OS. voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s]; [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}] > [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}ʰ]

OS. voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s]; [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}] > [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}ʰ]

In both Old Sindarin and Old Noldorin, voiceless stops [p, t, k] developed into spirants medially after nearly every other primitive consonant, in particular: all liquids [r, l], all nasals [m, n, ŋ], all aspirates [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] and all other voiced and voiceless stops [b, d, g, p, t, k], that is essentially everything but [s]. In the last two cases, both stops in the pair became spirants, with various later vocalic effects (see below).

Some of these development were the result of earlier sound changes in Primitive Elvish. First, primitive voiced stops unvoiced before voiceless consonants, after which aspiration moved to end of group of stops, so that primitive combinations of [b, d, g] with [p, t, k] became pairs of voiceless stops (e.g. [g] + [k] > [kk]), and the aspirate + voiceless stop combinations became voiceless stop + aspirate (e.g. [kʰ] + [k] > [kkʰ]). For combinations with liquids, nasals and voiceless stops, however, these sound changes occurred in (Old) Sindarin and (Old) Noldorin. A clear description of the origin of these sound changes for Sindarin appears in Tolkien’s Outline of Phonology from the early 1950s:

After other consonants p, t, k were generally maintained [in Quenya] though in fact (probably in C. Eldarin) after consonants other than [s], p, t, k were strengthened and lightly aspirated. (This development in Sindarin led to spirantalization as in rp > rf; but not in Valinorian dialects) (PE19/86).

Another clear description of these sound changes for Noldorin appears in Tolkien’s notes on the use of the Feanorian Alphabet in Old Noldorin from the 1930s:

A marked change of ON was the aspiration of t, p, k after all consonants. Since sp, st, sk and mp, nt, nk has special letters, this did not receive spelling-recognition in ON, except that in very late ON absolute initial [that is, at the beginning of a phrase] sp, st, sk Q, !, A became occasionally written e 3 d, i.e. ph, th, kh, or ee (eR), 33 (3R), dd (d$) indicating a change > sf, sþ, sχ > ff, þþ, χχ. This did not occur initially [that is, at the beginning of a word inside a phrase] (and here sp, st, sk remained in Exhilic). r 4 f remained unchanged in use, and here aspiration probably did not proceed to spirantalization until the Exhilic period. The letters Q are transcribed sp etc., and r mp without reference to exact phonetics (initial Q ! A are sometimes transcribed sph, sth, skh).

But in other cases [that is: medially] the aspiration became marked early, hence earlier ON [pt] q1, [tt] 11 or 1R, [kt] z1 and [pp] qq or qR, [kk] zz or zR are normally spelt as described above q3 etc. or compendiously . Hence in normal transcription pth, tth, kth, pph, kkh are used. Similarly in rth, lth (PE22/28).

Based on these two quotes it seems that (a) the medial spirantalization of voiced stops occurred fairly early in Sindarin/Noldorin phonetic history and (b) the mechanism was that the stops first became aspirates (a change which began in Common Eldarin), and then later the aspirates became voiceless spirants. These medial developments were distinct from the initial developments, where voiceless stops immediately became spirants after initial [s] without than first becoming aspirates.

At various points Tolkien discussed these sound changes in more detail for specific sets of combinations.

r, l + p, t, k: Tolkien discusses the phonetic developments of liquids + voiceless stops in several places:

The much changed Sindarin of Middle-earth turned the stops to spirants after l, r, as did Welsh: so *alkwā > alpa (Telerin) > S. alf (spelt alph in my transcription) (The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor, late 1960s, PE42/7).
Old Sindarin (only preserved in Doriathrin records) retained intervoc[alic] m, and also the combinations mp, nt, ŋc in all positions; but p, t, c were already spirantalized after r, l except for lt [emphasis added]. At this stage thus appeared medial m; mp, nt, nc, lt; lph, lch, rth, rph, rch (notes on Sindarin dialectical developments, early 1960s, PE17/132).

As the second quote indicates, it seems the full change of [lt] > [ltʰ] > [lθ] took place later than the other combinations, which might help explain later phonetic developments unique to this combination: in particular for the restopping of final -lth to -lt in both Sindarin and Noldorin, and for medial lth becoming ll in Sindarin only. Examples of r, l + p, t, k producing spirants are numerous in both Sindarin and Noldorin:

[lp] > [lpʰ] > [lf]: alkwā > [AT] alpa > [OS/ON] alpha > S. and N. alph “swan” (VT42/7, UT/265, Ety/ÁLAK).
[lt] > [ltʰ] > [lθ]: malt + orn[ē] > OS. malthorn > malhorn > S. mallorn “gold tree” (PE17/50, VT42/27).
ᴹ✶peltakse > ON. pelthaksa > N. pelthaes “pivot” (Ety/PEL, TAK).
[lk] > [lkʰ] > [lx]: walka or ᴹ√(Ñ)GWAL > S. and N. balch “fierce, ferocious; cruel” (PE17/154, Ety/ÑGWAL).
[rp] > [rpʰ] > [rf]: ar(a)- + pen > S. arphen “noble, knight” (WJ/376).
[rt] > [rtʰ] > [rθ]: ṃbartā > ambarta > S. and N. am(m)arth “fate, doom” (PE17/104, 125; Ety/MBARAT).
[rk] > [rkʰ] > [rx]: urkō or ᴹ✶orku > S. and N. orch “Orc” (WJ/390, Ety/ÓROK).

m, n, ŋ + p, t, k: Because nasals assimilated to following stops in Primitive Elvish, the only possible combinations were mp, nt, ŋk > mph, nth, ŋkh (ŋch). Analyzing these changes is complicated by the fact that in both Sindarin and Noldorin later medial mf, nth, ŋch became mm, nn, ng, whereas final mf, nth, ŋch were restopped to mp, nt, nc ([ŋk]). Tolkien discussed the sound changes for nasals + voiceless stops for both Noldorin and Sindarin in several places, and in some later notes he said there were dialectical differences in the phonetic developments of Doriathrin and North Sindarin versus Ossriandic, West and South Sindarin:

