike, tooth of rock”
ecthel n. “?point (of spear)”
ment n. “point”
nass n. “point, (sharp) end; angle, corner”

12.353 Edge

rhîf n. “brink, brim”

12.37 Middle

enedh n. “centre, middle, core”
nedh- pref. “mid-”

12.38 Center

nest n. “?heart, core”

12.391 In, Inside

di [nd-] prep. “in”
#ne- pref. “in”

12.392 Out, Outside

ar-¹ pref. “outside, beside; without”
ed- pref. “forth, out”

12.393 Across, Athwart

ad prep. “*against”
ath- pref. “on both sides, across”
athrad n. “ford, crossing”
athrada- v. “to cross, traverse”
iath prep. “across”
iathrad n. “crossing, ford”
#thar prep. and pref. “across, beyond”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

am adv. “up”
amben adj. and adv. “uphill”
or prep. “above”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

dad adv. “down”
dadben adj. and adv. “downhill, inclined, prone”
no prep. “under”

12.3955 In Front

nîf n. “front, face”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

adel prep. “behind, in rear (of)”
tele n. “end, rear, hindmost part”

12.397 Beyond

athan prep. “beyond”

12.399 From, Away

#gwa-² pref. “*away”
gwahae adj. “*far away”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

feir² adj. “right (hand)”
forgam adj. “righthanded”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

crom adj. “left”
crum n. “left hand”
crumui adj. “left-handed”
hargam adj. “left-handed”
harwed adj. “left-handed”
heir n. and adj. “left (hand)”

12.44 Far (adj)

hae adj. and adv. “*far”

12.45 East

amrûn n. “uprising, sunrise, Orient, east”
rhufen adj. “east”
rhûn n. “east, eastern; †rising”

12.46 West

annûn n. “west”
dûn [nd-] n. “west”
dúven [nd-] n. “*western”

12.47 North

fervein adj. “northern”
forn adj. “right or north”
forod n. “north”
forodren adj. “northern”
forven n. “north”

12.48 South

harad n. “south”
haradren adj. “southern”
harfen n. “*south-region”
harn¹ adj. “southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

cadw adj. “shaped, formed”
cadwor adj. “shapely”
cant n. “outline”

12.53 to Grow

gala- v. “to grow”

12.54 to Measure

daur adj. “great, large”
rhaew n. “fathom”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

beleg adj. “great, large”

12.56 Small, Little

mîw adj. “small, tiny, frail”
pigen adj. “tiny”
tithen adj. “little, tiny”

12.565 Bit, Small Thing

peg n. “dot, small spot”

12.57 Long

anann adv. “long”
ann adj. “long”
taen² adj. “long (and thin)”

12.58 Tall

baradh adj. “steep”
orchal adj. “superior, eminent, lofty”
tonn adj. “tall”

12.59 Short

thent adj. “short”
thinnas n. “shortness, shortening”

12.61 Wide, Broad

lhann adj. “wide”
pann¹ adj. “wide”
ûr² adj. “wide”

12.62 Narrow

agor adj. “narrow”

12.63 Thick (in Dimension)

tûg adj. “thick, fat”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

ninn adj. “slender”
thlinn adj. “fine, slender”
trîw adj. “fine, very slender”

12.66 Thin (in Density)

thlein adj. “lean, thin, meagre”

12.67 Deep

nûr² adj. “deep”

12.71 Flat

dalw adj. “flat”
lhaden adj. “flat (and wide); open, cleared”
palath¹ n. “surface”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

n. “arch, crescent”
rhaudh adj. “hollow, cavernous”

12.73 Straight

taer adj. “straight”
tîr adj. “straight, right”

12.74 Crooked

rhaen adj. “crooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

gamp n. “hook, claw”

12.76 Angle, Corner

bennas n. “angle”
naith n. “gore”
nelthil n. “triangle”

12.81 Round (adj)

corn adj. “round, globed”
rhenn adj. “circular”

