AQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]

AQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]

Any aspirates that survived other changes became voiceless spirants in Ancient Quenya. Examples of this phonetic development are extremely numerous. Tolkien gave essentially identical descriptions of this sound change in both the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s:

[OP1: PE19/30] The aspirated stops ph, th, kh remained probably in AQ; but in PQ (probably early) they were opened to strong voiceless spirants.

  • (i) ph: produced a bilabial spirant [ꝑ].
  • (ii) th: produced an interdental spirant [þ], more or less identical with the sound in English “thin”. This remained the learned and correct pronunciation in the classical period.
  • (iii) kh: produced a back spirant [χ], as “ch” in Welsh. It was not markedly fronted by adjacent front vowels (e, i), at least no more than the corresponding stop.

[OP2: PE19/71] The aspirate stops ph, th, kh. These probably remained unchanged in AQ; but before the PQ period they had become strong voiceless spirants.

  • (i) ph became a bilabial spirant [ꝑ]. ...
  • (ii) th became the interdental spirant [þ], more or less identical with the sound of “th” in English “thin”.
  • (iii) kh became the back spirant [χ], as “ch” in Welsh. It was not markedly fronted by adjacent front vowels ē̆, ī̆, at least no more than the corresponding stop k (or “ck” in English “thick”).

As noted above, the spirantalized ph first became the bilabial spirant [ɸ], just as the voiced stop b initially spirantalized to ƀ [β]; later on these bilabial [ɸ], [β] became labio-dental [f], [v]. The spirantalized th, kh initially retained their place of articulation as þ, χ (IPA [θ] and [x]), but later these sounds (mostly) became s and h. Examples of all these spirantalizations of are trivial to find. There are some complexities in determining exactly when these sound changes took place, however.

To begin with, there was a similar sound change in Sindarin (and also in Noldorin of the 1930s). However, the aspirates underwent some Quenya-only changes before spirantalizing, notably aspirates pairs became voiceless stops; the opposite sound change occurred in Sindarin, where pairs of voiceless stops were aspirated (and later became voiceless spirants). Thus, the spirantalization of aspirates must have been a parallel sound change in the child languages rather than one belonging to Common Eldarin period.

In the notes above, Tolkien indicates this change occurred in late Ancient Quenya [AQ] or early Parmaquesta [PQ]. Whenever it happened, though, the spirantalization most likely occurred before velars were dentalized before [j], because initial khy > χy > (voiceless) hy was the usual phonetic development of this combination (OP1: PE19/34, OP2: PE19/75) and not khy > thy (> ?sy). The exacting timing of the dentalization of labialized-velars is itself unclear: it was after the voiced stops became spirants in the 1930s (since gy > ʒy > y, OP1: PE19/45) but before voiced stops spirantalized in the 1950s (since gy > dy > ly, OP2: PE19/75).

Since dentalization was an older sound change in the 1950s that it was in the 1930s, this implies the same is true of the spirantalization of aspirates. That’s consistent with what Tolkien said in the quotes above, where he stated that it was before the PQ period (probably late AQ) in the 1950s but occurred in early PQ in the 1930s. For simplicity, the Eldamo data model puts the spirantalization of aspirates in the Ancient Quenya period to account for various other sound changes that must have occurred after it.

Conceptual Development: Tolkien’s earliest conception of Primitive Elvish from the 1910s and 1920s had voiceless spirants rather than aspirates, so the spirantalization of the (non-existent) aspirates was not relevant.

References ✧ PE19/71, 88

Order (01800)

After 01000 [r] became [s] after voiceless stops and aspirates
After 01500 [n], [m] became [t], [w] after voiceless stops and aspirates
After 01600 nasals became voiceless stops before aspirates
After 01700 aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops
Before 02200 [x] unvoiced following [j], [w]
Before 03700 [j], [w] often reduced between vowels phayā > făyā > Q. fea PE19/104
Before 00100 Q. [nm], [ŋm] became [nw], [ŋgw] khadmā > χanmā > χanw̃ā > Q. hanw̃a PE22/148
Before 00700 Q. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Related

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pʰ] > [ɸ] ✧ PE19/71 (ph > [ꝑ])
[tʰ] > [θ] ✧ PE19/71 (th > þ)
[kʰ] > [x] ✧ PE19/71 (kh > χ); PE19/75 (khy > χy); PE19/75 (khw > χw); PE19/83 (khy > χy)