Old Noldorin or Feanorian usage. Alphabet. After the letter is given its ON name in transcription; under the letter is given the usual transcription followed in square brackets by the phonetic value ... 10. r ampa: mp [mp, mph]; 11. 4 anta: nt [nt, nth]; 12. f anka: nk [ŋk, ŋkh] (Feanorian Alphabet, late 1930s, PE22/24).
r 4 f remained unchanged in use, and here aspiration probably did not proceed to spirantalization until the Exhilic [Noldorin] period (ibid., PE22/28).
Similarly in oldest Sindarin, mp, nt, nc were preserved. In North Sindarin they universally became mf, nth, ŋch at the same time as lt, lp, lc and rt &c. > lth, lf, lch. The normal development in North Sindarin was then restopping when final > mp, nc, lt but nth, lf, lch, rth, rf, rch remained spirantal and medial nch > ¯ch. Later again nth > nt finally ... In Oss[riandic], West & South Sindarin changes proceeded as in North Sindarin far as mph, nth, ŋch. Then lt, mp, np, nc were restopped finally. Medially lþ, mph, nþ, ŋχ (though for long without change of spelling) became long voiceless l, m, n, ŋ. English transcription lh, mh, nh, ngh. In late Beleriandic Sindarin these became voiced ll, mm (m), nn, ng (= ŋg) unless followed still by a stressed syllable (notes on Sindarin dialectical developments, early 1960s, PE17/132).
Doriath, as might be expected from its history, was in general the most pure and conservative form of Sindarin in the Elder days ... The changes of mp, nt, ŋk also proceeded earlier and further than in the other dialects (ibid., PE17/133).

Based on the notes above, it seems that in both Noldorin and Sindarin, the spirantalization of voiceless stops after nasals took place later than the analogous changes after other consonants, with the possible exceptions of the North Sindarin and (maybe) Doriathric Sindarin dialects. As with [lθ], the lateness of these sound changes may help explain the eventual loss of the resulting spirants by them either restopping finally or becoming double-nasals medially. The obscuration of these later changes make it harder to find explicit examples of spirantalization of voiceless stops after nasals, but a few examples show the appropriate intermediate sound changes:

[mp] > [mpʰ] > [mf]: ninkwiraite [> AT. *nimpiraite] > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred “pallor” (PE17/55).
[nt] > [ntʰ] > [nθ]: ᴹ√THIN [> *thinta-] > ON. thintha- > N. thinna- “to fade” vs. ᴹQ. sinta- (Ety/THIN).
[ŋk] > [ŋkʰ] > [ŋx]: dankĭna > daŋχen > danghen > S. dangen “slain” (PE17/133).

p, t, k + p, t, k: As with combinations of nasals with voiceless stops, the analysis of the spirants resulting from two adjacent voiceless stops is obscured by later sound changes. Tolkien described these sound changes several times, but mainly for double or “dynamic long” voiceless stops tt, pp, kk:

ON tt, pp, kk became tth, pph, kkh (Feanorian Alphabet, late 1930s, PE22/26).
Lengthening produced the following modifications: (i) p, t, k > pp, tt, kk. In the case of (rare) ph and of th, kh the original lengthening may have been pph, tth, kkh, but in Eldarin the aspiration was lost - or rather pp, pph became identical, either as pp in Quenya or as pph as in Old Noldorin [emphasis added] (second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa [TQ2], circa 1950, PE18/91).
The long dynamic aspirates (Sc. formative lengthening of medial ph, th, kh) were probably rare in CE. In all Eldarin dialects they coalesced with voiceless stops, either by the loss of their aspiration on the one hand, or by the aspiration of the stops on the other. The latter occurred in Sindarin [emphasis added]. In Quenya the aspiration of pph etc. was reduced and these combinations did not become opened or spirantal (Outline of Phonology [OP2], early 1950s, PE19/87).

Of the other combinations, it seems only p, k + t ultimately remained. For t + p, k, the result was either transposed (tk > kt), or the t assimilated to the following stop to produce a double-consonant:

The long dynamic voiceless stops pp, tt, kk aspirated and became spirants ([ɸɸ] or [ff], [θθ], [xx]), and then later the long voiceless spirants shortened. Examples are plentiful: ✶rokkō > S. and N. roch “horse” (Let/282, Ety/ROK); ᴹ✶kwetta > S. and N. peth “word” (PE17/46, Ety/KWET); S. and N. ephel above. For the combinations [pt] and [kt], these became aspirated and spirantal as well ([ɸθ], [xθ]), but the first spirant in each pair [x], [ɸ] became a vowel before [θ] with various later effects. See the entry on the vocalization of such spirants for more details.

Conceptual Development: There is remarkable consistency in both Noldorin and Sindarin for these sound changes, but in the 1910s and 1920s the phonetic developments are necessarily different, because Tolkien did not introduce aspirates into Primitive Elvish until the 1930s. Prior to that point, the analogous set of phonemes in Primitive Elvish were themselves voiceless spirants (PE12/15). As noted by Roman Rausch (HPG/§2.2, §2.4; HPITN/§4.1.3), there are numerous examples of combinations with primitive voiceless stops which produce spirants in both Gnomish and Early Noldorin in the 1910s and 1920s. See the entry on how voiceless stops spirantalized after many consonants in Gnomish for more details.