12.82 Circle

cerin n. “round enclosure”
rhingorn n. “circle”
rhinn n. “circle”

12.83 Sphere

coron n. “globe, ball”

12.84 Line

lhîr¹ n. “row”
n. “line, way”

12.85 Hole

dath n. “hole, pit; steep fall, abyss”
gas n. “hole, gap”
tess n. “fine pierced hole”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

arnediad adj. “without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”
arnœdiad adj. “innumerable, countless, endless”
aronoded adj. “innumerable, countless, endless”
#nod-¹ v. “to count”
nœdia- v. “to count”

13.12 Number

gwanod n. “tale, number”

13.15 Much, Many

lhae n. “great number”
lhaew adj. “frequent, many”
ovor adj. “abundant”
ovra- v. “to abound”
rhem adj. “frequent, numerous”

13.16 More

dae² adv. “very”

13.165 to Add, Increase

galw n. “?increase, growth”

13.18 Enough

far adj. and adv. “sufficient, enough, quite”
farn adj. “enough”

13.182 to Suffice

feira- v. “to suffice”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

gweith n. “manhood; man-power, troop of able bodied men, host, regiment”
hoth n. “host, crowd; group plural”
hûd n. “assembly”
ovras n. “crowd, heap”
rhim¹ n. “crowd, host”

13.21 Full

#pannad(a)- v. “to fill”
pant adj. “full”
pathra- v. “to fill”
pathred n. “fullness”

13.22 Empty

caun² n. “empty, void”
gaw n. “void”
lhost adj. “empty”

13.24 Half

#per- pref. “half”
Perian n. “Halfling”
perin adj. “half”

13.32 One

*er adj. “one, alone”
min num. card. “one”
minei adj. “single, distinct, unique”

13.33 Alone, Only

ereb adj. “isolated”
eriol adj. “single, alone”

13.34 First

ereg² adj. “first”

13.35 Last

methen adj. “end, final”

13.36 Two

tâd num. card. “two”
ui- pref. “twi-”

13.38 Double, Twice

tadol adj. “double”

13.41 Three

nel- pref. “tri-”
neledh num. card. “three”

13.54 Cardinal Number

caer¹ num. card. “ten”
canad num. card. “four”
eneg num. card. “six”
host n. “gross (144)”
lheben num. card. “five”
neder num. card. “nine”
odog num. card. “seven”
toloth num. card. “eight”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

lhû n. “time, occasion”

14.12 Age

anrand n. “cycle, age, (lit.) long cycle”
#rhand n. “cycle”

14.13 New

echain adj. “new, built again”
eden adj. “new, begun again”
lhoeb adj. “fresh”
sein adj. “new”
siniath n. “news, tidings”

14.14 Young

gwîn¹ adj. “young”
neth adj. “young”
nîth n. “youth”

14.15 Old

brûn adj. “old (has long endured)”
gern adj. “worn, old, decrepit (of things)”
iaur adj. “ancient, old(en)”
ifant adj. “aged, having lived long, (lit.) year-full”
ingem adj. “old (in mortal sense), suffering from old age, decrepit, (lit.) year-sick”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

alag adj. “rushing, impetuous”
asgar adj. “violent, rushing, impetuous”
breged n. “violence, suddenness”
bregol adj. “violent, sudden, *fierce”
breig adj. “wild, fierce”
celeg adj. “swift, agile”
gorn adj. “impetuous”
lhagr adj. “swift, rapid”
lim adj. “*swift”

14.25 to Begin; Beginning

heria- v. “to begin suddenly and vigorously”

14.252 to Last

brona- v. “to last, survive”

14.254 Patience, Endurance

brenia- v. “to endure”
bronadui adj. “enduring, lasting”
bronwe n. “endurance”
him adv. and adj. “enduring, continually; steadfast, abiding”

14.28 to Cease

dar- v. “to stop, halt”
post n. “pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite”

14.29 Ready (adj)

hûr n. “readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit”

14.30 Eternity

guir n. “eternity”
guireb adj. “eternal”
uir n. “eternity”
uireb adj. “eternal”

