N. amben adj. “uphill” (Category: Slope, Cliff)
An adjective (and adverb?) for “uphill” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of am “up” and N. penn “declivity, *slope” (Ety/PEN). It was contrasted with N. dadben “downhill, inclined, prone” (Ety/AM², PEN).
Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies it first appeared as N. amdenn, a derivative of ᴹ√DEN “hillside, slope”, but the meaning of this root was change to ᴹ√DEN “hole; gap, passage” (Ety/DEN), after which the form amben < ᴹ√PEN(ED) was introduced (see above). The earliest appearance of this word was in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s where it was ᴱN. amvenn “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome”, marked as both an adjective and adverb, along with a noun variant ᴱN. amvinn “slope, incline, hillside” (PE13/139, 159-160). This early Noldorin form was a combination of ᴱN. am “up” and ᴱN. benn “sloping”.
Neo-Sindarin: Given its Early Noldorin use for “arduous, difficult, tiresome”, amben might be used colloquially in Neo-Sindarin with a similar sense for a thing that is difficult, analogous to English usages like an “uphill battle”: dagor amben.
References ✧ Ety/AM², DEN, PEN
|penn¹||“declivity”||✧ Ety/DEN (denn); Ety/PEN|
|ᴹ√PEN(ED)||“*hillside, slope”||✧ Ety/AM² (PEN)|
ᴱN. amvenn adj. and adv. “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome” (Category: Slope, Cliff)
References ✧ PE13/139, 159-160
|benn||“sloping, inclined, slanting, up or down hill”||✧ PE13/138; PE13/160|
G. amon² adv. “uphill, against stream” (Category: Up, Above, Over)
References ✧ GL/19; LT2A/Amon Gwareth
|am¹||“up, upwards, towards head of, above”||✧ GL/19|