Phonetic Rule Examples

nākʰa > naxa kʰ > x NAKH > Q. nāha ✧ PE17/166
tarkʰildī > tarxildī kʰ > x tarkhildī > Q. tarkildi ✧ PE17/101
tulkʰast > tulxast kʰ > x Val. Tulukhastāz > Q. Tulkas ✧ WJ/399
kʰ- > x- kʰ > x kh > Q. h ✧ PE17/92
kʰabnā > xabnā kʰ > x khabnā > Q. hamna ✧ PE19/91
kʰadmā > xadmā kʰ > x khadmā > χanmā > χanw̃ā > Q. hanw̃a ✧ PE22/148
kʰādo > xādo kʰ > x khādo > hāzo > Q. hāro ✧ PE22/148
kʰaktā > xaktā kʰ > x khagdā > Q. hahta ✧ PE19/91
kʰaktā > xaktā kʰ > x khagdā > Q. hahta ✧ PE19/92
kʰalda > xalda kʰ > x KHAL > Q. halda ✧ PE17/184
kʰan- > xan- kʰ > x KHAN > Q. han ✧ PE17/166
kʰanno > xanno kʰ > x khan > Q. hanno ✧ VT47/26
kʰanno > xanno kʰ > x khan > Q. hanno ✧ VT47/34
kʰāno > xāno kʰ > x KHAN > Q. hāno ✧ VT47/14
kʰauda > xauda kʰ > x KHAWAD > hauza > Q. haura ✧ PE19/91
kʰauda > xauda kʰ > x KHAW > Q. haura ✧ PE19/92
kʰaura > xaura kʰ > x KHAWA > Q. haura ✧ PE17/115
kʰawa > xawa kʰ > x KHAWA > Q. höa ✧ PE17/115
kʰē > xē kʰ > x khē̆ > Q. ✧ VT49/15
kʰelka > xelka kʰ > x khelek- > Q. helka ✧ SA/khelek
kʰēr > xēr kʰ > x khēr > Q. hēr ✧ Let/282
kʰēr > xēr kʰ > x khēr > Q. hēr ✧ VT41/9
kʰerū > xerū kʰ > x kherū > Q. heru ✧ Let/282
kʰerū > xerū kʰ > x kherū > Q. heru ✧ PE17/97
kʰī > xī kʰ > x khĭn- > Q. ✧ VT49/34
kʰildi > xildi kʰ > x KHIL > Q. hildi ✧ PE17/18
kʰildi > xildi kʰ > x KHIL > Q. hildi ✧ PE17/101
kʰildor > xildor kʰ > x khil- > Q. Hildor ✧ SA/khil
kʰildor > xildor kʰ > x KHILI > Q. Hildor ✧ WJ/387
kʰīnā > xīnā kʰ > x khīnā/khinā > Q. hína ✧ WJ/403
kʰinde > xinde kʰ > x KHIN > Q. hinde ✧ PE17/157
kʰindo > xindo kʰ > x KHIN > Q. hindo ✧ PE17/157
kʰīni > xīni kʰ > x KHIN > Q. hīn(i) ✧ PE17/157
kʰir- > xir- kʰ > x KHIR > Q. hiruva ✧ PE17/75
kʰīθie > xīθie kʰ > x KHIΘ > Q. hísië ✧ PE17/73
kʰīθilōmē > xīθilōmē kʰ > x χīþilōmē > Q. hīsilōmi ✧ PE17/133
kʰj- > xj- kʰ > x khy- > Q. hy ✧ LotR/1115
kʰja > xja kʰ > x khyē̆ > Q. hya ✧ VT49/14
kʰjana > xjana kʰ > x khyana > Q. hyana ✧ VT49/14
kʰje > xje kʰ > x khyē̆ > Q. hye ✧ VT49/14
kʰolde > xolde kʰ > x KHOL > Q. holde ✧ PE17/98
kʰolja- > xolja- kʰ > x KHOL > Q. holya ✧ PE17/98
kʰolma > xolma kʰ > x KHOL > Q. holma ✧ PE17/98
kʰolmō > xolmō kʰ > x khomlō > Q. holmo ✧ PE19/97
kʰōm > xōm kʰ > x khōm > Q. *hón ✧ PE19/102
kʰosta- > xosta- kʰ > x khot-ta > Q. hosta ✧ PE17/39
kʰū > xū kʰ > x khōgo > Q. ✧ PE17/86
arpʰō > arɸō pʰ > ɸ arp(h)ō > Q. arpo ✧ PE19/89
rapʰe > raɸe pʰ > ɸ raphe > Q. rafe ✧ PE19/89
pʰā > ɸā pʰ > ɸ phāy > Q. ✧ PE19/104
pʰā > ɸā pʰ > ɸ phā > Q. ✧ VT47/35
pʰai > ɸai pʰ > ɸ PHĀ > Q. fai ✧ PE22/147
pʰaila > ɸaila pʰ > ɸ PHAYA > Q. faila ✧ PM/352
pʰaja > ɸaja pʰ > ɸ phăya > Q. fëa ✧ MR/349
pʰaja > ɸaja pʰ > ɸ phăya > Q. fëa ✧ MR/470
pʰajā > ɸajā pʰ > ɸ fáyā > Q. fëa ✧ PE17/124
pʰajā > ɸajā pʰ > ɸ phayā > făyā > Q. fea ✧ PE19/104
pʰaja > ɸaja pʰ > ɸ PHAYA > Q. fëa ✧ PM/352
pʰajā > ɸajā pʰ > ɸ phayā > Q. fea ✧ VT41/14
pʰajanāro > ɸajanāro pʰ > ɸ phaya-nāro > Q. Fëanáro ✧ PE17/39