14.31 Always

ui¹ adv. “ever”

14.35 Again

ad- pref. “back, again, re-”

14.355 Past, Ago

io adv. “ago”

14.36 Before (temporal)

#eb prep. “?before”

14.37 After

#cad adv. “*after”

14.41 Day

ar-² pref. “day”
arad n. “daytime, a day”
aur n. “day, morning”

14.42 Night

n. “night, night-fall, late evening”
fuin n. “night, dead of night”

14.46 Evening

thîn n. “evening”

14.462 Dusk

tinnu n. “(starry) twilight, dusk, early night (without moon)”
uial n. “twilight”

14.61 Week

Ardórin n. “?Day of Kings”
lhevnar n. “week”

14.62 Sunday

Aranor n. “*Sun-day”

14.63 Monday

Arithil n. “*Moon-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Argalad n. “Tree Day”
Argaladath n. “*Day of the Trees”

14.65 Wednesday

Arvenel n. “*Heavens-day”

14.66 Thursday

Aroeren n. “Sea-day”

14.67 Friday

Arvelain n. “*Day of the Valar”

14.68 Saturday

Argilion n. “*Star-day”

14.72 Names of the Months

Cadloer n. “July, *After-summer”
Cathriw n. “January, *After-winter”
Cerfeth n. “July”
Ebloer n. “June, ?Before-summer”
Ephriw n. “December, *First-winter”
Girithron n. “December, *Shuddering-one”
Gwaeron n. “March, *Windy-one”
Gwirith n. “April, *Freshness”
Hithui n. “November, *Misty-one”
Ifonneth n. “September, *Yavanna-ness”
Lothron n. “May, *Flower-ness”
Narbeleth n. “October”
Nenneth n. “February, *Watery”
Nerwinien n. “January”
Nórui n. “June, *Fiery”
Úrui n. “August, *Hot-one”

14.73 Year

edinar n. “anniversary day”
ennin n. “Valian year”
idhrin n. “year, (lit.) *year-circle”
în n. “year”
penninar n. “full year (last day of year)”

14.74 Winter

rhíw n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

echuir n. “early Spring, (lit.) stirring”

14.76 Summer

loer n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

dannas n. “autumn”
Dantilais n. “autumn”
firith n. “autumn”
lhasbelin n. “leaf-fall, autumn”

14.79 Festival, Holiday

bereth² n. “feast, festival”

14.81 History

gobennas n. “history”
gobennathren adj. “historical”
ínias n. “annals”

15. Sense Perception

15.11 to Sense, Perceive; Sense

lhaeg adj. “keen, sharp, acute”

15.24 Smell (n, obj)

thost n. “smell”
ûl n. “odour”

15.26 Stinking, Bad Smelling

ongol n. “stench”
thosta- v. “to stink”
thû n. “stench”

15.37 Bitter

saer adj. “bitter”

15.42 to Listen, Harken

lhathr(ad)a- v. “to listen in, eavesdrop”
lhathron n. “hearer, listener, eavesdropper”
lhethril n. “hearer, listener, eavesdropper (f.)”

15.44 Sound (n)

[G.] #brui adj. “loud”
glamm n. “shouting, confused noise; barbarous speech”

15.441 Echo

glamor n. “echo”
glamren adj. “echoing”

15.52 to Look

tir- v. “to watch”
tiria- v. “to watch”
tirith n. “watch, guard”
#tirnen adj. “guarded”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

thilia- v. “to glisten”
thilim adj. “gleaming”

15.562 Blinking

gael adj. “pale, glimmering”
tinna- v. “to glint”
tinw n. “spark, small star”

15.57 Bright

celeir adj. “brilliant”
gail adj. “bright, light”
glaw n. “radiance”

15.62 Light in Color

hmalw adj. “fallow, pale”
maidh adj. “pale, fallow, fawn [light yellowish tan color]”
nimp (nim-) adj. “pale”