References ✧ PE17/131-133; PE18/91; PE19/86-87; UT/265; VT42/7

Variations

Order (02100)

After 01600 long final vowels were shortened mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth PE17/104
Before 02200 aspirates became voiceless spirants ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred PE17/55

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pp] > [ppʰ]
[pt] > [ptʰ]
[tt] > [ttʰ]
[tp] > [tpʰ]
[kk] > [kkʰ]
[kt] > [ktʰ]
[gt] > [gtʰ]
[np] > [npʰ]
[mp] > [mpʰ]
[nt] > [ntʰ]
[ŋk] > [ŋkʰ]
[lp] > [lpʰ]
[lt] > [ltʰ]
[lk] > [lkʰ]
[rp] > [rpʰ]
[rt] > [rtʰ]
[rk] > [rkʰ]
[xt] > [xtʰ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ekkantʰe > ekkʰantʰe kk > kkʰ et-kantē > S. echant ✧ PE17/42
ekkat- > ekkʰat- kk > kkʰ et-kat- > S. echad- ✧ PE17/42
rokko > rokkʰo kk > kkʰ rokkō > S. roch ✧ Let/282
ekta > ektʰa kt > ktʰ ek-tā > S. eitha- ✧ WJ/365
ektele > ektʰele kt > ktʰ et-kelē > S. eithel ✧ SA/kel
etrekte > etrektʰe kt > ktʰ rekti(e) > S. edraith ✧ PE17/38
etrektʰe > etrektʰe kt > ktʰ rekti(e) > S. edraith ✧ PE17/38
grukta- > gruktʰa- kt > ktʰ RUKU > S. gruitha ✧ WJ/415
makta- > maktʰa- kt > ktʰ MAG > S. maetha- ✧ PE17/161
makte > maktʰe kt > ktʰ MAG > S. maeth ✧ PE17/161
mbelekta > mbelektʰa kt > ktʰ mbelek > S. belaith ✧ PE17/115
nektano > nektʰano kt > ktʰ NEK > S. neithan ✧ PE17/167
nekte > nektʰe kt > ktʰ nek-tē > neith > S. naith ✧ PE17/55
nukta- > nuktʰa- kt > ktʰ nuktā- > S. nuitha- ✧ WJ/413
pakta > paktʰa kt > ktʰ PAKAT > S. paeth ✧ PE17/126
rikta- > riktʰa- kt > ktʰ RIK > S. raitha ✧ PE17/167
riktant > riktʰant kt > ktʰ RIK > S. rithant ✧ PE17/167
tekta > tektʰa kt > ktʰ tek-tā > teith > S. taith ✧ PE17/43
tekta- > tektʰa- kt > ktʰ tekta- > S. teith- ✧ PE17/43
wekte > wektʰe kt > ktʰ weg-tē > S. gwaith ✧ PE17/190
balka > balkʰa lk > lkʰ wal-ka > S. balch ✧ PE17/154
delka > delkʰa lk > lkʰ delkā > S. delch ✧ PE17/17
alpa > alpʰa lp > lpʰ T. alpa > S. alph ✧ UT/265
alpa > alpʰa lp > lpʰ alkwa > S. alf ✧ VT42/7
alpi > alpʰi lp > lpʰ T. alpa > S. eilph ✧ UT/265
maltorne > maltʰorne lt > ltʰ OS. malþorn > malhorn > S. mallorn ✧ VT42/27
taltʰa- > talta- lt > ltʰ talta > OS. talthathō- ✧ PE22/134
ampala > ampʰala mp > mpʰ KWAL > ᴸON. amphala ✧ PE18/92
gampa > gampʰa mp > mpʰ gampa > S. gamp ✧ VT47/20
kampru > kampʰru mp > mpʰ camprû > camfrū > S. cāfru ✧ PE17/131
nimpe > nimpʰe mp > mpʰ NIK > S. nimp ✧ PE17/168
nimpe > nimpʰe mp > mpʰ nimpĭ > S. nimp ✧ VT48/18
nimpiraite > nimpʰiraite mp > mpʰ ninkwiraite > ni(m)phraed > S. niphred ✧ PE17/55
anta- > antʰa- nt > ntʰ ANA > antha- > S. anha- ✧ PE17/93
anta- > antʰa- nt > ntʰ ANA/NĀ > S. anta- ✧ PE17/147
danta- > dantʰa- nt > ntʰ DAN-TA > S. danna ✧ PE17/62
ekkante > ekkantʰe nt > ntʰ et-kantē > S. echant ✧ PE17/42
glinta- > glintʰa- nt > ntʰ glim > S. glintha- ✧ WJ/337
kintok > kintʰok nt > ntʰ KIT > S. cinnog ✧ PE17/157