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ PHAL > Q. falasse ✧ PE17/62
pʰalma > ɸalma pʰ > ɸ PHAL > Q. falma ✧ PE17/62
pʰalma > ɸalma pʰ > ɸ PHAL > Q. falma ✧ PE17/73
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ FAN > Q. fana ✧ PE17/26
pʰanā > ɸanā pʰ > ɸ phanā > Q. fana ✧ PE17/173
pʰanā > ɸanā pʰ > ɸ phanā > Q. fana ✧ PE17/174
pʰana > ɸana pʰ > ɸ Fana- > Q. fana ✧ RGEO/66
pʰanar > ɸanar pʰ > ɸ PHAN > Q. fanar ✧ PE17/179
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ FAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/26
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ FAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/26
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ PHAN > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/173
pʰanjā > ɸanjā pʰ > ɸ phanyā > Q. fanya ✧ PE17/175
pʰanja > ɸanja pʰ > ɸ Fana- > Q. fanya ✧ RGEO/66
pʰanma > ɸanma pʰ > ɸ fanma > Q. fanwa ✧ PE17/176
pʰanmā > ɸanmā pʰ > ɸ fan-mā > Q. fanwa ✧ PE17/180
pʰanta- > ɸanta- pʰ > ɸ phantā- > Q. fanta- ✧ PE17/174
pʰanta- > ɸanta- pʰ > ɸ phan- > Q. fanta- ✧ VT43/22
pʰaralē > ɸaralē pʰ > ɸ phár-alē > Q. farále ✧ PE22/138
pʰaralē > ɸaralē pʰ > ɸ phár-alē > Q. fărăle ✧ PE22/138
pʰarne > ɸarne pʰ > ɸ pharan- > Q. ‽fărnĭ ✧ PE17/83
pʰarne > ɸarne pʰ > ɸ pharne > Q. ‽farnë ✧ PE17/83
pʰawa > ɸawa pʰ > ɸ PHAW > Q. foa ✧ PE17/181
pʰawa > ɸawa pʰ > ɸ fawa > Q. foa ✧ VT47/35
pʰawalōke > ɸawalōke pʰ > ɸ phawalōkō > Q. foalóke ✧ PE17/181
pʰelektā > ɸelektā pʰ > ɸ PHELEK > Q. felehta ✧ PE17/118
pʰelgā > ɸelgā pʰ > ɸ phelgā > Q. felya ✧ PE17/118
pʰelka > ɸelka pʰ > ɸ PHELEK > Q. felca ✧ PE17/118
pʰelko > ɸelko pʰ > ɸ PHELEK > Q. felco ✧ PE17/118
pʰelme > ɸelme pʰ > ɸ phel- > Q. felme ✧ VT41/19
pʰenna > ɸenna pʰ > ɸ PHEN > Q. fenna ✧ PE17/181
pʰērima > ɸērima pʰ > ɸ PHERE > Q. férima ✧ PE17/181
pʰerja- > ɸerja- pʰ > ɸ PHERE > Q. ferya- ✧ PE17/181
pʰiliŋke > ɸiliŋke pʰ > ɸ philik > Q. filinke ✧ PE21/72
pʰimbe > ɸimbe pʰ > ɸ PHIM > Q. fimbi- ✧ PE17/23
pʰinda > ɸinda pʰ > ɸ PHIN > Q. finda ✧ PM/340
pʰinda > ɸinda pʰ > ɸ PHĬN > Q. finda ✧ PE17/181
spinde > ɸinde pʰ > ɸ PHIN > Q. findë ✧ PM/340
spine > ɸine pʰ > ɸ PHIN > Q. finë ✧ PM/340
pʰine > ɸine pʰ > ɸ PHINĪ > Q. fínë ✧ PE17/119
pʰinja > ɸinja pʰ > ɸ PHIN- > Q. finya ✧ PE17/17
pʰinja- > ɸinja- pʰ > ɸ PHĬN > Q. finya- ✧ PE17/181
pʰiŋka > ɸiŋka pʰ > ɸ PHINĪ > Q. finca ✧ PE17/119
pʰiŋka > ɸiŋka pʰ > ɸ finik/fink > Q. finca ✧ PE17/17
pʰinta- > ɸinta- pʰ > ɸ PHIN- > Q. finta- ✧ PE17/17
pʰinta- > ɸinta- pʰ > ɸ PHINĪ > Q. finta- ✧ PE17/119
pʰintaler > ɸintaler pʰ > ɸ PHINĪ > Q. fintaler ✧ PE17/119
pʰinwa > ɸinwa pʰ > ɸ PHINĪ > Q. finwa ✧ PE17/119
pʰinwa > ɸinwa pʰ > ɸ PHĬN > Q. finwa ✧ PE17/181
pʰīrimar > ɸīrimar pʰ > ɸ PHIRI > Q. Fírimar ✧ WJ/387
pʰirja > ɸirja pʰ > ɸ PHIRI > Q. Firyar ✧ WJ/387
pʰō > ɸō pʰ > ɸ PHŌ/Ū > Q. ✧ PE17/181
pʰuinē > ɸuinē pʰ > ɸ AQ. phuinē > Q. huine ✧ PE19/71
atʰa- > aθa- tʰ > θ ATHA > Q. asa- ✧ PE17/148
atʰa- > aθa- tʰ > θ AÞA > Q. asa- ✧ PE17/172