15.63 Dark in Color

baran adj. “brown, swart, dark brown”
grau adj. “dark, swart”

15.64 White

fein adj. “white, radiant”
gloss n. and adj. “snow, snow-white”
nimmid(a)- v. “to whiten”

15.65 Black

môr adj. “black”
morn adj. “black”

15.66 Red

caran adj. “red”
coll adj. “red, scarlet”
donn adj. “swart, swarthy; shady, shadowy”
dost ? “?brown/?burn”
goer adj. “red, copper-coloured, ruddy”
gruin adj. “ruddy”
naru adj. “red”
rhosc adj. “russet, brown”

15.67 Blue

elw adj. “(pale) blue”
lhûn adj. “blue”

15.68 Green

calen adj. “green, bright colored”

15.69 Yellow

malen adj. “yellow”

15.70 Grey

mith¹ adj. “grey”
mithren adj. “small”

15.72 to Feel of

matha- v. “to stroke, feel, handle”

15.74 Hard

tara adj. “tough, stiff”
tharn adj. “sapless, stiff, rigid, withered”

15.75 Soft

moe adj. “soft, pliant”

15.77 Smooth

path adj. “smooth”

15.78 Sharp

oeg adj. “sharp, pointed, piercing”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

lhong adj. “heavy”

15.83 Wet, Damp

lhimmid(a)- v. “to moisten”
lhimp adj. “wet”
mesg adj. “wet”
nenui adj. “wet”
nîd adj. “damp, wet; tearful”

15.84 Dry, Arid

afarch adj. “arid, very dry”
parch adj. “dry”

15.85 Hot, Warm

brass n. “white heat, *extreme heat”
brassen adj. “white-hot, *very hot”
lhaug adj. “warm”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

carch n. “tooth, fang”
helch adj. “bitter cold”
rhing adj. “cold”

15.87 Pure, Clean

puig adj. “clean, tidy, neat”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

gwass n. “stain”
gwath² n. “stain”
gwatha- v. “to soil, stain”
gwaur adj. “soiled, dirty”
hmael n. and adj. “stain; stained”
hmaw n. “soil, stain”

15.89 Sticky; Gum

hiw adj. “sticky, viscous”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

mân n. “departed spirit”

16.14 Care (n)

pessa- v. “to affect, concern”
presta- v. “to affect, trouble, disturb”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

ammarth n. “fate, doom”
barad² [mb-] adj. “doomed, *fated”
manadh n. “doom, final end, fate, fortune; final bliss”

16.19 Misfortune

bartha- [mb-] v. “to doom”

16.23 Glad, Joyful

beren² adj. “festive, gay, joyous”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

gell n. “joy, triumph, (?victory)”
gellam n. “jubilation”
glass n. “joy, *happiness”

16.26 to Play

telia- v. “to play”
telien n. “sport, play”

16.27 to Love; Love

mela- v. “to love”
meleth n. “love”
melethril n. “lover (f.)”
melethron n. “lover (m.)”
mîl n. “love, affection”
milui adj. “friendly, loving, kind”

16.272 Friendship

gwend n. “bond, friendship”

16.28 Dear

mell adj. “dear”
muin¹ adj. “dear”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

naeg n. “pain”
palw n. “agony”

16.315 Torture, Torment

baug [mb-] adj. “tyrannous, cruel, oppressive”
baugla- [mb-] v. “to oppress”
bauglir [mb-] n. “tyrant, oppressor”
baul [mb-] n. “torment”
negra- v. “to pain”

16.36 Sad

noer adj. “sad, lamentable”

16.37 to Cry, Weep

nírnaeth n. “lamentation”

16.38 Tear (n)

nîn n. “tear”
niniel adj. “tearful”
nínui adj. “*tearful”
nîr n. “tear, weeping”

16.39 to Groan

nae interj. “alas”

16.41 Hate (n)

deleb adj. “horrible, abominable, loathsome”
deloth n. “abhorrence, detestation, loathing”
fuia- v. “to feel disgust at, abhor”