mantina > mantʰina nt > ntʰ mantinā > manthen > S. mannen ✧ PE17/131
pentro > pentʰro nt > ntʰ kwentrō > pentro > ᴸN. pethro-n ✧ PE18/100
pʰanta- > pʰantʰa- nt > ntʰ phantā- > S. fanha- ✧ PE17/174
santa > santʰa nt > ntʰ SAT > S. sant ✧ VT42/20
appat- > appʰat- pp > ppʰ ap-pata > S. aphad- ✧ WJ/387
appet- > appʰet- pp > ppʰ at-kwet > S. aphed ✧ PE17/166
eppel > eppʰel pp > ppʰ et-pel > eppel > S. ephel ✧ PE17/65
lepta- > leptʰa- pt > ptʰ LEP > S. leutha- ✧ VT47/10
karka > karkʰa rk > rkʰ carak- > S. carch ✧ SA/carak
karpa- > karpʰa- rk > rkʰ KARAP > S. carfa ✧ PE17/126
parka > parkʰa rk > rkʰ PAR > S. parch ✧ PE17/86
urka > urkʰa rk > rkʰ urkā > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
urki > urkʰi rk > rkʰ urkō > S. Yrch ✧ WJ/390
urko > urkʰo rk > rkʰ urkō > S. orch ✧ WJ/390
ambart > ambartʰ rt > rtʰ ṃbart(ă) > ammarth > S. amarth ✧ PE17/124
ambarta > ambartʰa rt > rtʰ mbartā > ṃbartā > ambarta > S. amarth ✧ PE17/104
ambarta > ambartʰā rt > rtʰ mbartā > ṃbartā > S. amartha- ✧ PE17/104
artaure > artʰaure rt > rtʰ artaurē > S. Arthor ✧ PE17/28
kerti > kertʰi rt > rtʰ KER > S. cirth ✧ PE22/150
kirta > kirtʰa rt > rtʰ kirtē > S. certh ✧ WJ/396
mbartan > mbartʰan rt > rtʰ Q. martan > S. barthan ✧ PE17/109
mbartano > mbartʰano rt > rtʰ mbartanō > S. Barthan ✧ LT1A/Talka Marda
norta- > nortʰa- rt > rtʰ NOR > S. northa- ✧ PE17/168
norte > nortʰe rt > rtʰ NOR > S. north ✧ PE17/168
-atta > -attʰa tt > ttʰ atta > S. -ath ✧ VT48/19
attara- > attʰara- tt > ttʰ atta- > S. athra ✧ PE17/14
grotta > grottʰa tt > ttʰ grottā > S. groth ✧ WJ/415
-itta > -ittʰa tt > ttʰ -ittā > S. -eth ✧ PM/345
kʰotta > kʰottʰa tt > ttʰ khottă > S. hoth ✧ PE17/39
lepettarone > lepettʰarone tt > ttʰ lepeth-ron > S. lebethron ✧ PE17/89
lotta > lottʰa tt > ttʰ LOT > S. loth ✧ PE17/161
lotta > lottʰa tt > ttʰ lotta- > S. loth ✧ VT42/18
mbotto > mbottʰo tt > ttʰ MOT > mbotto > S. both ✧ PE17/165
moreŋgotto > moreŋgottʰo tt > ttʰ Moringotto > S. Morgoth ✧ MR/194
nette > nettʰe tt > ttʰ net > S. neth ✧ VT47/33
nukotto > nukottʰo tt > ttʰ nukotto/a > S. Nogoth ✧ WJ/413
petta > pettʰa tt > ttʰ QUET > S. peth ✧ PE17/46
retto > rettʰo tt > ttʰ RETE > S. -reth ✧ PE17/182
-rotta > -rottʰa tt > ttʰ ROT > S. -roth/rod ✧ PE17/49
maxta > maxtʰa xt > xtʰ maʒtā > maχtā > S. maetha ✧ VT47/6
daŋkina > daŋkʰina ŋk > ŋkʰ dankĭna > daŋχen > danghen > S. dangen ✧ PE17/133
daŋkini > daŋkʰini ŋk > ŋkʰ dankĭna > S. nenghin ✧ PE17/133
laŋka > laŋkʰa ŋk > ŋkʰ (G)LAN > S. lanc ✧ VT42/8
pʰliŋke > pʰliŋkʰe ŋk > ŋkʰ AT. phlinke > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/72
pʰliŋke > pʰliŋkʰe ŋk > ŋkʰ philinkĭ > ᴸN. flinc ✧ PE21/81
r̥aŋka > r̥raŋkʰa ŋk > ŋkʰ SRAK > S. rhanc ✧ PE17/154
taŋkla > taŋkʰla ŋk > ŋkʰ tanklā > tankla > tachl > ᴸN. tachol ✧ PE18/100
truŋko > truŋkʰo ŋk > ŋkʰ turunko > S. trunc ✧ PE21/80