atʰajā > aθajā tʰ > θ aþayā > Q. asëa ✧ PE17/49
atʰaja > aθaja tʰ > θ ATHA > Q. asëa ✧ PE17/148
atʰāja > aθāja tʰ > θ aþāya > Q. aþea ✧ PE22/165
atʰanje > aθanje tʰ > θ ÞĀ̆/AÞA > Q. aþanye ✧ PE22/166
atʰar > aθar tʰ > θ Val. aþāra > aþar > Q. asar ✧ WJ/399
atʰie > aθie tʰ > θ ATHA > Q. asië ✧ PE17/148
atʰja- > aθja- tʰ > θ ATHA > Q. asya- ✧ PE17/148
atʰra > aθra tʰ > θ AÞA > Q. asra ✧ PE17/172
atʰumō > aθumō tʰ > θ athmō > Q. aþumo ✧ PE22/166
autʰa > auθa tʰ > θ aw’tha > auþa > Q. ausa ✧ VT42/10
bartʰī > barθī tʰ > θ barathī(e) > Q. Varsi ✧ PE17/23
cetʰ- > ceθ- tʰ > θ KEÞ > Q. kes- ✧ PE17/156
hatʰa- > haθa- tʰ > θ HATHA > Q. haþa- ✧ PE22/166
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ THIL > Q. Isil ✧ Let/425
kʰīθie > kʰīθie tʰ > θ KHIΘ > Q. hísië ✧ PE17/73
kʰīθilōmē > kʰīθilōmē tʰ > θ χīþilōmē > Q. hīsilōmi ✧ PE17/133
lōtʰ > lōθ tʰ > θ LOTH > Q. lōs ✧ PE17/26
lōtʰ > lōθ tʰ > θ loth > Q. lós ✧ PE17/160
nētʰā > nēθā tʰ > θ nēthā > néþa > Q. nésa ✧ VT47/14
ŋgortʰūs > ŋgorθūs tʰ > θ ñgor(o)-thūsō > ñorthus > Q. ñorsus ✧ PE17/183
ŋwolōtʰ > ŋwolōθ tʰ > θ ñwa-lōth > Q. olos ✧ PE17/160
patʰ- > paθ- tʰ > θ PATH > Q. pas- ✧ PE19/88
rūtʰe > rūθe tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > Q. rúse ✧ PE17/188
rūtʰea > rūθea tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > Q. rúsea ✧ PE17/188
srithja- > sriθja- tʰ > θ SRITH > hriþya > Q. hrisya ✧ PE17/168
tulkatʰ > tulkaθ tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Tulkathŏ > ᴹQ. Tulkas ✧ Ety/TULUK
tʰā > θā tʰ > θ ÞĀ̆/AÞA > Q. þá ✧ PE22/166
tʰaktie > θaktie tʰ > θ thakta- > þahtie > Q. sahtie ✧ VT43/22
tʰandā > θandā tʰ > θ thandā > Q. #sanda ✧ UT/282
tʰāne > θāne tʰ > θ thānĭ- > Q. th-/sāne- ✧ PE17/81
tʰaura > θaura tʰ > θ ÞAW > Q. saura ✧ PE17/68
tʰaura > θaura tʰ > θ THAW > Q. Saura ✧ PE17/184
tʰaurond > θaurond tʰ > θ θaurond- > Q. Sauron ✧ Let/380
tʰauson > θauson tʰ > θ ÞOWO > Þauson > Q. Sauron ✧ PE17/68
tʰinda > θinda tʰ > θ THIN > Q. Sindar ✧ WJ/384
tʰinda > θinda tʰ > θ ΘIN > Q. sinda ✧ PE17/72
tʰindā > θindā tʰ > θ þindā > Q. sinda ✧ PE17/72
θinde > θinde tʰ > θ thindi- > Q. sinde ✧ PE17/141
tʰōl > θōl tʰ > θ ÞOL > Q. sól ✧ PE17/188
tʰorna > θorna tʰ > θ THOR > thorna > Q. sorna ✧ PE17/113
tʰorne > θorne tʰ > θ ᴹ√THÓRON > ᴹQ. sorne ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰorno > θorno tʰ > θ þorono > þorno > Q. sorno ✧ Let/427
tʰosja- > θosja- tʰ > θ ÞOS > Q. †þorya ✧ PE17/87
tʰosse > θosse tʰ > θ ÞOS > Q. †þosse ✧ PE17/87
tʰosta- > θosta- tʰ > θ ÞOS > Q. †þosta- ✧ PE17/87
tʰūlē > θūlē tʰ > θ thū́lē > thúle > Q. súle ✧ PE17/124
urtʰa > urθa tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > Q. ursa ✧ PE17/188
urtʰa- > urθa- tʰ > θ (U)RUÞ > Q. ursa- ✧ PE17/188
utʰ- > uθ- tʰ > θ UTHU > Q. us- ✧ PE17/151
watʰar > waθar tʰ > θ Wathar > waþar > Q. vasar ✧ VT42/9
watʰar > waθar tʰ > θ waþar > Q. vasar ✧ VT42/10
watʰarja- > waθarja- tʰ > θ waþar > Q. vasarya- ✧ VT42/10