16.42 Anger

rhaw¹ adj. “wild, untamed”

16.43 Rage, Fury

bregolas n. “fierceness”

16.45 Shame (n)

iaew n. “mocking, scorn”

16.47 Fame, Glory

aglar n. “glory, splendour”
aglareb adj. “glorious”
claur adj. and n. “splendid; †splendour, glory”

16.48 Proud

tarlanc adj. “stiff-necked, obstinate”

16.51 to Dare

bertha- v. “to dare”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

bara adj. “fiery, eager”
beren¹ adj. “bold”
cann adj. “bold”
caun¹ n. “valour”
-gon suf. “valour”
thala adj. “stalwart, steady, firm”
thalion n. “hero, dauntless man”

16.53 Fear, Fright

angos n. “horror”
#del n. “horror”
gae n. “dread”
gaer adj. “dreadful”
gorgor [ng-] adj. “dreadful”
goroth [ng-] n. “horror”
gost n. “dread, terror”
gosta- v. “to fear exceedingly”
nifred n. “pallor, fear”

16.54 Peril, Danger

trasta- v. “to harass, trouble”

16.61 to Will, Wish

iest n. “wish”

16.62 to Desire

îr n. “*sexual desire”

16.622 Desire

melch adj. “greedy”
moel n. “lust”
moelui adj. “lustful”

16.63 Hope (n)

#hartha- v. “to hope”
harthad n. “hope”

16.65 Faithful

tanc adj. “firm”
thann adj. “firm, true, abiding”
tolog adj. “stalwart, trusty”

16.71 Good

maer adj. “useful, fit, good (of things)”
mai adv. “well”

16.72 Bad

crumguru n. “wiley, sinister, guilty”
foeg adj. “mean, poor, bad”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

rhoeg adj. “wrong”

16.81 Beautiful

bein adj. “fair, beautiful”

16.82 Ugly

ul- pref. “*ugly”

16.99 Emotion (other)

balch [mb-] adj. “cruel”

17. Mind and Thought

17.12 Reason, Intelligence

corw adj. “cunning, wily”
curu n. “cunning”
hann adj. “intelligent”
idher n. “thoughtfulness”
ind n. “inner thought, meaning, heart”

17.13 to Think, Reflect

nautha- v. “to conceive”

17.16 to Understand

hannas n. “understanding, intelligence”
henia- v. “to understand”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to have knowledge”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

golw [ng-] n. “lore”
ist n. “lore, knowledge”

17.18 to Seem

thia- v. “to appear, seem”

17.19 Idea, Notion

inc n. “guess, idea, notion”
nauth n. “thought”
naw n. “idea”
ûn³ n. “idea, thought”

17.21 Wise

goll [ng-] adj. “wise”
golwen [ng-] adj. “wise, learned in deep arts”
idhren adj. “pondering, wise, thoughtful”
istui adj. “learned”
noen adj. “wise, sensible”
#sail adj. “wise”

17.34 Clear, Plain (to the Mind)

glan adj. “clear”

17.35 Obscure

doll [nd-] adj. “obscure, dark, dusky, hidden, secret”
hethw adj. “foggy, obscure, vague”

17.37 Sure, Certain

tangad(a)- v. “to make firm, confirm, establish”

18. Language and Music

18.12 to Sing

glin- v. “to sing”
glinn¹ n. “song, poem, lay”
glir- v. “to sing, recite poem”
glîr n. “song, poem, lay”
lhinn n. “air, tune”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

hûl n. “cry of encouragement in battle”
ial n. “?cry, shout”
ialla- v. “to call”

18.14 Various Cries

ai interj. “hail”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

glavra- v. “to babble”
glavrol adj. “babbling”
ped- v. “to speak”

18.22 to Say

nara- v. “to tell”

18.24 Language

lham(b) n. “tongue”

18.26 Word

peth n. “word”

18.34 to Deny

ubed n. “denial”