ON. voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s]; [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}] > [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}ʰ]

GS/§4.64 @@@ mp, nc less clear

References ✧ PE22/24, 26-28

Order (03500)

Before 03700 voiceless stops became spirants after initial [s] ᴹ✶stankā > ON. sthanka
ᴹ√STINTĀ > ON. sthinta
Ety/STAK
Ety/STINTĀ

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pp] > [ppʰ]
[pt] > [ptʰ]
[tt] > [ttʰ]
[kk] > [kkʰ]
[kt] > [ktʰ]
[np] > [npʰ]
[mp] > [mpʰ]
[nt] > [ntʰ]
[ŋk] > [ŋkʰ]
[lp] > [lpʰ]
[lt] > [ltʰ]
[lk] > [lkʰ]
[rp] > [rpʰ]
[rt] > [rtʰ]
[rk] > [rkʰ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ekkat- > ekkʰat- kk > kkʰ ᴹ✶et-kat > N. echedi ✧ Ety/KAT
ekko > ekkʰo kk > kkʰ ᴹ√EK > N. ech ✧ Ety/EK
ekkuiwe > ekkʰuiwe kk > kkʰ ᴹ✶et-kuiwē > N. echui(w) ✧ Ety/KUY
lokko > lokkʰo kk > kkʰ ᴹ✶lokko > N. lhoch ✧ Ety/LOKH
rokko > rokkʰo kk > kkʰ ᴹ✶rokkō > N. roch ✧ EtyAC/ROK
brekta- > brektʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶b’rekta > N. breitho ✧ Ety/BERÉK
brekta- > brektʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√MERÉK > N. breitha ✧ EtyAC/MERÉK
ekte > ektʰe kt > ktʰ ᴹ√EK > N. aith ✧ Ety/EK
ekte > ektʰe kt > ktʰ ᴹ√EK > N. eith ✧ EtyAC/EK
ektele > ektʰele kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶ektele > N. eithel ✧ Ety/KEL
jakta > jaktʰa kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶yakta- > N. iaeth ✧ Ety/YAK
jukta- > juktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√YUK > N. iuitho ✧ Ety/YUK
jukte > juktʰe kt > ktʰ ᴹ√YUK > N. iuith ✧ Ety/YUK
kirjakto > kirjaktʰo kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶kirya-k’tō > N. ciriaeth ✧ PE18/62
krikta- > kriktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶k’rikta > N. critho ✧ Ety/KIRIK
lekt- > lektʰ- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√LEK > N. Leth- ✧ Ety/LEK
lekta- > lektʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√LEK > N. lheitho ✧ Ety/LEK
lukta- > luktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√LUK > N. lhûtha ✧ Ety/LUK
lukte > luktʰe kt > ktʰ ᴹ√LUK > N. lhûth ✧ Ety/LUK
makta > maktʰa kt > ktʰ ᴹ√MAK > N. maeth ✧ Ety/MAK
makta- > maktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√MAK > N. maetha ✧ Ety/MAK
nakta > naktʰa kt > ktʰ ᴹ√NAK > N. naeth ✧ Ety/NAK
okta > oktʰa kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶oktā > N. auth ✧ Ety/KOT
rikta- > riktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√RIK(H) > N. rhitho ✧ Ety/RIK(H)
sukta- > suktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√SUK > N. sautha- ✧ Ety/SUK
sukto > suktʰo kt > ktʰ ᴹ√SUK > N. sûth ✧ Ety/SUK
takta- > taktʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√TAK > N. taetho ✧ Ety/TAK
tekta- > tektʰa- kt > ktʰ ᴹ√TEK > N. teitho ✧ Ety/TEK
tekta > tektʰa kt > ktʰ ᴹ√TEK > ON. #tektha ✧ Ety/TEK
wekte > wektʰe kt > ktʰ ᴹ✶weg-tē > N. gweith ✧ Ety/WEG
kʰelka > kʰelkʰa lk > lkʰ ᴹ√KHELEK > N. helch ✧ Ety/KHEL
mbalka > mbalkʰa lk > lkʰ ᴹ√ÑGWAL > N. balch ✧ Ety/ÑGWAL
milka > milkʰa lk > lkʰ ᴹ√MIL-IK > N. melch ✧ Ety/MIL-IK
sulka > sulkʰa lk > lkʰ ᴹ√SÚLUK > ON. sulkha ✧ Ety/SÚLUK
telki > telkʰi lk > lkʰ ᴹ√TÉLEK > N. tilch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
telko > telkʰo lk > lkʰ ᴹ√TÉLEK > N. telch ✧ Ety/TÉLEK
tulkasse > tulkʰasse lk > lkʰ ᴹ√TULUK > N. Tolchas ✧ EtyAC/TULUK
alpa > alpʰa lp > lpʰ ᴹ✶alk-wā > ON. alpha ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
kalpa > kalpʰa lp > lpʰ ᴹ√KALPA > N. calf ✧ Ety/KALPA
salpa > salpʰa lp > lpʰ ᴹ√SÁLAP > ON. salpha ✧ Ety/SÁLAP
silpion > silpʰion lp > lpʰ ᴹ√SÍLIP > N. **Silfion ✧ Ety/SIL
dulta- > dultʰa- lt > ltʰ ᴹ√DUL > N. doltha ✧ Ety/DUL
ndolti > ndoltʰi lt > ltʰ ᴹ√NDOL > N. dylt ✧ Ety/NDOL
ndolto > ndoltʰo lt > ltʰ ᴹ√NDOL > N. dolt ✧ Ety/NDOL
peltakse > peltʰakse lt > ltʰ ᴹ✶peltakse > ON. pelthaksa ✧ Ety/PEL
skelta- > skeltʰa- lt > ltʰ ᴹ✶skelta- > N. heltha ✧ Ety/SKEL
smalta > smaltʰa lt > ltʰ ᴹ✶smaltā > ON. maltha ✧ EtyAC/SMAL
sxalta- > sxaltʰa- lt > ltʰ ON. skhalta- > N. haltha ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
talta > taltʰa lt > ltʰ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. talt ✧ Ety/TALÁT
tulta- > tultʰa- lt > ltʰ ᴹ✶tultā- > N. toltho ✧ Ety/TUL
gampa > gampʰa mp > mpʰ ᴹ√GAP > N. gamp ✧ Ety/GAP
gampasse > gampʰasse mp > mpʰ ON. gampasse > N. gammas ✧ EtyAC/GAP
kʰampa- > kʰampʰa- mp > mpʰ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamma- ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰampata > kʰampʰata mp > mpʰ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hammad ✧ Ety/KHAP
kʰampe > kʰampʰe mp > mpʰ ᴹ√KHAP > N. hamp ✧ Ety/KHAP
limpe > limpʰe mp > mpʰ ᴹ√LINKWI > N. lhimp ✧ Ety/LINKWI
nimpe > nimpʰe mp > mpʰ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimp ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimpirete > nimpʰirete mp > mpʰ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nifred ✧ Ety/NIK-W