ᴹAQ. aspirates became voiceless spirants; [{ptk}ʰ] > [{ɸθx}]

References ✧ PE19/30, 44; PE22/15

Order (01900)

After 01000 [r] became [s] after voiceless stops and aspirates
After 01600 [n], [m] became [t], [w] after aspirates
After 01700 nasals became voiceless stops before aspirates
After 01800 aspirates became voiceless stops after voiceless stops
Before 03800 [j], [w] often reduced between vowels
Before 00100 ᴹQ. [nm], [ŋm] became [nw], [ŋgw]
Before 00700 ᴹQ. spirants became stops after [r], [l]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[pʰ] > [ɸ] ✧ PE19/37 (ph > f); PE19/50 (ph > ph); PE19/50 (phy > phy); PE19/51 (lph > lph); PE19/51 (rph > rph)
[tʰ] > [θ] ✧ PE19/37 (th > th); PE19/51 (lthy > lthy; rare); PE19/50 (th > th); PE19/50 (thy > thy); PE19/50 (thw > thw); PE19/51 (lth > lth); PE19/51 (rth > rth); PE19/51 (rthy > rthy)
[kʰ] > [x] ✧ PE19/51 (lkh > lkh); PE19/51 (lkhy > lkhy; rare); PE19/51 (lkhw > lkhw; rare); PE19/51 (rkh > rkh); PE19/51 (rkhw > rkhw); PE19/51 (rkhy > rkhy)