18.51 to Write

teitha- v. “to write, draw”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andeith n. “long-mark”
gammas n. “s-sign”
teith n. “mark, stroke”
tew n. “letter”
tiwdi n. “alphabet”

18.57 Pen

tegol n. “pen”

18.61 Book

parf n. “book”

18.63 Line (n)

n. “line, row”

18.66 Author, Writer

pethron n. “narrator, reciter, minstrel”

18.68 Tale, Story

glaer n. “long lay, narrative poem”
narn n. “tale, saga”
pennas n. “history”
pent n. “tale, story”
sinnarn n. “novel tale”
trenar- v. “to recount, tell to the end”
trenarn n. “account, tale”

18.69 Music

lhend adj. “tuneful, sweet”

18.72 Harp, Lute

gann(ad)a- [ng-] v. “to play a harp”
gannel [ng-] n. “harp”
talagand n. “harper”
tong adj. “taut, tight; resonant (of strings)”

18.73 Bell, Ringing

nell n. “bell”
nella- v. “to sound (of bells)”
nelladel n. “ringing of bells”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country, Nation

dôr [nd-] n. “land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live”

19.13 Country (vs. Town)

lhoss n. “wilderness”
lothren adj. and n. “wild, waste”
rhofan n. “wilderness”

19.14 Region, Territory

ardh n. “realm”
*-ion² suf. “-region, -land”

19.15 Town, City

caras n. “a city (built above ground)”
ost n. “city, town (with wall round)”

19.16 Village

gobel n. “walled house or village, town”

19.17 Boundary

edrein n. “*(outer) border”
ephel n. “outer fence”
hebel n. “?fence”
rhain¹ n. “border”
thora- v. “to fence”
thoren adj. “*fenced”

19.22 a People, Nation

nûr¹ n. “race”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

noss n. “clan, family, ‘house’”

19.32 King

aran n. “king, lord (of a specific region)”
-dor suf. “*king, lord”
taur³ n. “king (of a whole tribe)”

19.33 Queen

bereth¹ n. “queen”
rhîs n. “queen”

19.35 Prince

cunn n. “prince”
ernil n. “prince”
thinn adj. “grey, pale”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

ar(a)- pref. “noble, royal”
arnen n. “?royal”
brann adj. “lofty, noble, fine; high”
callon n. “hero”

19.41 Master

brannon n. “lord”
heron n. “lord, master”
hîr n. “master, lord”

19.412 Lady

brennil n. “lady”
hiril n. “lady”
rhien n. “(crowned) lady”

19.42 Slave

mûl n. “slave, thrall”

19.43 Servant

beor n. “follower, vassal”
buia- v. “to serve, hold allegiance to”

19.44 Free (adj)

lhain adj. “free(d)”
rhain² adj. “free”

19.47 to Let, Permit

dâf n. “permission”

19.48 to Compel

horn adj. “driven under compulsion, impelled (to do something)”
hortha- v. “to urge on, speed”
thang n. “compulsion, duress, need, oppression”

19.51 Friend

elf n. “friend”
meldir n. “friend [m.]”
meldis n. “friend (f.)”
mellon n. “friend”
thond n. “friend”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

coth n. “enmity, enemy”

19.53 Companion

bôr adj. and n. “steadfast; trusty man, faithful vassal”
gwador n. “(sworn) brother, associate”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

dîl n. “stopper, stopping, stuffing”
dilia- v. “to stop (up)”
gasdil n. “stopgap”
gwarth n. “betrayer”
gweria- v. “to betray”

19.61 Custom, Usage

haew n. “custom, habit”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

cost n. “quarrel”

19.65 to Meet

#govad- v. “to meet”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.11 to Fight

maetha- v. “to fight”

20.12 Battle (n)

dagor [nd-] n. “battle”
dagra- [nd-] v. “to battle”
maeth n. “battle, fight”

20.13 War

auth n. “war, battle”

20.14 Peace

sîdh n. “peace”

20.15 Army

herth n. “household, troop”

20.17 Soldier

daug [nd-] n. “warrior, soldier (chiefly used of orcs)”
maethor n. “warrior”