nimpit- > nimpʰit- mp > mpʰ ᴹ√NIK-W > N. nimmid ✧ Ety/NIK-W
tumpo > tumpʰo mp > mpʰ ᴹ√TUMPU > N. tump ✧ Ety/TUMPU
inpanta > inpʰanta np > npʰ ON. inpanta > in-fant > N. ifant ✧ Ety/YEN
anta > antʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. ant ✧ Ety/ANA¹
anta- > antʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. anno ✧ Ety/ANA¹
arjante > arjantʰe nt > ntʰ ᴹ√ANA¹ > N. Eriant ✧ Ety/AR¹
atlanta- > atlantʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. atlanno ✧ Ety/TALÁT
atlanta > atlantʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√TALÁT > N. atlant ✧ Ety/TALÁT
dant > dantʰ nt > ntʰ ᴹ√DANT > N. dant- ✧ Ety/DAT
entrende > entʰrende nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶Ēntrende > N. Ethrenn ✧ EtyAC/EN
inpʰanta > inpʰantʰa nt > ntʰ ON. inpanta > in-fant > N. ifant ✧ Ety/YEN
janta > jantʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶yantā > N. iant ✧ Ety/YAT
kanta > kantʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KAT > N. cant ✧ Ety/KAT
kentano > kentʰano nt > ntʰ ᴹ√TAN > N. cennan ✧ Ety/TAN
kentano > kentʰano nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KEM > N. cennan ✧ EtyAC/KEM
lanta > lantʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√LAT > N. lhant ✧ Ety/LAT
lunte > luntʰe nt > ntʰ ᴹ√LUT > N. lhunt ✧ Ety/LUT
mente > mentʰe nt > ntʰ ᴹ√MET > N. ment ✧ Ety/MET
minte > mintʰe nt > ntʰ ᴹ√MIT > N. mint ✧ EtyAC/MIT
onta- > ontʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√ONO > N. #onna ✧ Ety/ONO
panta- > pantʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KWAT > N. pannod ✧ Ety/KWAT
panta > pantʰa nt > ntʰ ON. panta > N. pant ✧ Ety/KWAT
pantjīnare > pantʰjīnare nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KWAT > N. penninar ✧ Ety/YEN
pantra- > pantʰra- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KWAT > N. pathro ✧ Ety/KWAT
penta > pentʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶kwentā > N. pent ✧ Ety/KWET
pentasse > pentʰasse nt > ntʰ ᴹ√KWET > N. pennas ✧ Ety/KWET
pentro > pentʰro nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶kwentrō > N. pethron ✧ Ety/KWET
ranta > rantʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√RAT > N. rant ✧ Ety/RAT
spantur > spantʰur nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶Spanturo > N. Fennyr/Fennuir ✧ Ety/SPAN
stintasse > stintʰasse nt > ntʰ ᴹ√STINTĀ > N. thinnas ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
sθinta > sθintʰa nt > ntʰ ON. sthinta > N. thent ✧ Ety/STINTĀ
taŋkante > taŋkantʰe nt > ntʰ ON. tankánte > N. tangant ✧ PE17/44
tinta- > tintʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ√TIN > N. tinno ✧ Ety/TIN
tinte > tintʰe nt > ntʰ ᴹ√TIN > N. tint ✧ Ety/TIN
tʰinta > tʰintʰa nt > ntʰ ᴹ√THIN > ON. thintha ✧ Ety/THIN
wanta- > wantʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶wanta- > N. gwanno ✧ Ety/WAN
winta- > wintʰa- nt > ntʰ ᴹ✶wínta- > ON. wintha ✧ Ety/WIN
apparka > appʰarka pp > ppʰ ᴹ✶apparkā > ON. appharkha ✧ EtyAC/A
eppele > eppʰele pp > ppʰ ᴹ✶Et-pele > eppele > N. Ephel ✧ WR/137
appʰarka > appʰarkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ✶apparkā > ON. appharkha ✧ EtyAC/A
erka > erkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ√ERÉK > N. erch ✧ Ety/ERÉK
erka- > erkʰa- rk > rkʰ ᴹ√ERÉK > N. ercho ✧ Ety/ERÉK
karka > karkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ√KÁRAK > N. carch ✧ Ety/KARAK
kirka > kirkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ√KIRIK > N. cerch ✧ Ety/KIRIK
korka > korkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ√KORKA > N. corch ✧ Ety/KARKA
narka- > narkʰa- rk > rkʰ ᴹ√NÁRAK > N. narcha- ✧ Ety/NÁRAK
orko > orkʰo rk > rkʰ ON. orko > N. orch ✧ Ety/ÓROK
orkui > orkʰui rk > rkʰ ON. orkui > N. †yrchy ✧ EtyAC/ÓROK
parka > parkʰa rk > rkʰ ᴹ✶parkā > ON. parkha ✧ EtyAC/A
ambarta > ambartʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√MBARAT > N. ammarth ✧ Ety/MBARAT
awarta > awartʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√WAR > N. awarth ✧ Ety/WAR
awarta- > awartʰa- rt > rtʰ ON. awarta > N. awartha ✧ Ety/WAR
berta > bertʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√BER > ON. bértha- ✧ Ety/BER
darta- > dartʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√DAR > N. dartha ✧ Ety/DAR
garta > gartʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√GARAT > N. garth ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
garta- > gartʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√GARAT > N. gartho ✧ EtyAC/GAR
karta > kartʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√KAR > N. carth ✧ Ety/KAR
kirtan > kirtʰan rt > rtʰ ᴹ√TAN > ON. Certhan ✧ Ety/TAN
kʰerte > kʰertʰe rt > rtʰ ᴹ√KHER > N. herth ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰorta- > kʰortʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√KHOR > N. hortha- ✧ Ety/KHOR
mbarta- > mbartʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√MBARAT > N. bartho ✧ Ety/MBARAT
narta- > nartʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√NARTA > N. nartho ✧ EtyAC/NARTA
nartasse > nartʰasse rt > rtʰ ᴹ√NARTA > N. Narthas ✧ EtyAC/NARTA
ndorta- > ndortʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√NDOR > N. dortho- ✧ Ety/NDOR
ŋgurtu > ŋgurtʰu rt > rtʰ ON. ngurtu > N. guruth ✧ Ety/ÑGUR
orta- > ortʰa- rt > rtʰ ON. ortóbe > N. ortho ✧ Ety/ORO
ortel- > ortʰel- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√TEL > N. ortheli ✧ Ety/TEL
ortur- > ortʰur- rt > rtʰ ᴹ✶or-tur- > N. orthor ✧ Ety/TUR
parta- > partʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√PAR > ON. parthóbi ✧ Ety/PAR
turta- > turtʰa- rt > rtʰ ᴹ√TUR > N. tortho ✧ Ety/TUR
warta > wartʰa rt > rtʰ ᴹ√WAR > N. gwarth ✧ Ety/WAR
att- > attʰ- tt > ttʰ ᴹ√AT(AT) > N. ath- ✧ Ety/RAT
-atta > -attʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶-atta > N. -ath ✧ PE21/57
batta- > battʰa- tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶battā́ > ON. batthṓ ✧ Ety/BAT
dalatte > dalattʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√DAL > N. dalath ✧ Ety/DAL
datta > dattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶dattā > N. dath ✧ Ety/DAT
gatta > gattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶gattā > N. gath ✧ Ety/GAT(H)
grotto > grottʰo tt > ttʰ ᴹ√ROT > N. groth ✧ EtyAC/ROT
jatta > jattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶yatta > N. iath ✧ EtyAC/YAT
kelette > kelettʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√KEL > N. celeth ✧ EtyAC/KEL
latta > lattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√LATH/LAT > N. lhath ✧ Ety/LATH
matta- > mattʰa- tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶mahtā́ > ON. matthṓ-be ✧ Ety/MAƷ
mberette > mberettʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√MBER > N. bereth ✧ Ety/MBER
melette > melettʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√MEL > N. meleth ✧ Ety/MEL
merette > merettʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√MER > N. mereth ✧ Ety/MBER
metta > mettʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶metta > N. meth ✧ Ety/MET
nanitta > nanittʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√NAN > N. naneth ✧ Ety/NAN
palatte > palattʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√PAL > N. palath ✧ Ety/PAL
petta > pettʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶kwetta > N. peth ✧ Ety/KWET
ratta > rattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶rattā̆ > ON. rattha ✧ Ety/RAT
rotto > rottʰo tt > ttʰ ᴹ√ROT > N. roth ✧ EtyAC/ROT
setta > settʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ✶settā > N. seth ✧ EtyAC/SET
skalatta > skalattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√SKAL > N. ?halath ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skalatti > skalattʰi tt > ttʰ ᴹ√SKAL > N. heleth ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skelatta > skelattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√SKEL > N. helath ✧ EtyAC/SKEL
skelette > skelettʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√SKEL > N. heleth ✧ Ety/SKEL
tittina > tittʰina tt > ttʰ ᴹ√TIT > N. tithen ✧ Ety/TIT
tittini > tittʰini tt > ttʰ ᴹ√TIT > N. tithin ✧ Ety/TIT
wanatta > wanattʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√WAN > N. gwanath ✧ Ety/WAN
watta- > wattʰa- tt > ttʰ ON. wattóbe > N. gwatho ✧ Ety/WAƷ
watte > wattʰe tt > ttʰ ON. watte > N. gwath ✧ Ety/WAƷ
wilitte > wilittʰe tt > ttʰ ᴹ√WIL > N. gwilith ✧ Ety/WIL
wilwilitta > wilwilittʰa tt > ttʰ ᴹ√WIL > N. gwilwileth ✧ Ety/WIL
iŋki > iŋkʰi ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√INK/INIK? > N. inc ✧ Ety/INK
laŋko > laŋkʰo ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√LANK > N. lhanc ✧ Ety/LANK
laŋko > laŋkʰo ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√LAK¹ > N. lhanc ✧ EtyAC/LAK¹
ndaŋkina > ndaŋkʰina ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√NDAK > N. dangen ✧ Ety/NDAK
ndaŋkini > ndaŋkʰini ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√NDAK > N. Ndengin ✧ Ety/NDAK
pʰliŋke > pʰliŋkʰe ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ✶philínkē > N. flinc ✧ PE21/56
raŋko > raŋkʰo ŋk > ŋkʰ ON. ranko > N. rhanc ✧ Ety/RAK
orkui > raŋkʰui ŋk > ŋkʰ ON. rankui > N. †rhengy ✧ Ety/RAK
riŋke > riŋkʰe ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ✶rinki > N. rhinc ✧ Ety/RIK(H)
sθaŋka > sθaŋkʰa ŋk > ŋkʰ ON. sthanka > N. thanc ✧ Ety/STAK
taŋka > taŋkʰa ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ√TAK > N. tanc ✧ Ety/TAK
taŋkantʰe > taŋkʰantʰe ŋk > ŋkʰ ON. tankánte > N. tangant ✧ PE17/44
taŋkata- > taŋkʰata- ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ✶tánkā̆ta- > N. tangado ✧ PE17/44
taŋkla > taŋkʰla ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ✶tankla > tachl > N. tachol ✧ Ety/TAK
tiŋko > tiŋkʰo ŋk > ŋkʰ ᴹ✶TINKŌ > N. tinc ✧ Ety/TINKŌ