20.22 Club

grond n. “club”

20.23 Sling

haglath n. “sling”

20.24 Bow

peng n. “bow (for shooting)”
tang n. “bowstring”

20.26 Spear

eith n. “spear-point”
thela n. “point (of spear)”

20.27 Sword

crist n. “cleaver, sword”
hâdh n. “*cleaver”
lhang n. “cutlass, sword”
magol n. “sword”

20.33 Helmet

harn³ n. “helmet”

20.35 Fortress

garth n. “fort, fortress”
othrond n. “underground city, fortress”

20.36 Tower

barad¹ n. “fort, tower, fortress”
mindon n. “tower, isolated hill (especially a hill with a watchtower)”
minnas n. “tower”
#tirion n. “tower”

20.41 Victory

gellui adj. “triumphant”
#orthor- v. “to master, conquer”
tûr n. “mastery, victory”

21. Law and Judgment

21.16 to Judge

#badh- [mb-] v. “to judge”

21.17 Judgment

baudh [mb-] n. “judgement”

21.18 Judge (n)

badhor [mb-] n. “judge”
badhron [mb-] n. “judge”

21.25 Oath

gwaedh n. “bond, troth, compact, oath”
gwest n. “oath”
gwesta- v. “to swear”

21.39 Jail, Prison

bann [mb-] n. “duress, prison”
gador n. “prison, dungeon”

21.395 Exile, Outlaw

egledhia- v. “to go into exile”
egledhron n. “exile”
eglenn adj. “exiled”

21.999 Law (other)

gowest n. “contract, compact, treaty”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Balan n. “Power, God”

22.13 Temple

iaun n. “holy place, fane, sanctuary”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

rhaug n. “demon”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

angol¹ n. “deep lore, magic”
durgul n. “sorcery”
gûl [ng-] n. “magic”
lhûth n. “spell, charm”
lhûtha- v. “to enchant”
morgul n. “sorcery”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

curunir n. “a man of craft, wizard”
gollor [ng-] n. “magician”

22.44 Elf, Fairy

Dân [nd-] n. “Green-elf”
Edhel n. “firstborn, eldest”
Eledh n. “Star-folk, Elf”
Golodh [ng-] n. “one of the wise folk, Gnome”
penedh n. “Elf”
penn² n. “Elf”

22.442 Dwarf

naug n. “Dwarf”
naugol (naugl-) n. “Dwarf (diminutive)”
Nawag n. “Dwarf”

22.445 Goblin, Monster

noroth n. “giant”
úan n. “monster”
uanui adj. “monstrous”
ulun n. “monster, deformed and hideous creature”

22.446 Orc, Goblin

orch n. “goblin”

22.447 Dragon

amlug n. “dragon”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

i article. “the”

23.2 Negation

al- pref. “no, not”
interj. “no”
ú- pref. “un, bad-”

23.3 Preposition

#an prep. “of”
an- pref. “with, by”
na prep. “with, by; of”
prep. “from, of”
prep. “about, concerning”
os- pref. “about”

23.4 Pronoun

ha pron. “it”
he pron. “she”
ho pron. “he”
im pron. “I”
men¹ pron. “*us”
#then pron. “this”

23.5 Noun Inflection

#-as suf. “abstract noun”
-ath suf. “collective or group plural”
#-od suf. “singular suffix”
-rim suf. “group plural”

23.6 Verb Inflection

-ant suf. “regular past tense”
-ed suf. “gerund”
#-th suf. “abstract noun”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

a- pref. “intensive prefix”

23.9 Affix

-eb suf. “adjective suffix”
-eg¹ suf. “diminutive/singular ending”
-eg² suf. “suffix for ordinal numbers”
#-en suf. “adjective suffix”
#-iel² suf. “adjective suffix”
#-(i)ol suf. “active participle; adjective suffix”
#-(i)on suf. “adjectival suffix”
#-ren suf. “adjective suffix”
#-ui suf. “adjective suffix”