G. voiceless stops spirantalized after many consonants; [{lrmnŋ}{ptk}|{ptk}{fθx}|ɣt] > [{lrmnŋ]}{fθx}|{fθx}{fθx}|ɣð]

@@@ HSG/§2.2, 2.4, but maybe not mp: gwimpel

Phonetic Rule Elements

[lp] > [lf]
[lt] > [lθ]
[lk] > [lx]
[rp] > [rf]
[rt] > [rθ]
[rk] > [rx]
[mp] > [mf]
[nt] > [nθ]
[ŋk] > [ŋx]
[pp] > [ff]
[pt] > [pθ]
[-pt] > [-fθ]
[tt] > [θθ]
[kt] > [kθ]
[-kt] > [-xθ]
[xt] > [xθ]
[kk] > [xx]
[ɣt] > [ɣθ]
[ɣt] > [ɣð]
[gð] > [ɣð]
[kð] > [ɣð]
[vt] > [vθ]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ekt > exθ -kt > -xθ ᴱ✶ektĭ > G. aith² ✧ GL/18
ekti > exθi -kt > -xθ ‽ᴱ✶ektī > G. †aithi ✧ GL/18
ektl > exθl -kt > -xθ ᴱ✶ektḷ > G. aithl ✧ GL/18
kektl > kexθl -kt > -xθ ᴱ✶kekt(ǝ)lḗ > G. caithl ✧ GL/25
sapt > safθ -pt > -fθ ᴱ√sab- > G. sauth ✧ GL/67
meɣðana > meɣðan gð > ɣð ᴱ✶megđana > G. maidhon ✧ GL/56
akk > axx kk > xx ᴱ√aki > G. ach ✧ GL/17
krekk > krexx kk > xx ᴱ√kerek- > G. crech ✧ GL/27
ukk > uxx kk > xx ᴱ✶ukko > G. uch ✧ GL/74
blekta > blekθa kt > kθ ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek > G. blectha ✧ GL/22
ektel > eθtel kt > kθ ᴱ√KELE > G. ecthel ✧ LT2A/Ecthelion
krekta- > krekθa- kt > kθ ᴱ√kerek- > G. crectha- ✧ GL/27
trikton > trikθon kt > kθ ᴱ√tṛk > G. tricthon ✧ GL/69
sekðan > seɣðan kð > ɣð ᴱ✶sek’·ðana > G. Saidhon ✧ GL/66
falk > falx lk > lx ᴱ√FḶKḶ > G. Falc ✧ LT2A/Glorfalc
falkan > falxan lk > lx ᴱ√FḶKḶ > G. falchon ✧ LT2A/Glorfalc
helk > helx lk > lx ᴱ√χele-k > G. helc ✧ GL/48
ndolk > ndolx lk > lx ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolc ✧ GL/30
alpa > alfa lp > lf ᴱ✶alchwa > G. alfa ✧ GL/18
ndolpa > ndolfa lp > lf ᴱ√ndolo- > G. dolfa ✧ GL/30
balt > balθ lt > lθ ᴱ√vḷt > G. balt ✧ GL/23
falt > falθ lt > lθ ᴱ√fal-² > G. falt ✧ GL/33
gilt > gilθ lt > lθ ᴱ√Gil- > G. gilt ✧ GL/38
gilta > gilθa lt > lθ ᴱ√Gil- > G. giltha ✧ GL/38
gulta- > gulθa- lt > lθ ᴱ√dyulu > G. gultha ✧ GL/38
gʷalt > gʷalθ lt > lθ ᴱ√gwal > G. gwalt ✧ GL/44
bent > benθ nt > nθ ᴱ√VENE > G. bent ✧ LT1A/Glorvent
blant > blanθ nt > nθ ᴱ√PALA > G. blant ✧ LT1A/Palúrien
finta- > finθa- nt > nθ ᴱ√fṇt > G. fintha- ✧ GL/35
gant > ganθ nt > nθ ᴱ√yṇt > G. gant ✧ GL/37
ganta > ganθa nt > nθ ᴱ√yṇt > G. gantha ✧ GL/37
gʷant > gʷanθ nt > nθ ᴱ√VANA > G. gwant ✧ LT1A/Vána
gʷent > gʷenθ nt > nθ ᴱ√gwene- > G. gwent ✧ GL/45
gʷent > gʷenθ nt > nθ ᴱ√gwed² > G. gwent ✧ GL/46
inta- > inθa- nt > nθ ᴱ√yṇt > G. intha- ✧ GL/37
kʷent > kʷenθ nt > nθ ᴱ√QETE > G. cwent ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
lent > lenθ nt > nθ ᴱ√LENE > G. glent ✧ LT2A/Glend
kʷipta- > kʷipθa- pt > pθ ᴱ√QIP > G. cwiptha- ✧ GL/28
sapta- > sapθa- pt > pθ ᴱ√sab- > G. saptha- ✧ GL/67
ark > arx rk > rx ᴱ✶ṝkă > G. arch ✧ PE13/110
gʷert > gʷerθ rt > rθ ᴱ√gwer- > G. gwert ✧ GL/46
blatt > blaθθ tt > θθ ᴱ√PALA > G. blath ✧ LT1A/Palúrien
gatt > gaθθ tt > θθ ᴱ✶yatt- > G. gath¹ ✧ GL/36
gotta- > goθθa- tt > θθ ᴱ✶ı̯otta > G. gôtha- ✧ GL/42
koitt > koiθθ tt > θθ ᴱ√KOYO > G. cuith ✧ LT1A/Koivië-néni
kʷett > kʷeθθ tt > θθ ᴱ√QETE > G. cweth ✧ LT2A/Tôn a Gwedrin
mbritt- > mbriθθ- tt > θθ ᴱ√M(B)ṚTṚ > G. brith- ✧ QL/63
-tt > -θθ tt > θθ G. -tt > G. -th ✧ GG/10
kavta- > kavθa- vt > vθ #ᴱ√tyav- > G. cautha- ✧ GL/24
ext > exθ xt > xθ ᴱ✶eχtă- > G. aith¹ ✧ GL/18
extaθ > exθaθ xt > xθ ᴱ✶eχt·taþ· > G. aithos ✧ GL/18
foxta- > foxθa- xt > xθ ᴱ√foχo > G. fuitha¹ ✧ GL/36
kaxt > kaxθ xt > xθ ᴱ✶kahta > G. caith ✧ GL/24
gʷiŋk > gʷiŋx ŋk > ŋx ᴱ√GWINI > G. gwinc ✧ LT1A/Morwinyon
baɣta- > baɣða- ɣt > ɣð ᴱ√Baʒ̔- > G. baidha- ✧ GL/21
fuɣta- > fuɣθa- ɣt > ɣθ ᴱ√fuʒu > G. fuitha² ✧ GL/36