Phonetic Rule Examples

lakʰe > lakʰe kʰ > x ᴹ√LAKH > ᴹQ. lahe ✧ PE22/102
mbaŋkʰa- > mbaŋxa- kʰ > x ᴹ√MBAKH > ᴹQ. manka- ✧ Ety/MBAKH
nakʰam- > naxam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM² > ᴹQ. naham- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM²
nakʰāme > naxāme kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM² > ᴹQ. nahāme ✧ EtyAC/KHAM²
orkʰal- > orxal- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL > ᴹQ. orhale ✧ PE22/103
tarkʰil > tarxil kʰ > x ᴹ✶tāra-khil > ᴹQ. Tarkil ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰad- > xad- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. har- ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰaimē > xaimē kʰ > x ᴹ✶khaimē > ᴹQ. haime ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰaira > xaira kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAYA > ᴹQ. haira ✧ Ety/KHAYA
kʰāja > xāja kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAYA > ᴹQ. hāya ✧ Ety/KHAYA
kʰakta > xakta kʰ > x ᴹ✶khagda > ᴹQ. hahta ✧ Ety/KHAG
kʰala > xala kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL¹ > ᴹQ. hala ✧ Ety/KHAL¹
kʰala > xala kʰ > x ᴹ✶khala > ᴹQ. hala ✧ EtyAC/KHAL¹
kʰalatirn > xalatirn kʰ > x ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > ᴹQ. halatir ✧ Ety/TIR
kʰalda > xalda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAL > ᴹQ. halda ✧ PE22/103
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. ham- ✧ Ety/KHAM
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. hame ✧ PE22/103
kʰam- > xam- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAM > ᴹQ. ham- ✧ PE22/125
kʰamwa > xamwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶harat/hamwa > ᴹQ. hamma ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰanako > xanako kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN-AK > ᴹQ. hanako ✧ EtyAC/KHAN-AK
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. handa ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanda > xanda kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAD > ᴹQ. ?handa ✧ EtyAC/KHAM
kʰande > xande kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. hande ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰanja- > xanja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAN > ᴹQ. hanya- ✧ Ety/KHAN
kʰarmen > xarmen kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > ᴹQ. harmen ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰarna > xarna kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAR > ᴹQ. harna ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰarpa > xarpa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHÁRAP > ᴹQ. harpa ✧ EtyAC/KHAR
kʰat- > xat- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAT > ᴹQ. hat ✧ PE22/127
kʰauta- > xauta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHAW > ᴹQ. hauta- ✧ Ety/KHAW
kʰelka > xelka kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > ᴹQ. helka ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelke > xelke kʰ > x ᴹ√KHELEK > ᴹQ. helke ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰelle > xelle kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEL > ᴹQ. helle ✧ Ety/KHEL
kʰend > xend kʰ > x ᴹ√KHEN-D-E > ᴹQ. hen ✧ Ety/KHEN-D-E
kʰēra > xēra kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. héra ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰeren > xeren kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heren ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰeren > xeren kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heri ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰerū > xerū kʰ > x ᴹ√KHER > ᴹQ. heru ✧ Ety/KHER
kʰesto > xesto kʰ > x ᴹ√KHES > ᴹQ. hesto ✧ EtyAC/KHES
kʰild > xild kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. †χild ✧ EtyAC/TĀ
kʰildi > xildi kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. hildi ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰilja- > xilja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIL > ᴹQ. hilya- ✧ Ety/KHIL
kʰim- > xim- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. hime ✧ PE22/103
kʰimba > ximba kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. himba ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰimja- > ximja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHIM > ᴹQ. himya- ✧ Ety/KHIM
kʰiθe > xiθe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > ᴹQ. híse ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰiθe > xiθe kʰ > x ᴹ✶χīsi > ᴹQ. híse ✧ PE21/32
kʰiθwa > xiθwa kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithwa > ᴹQ. hiswa ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰwe > xitʰwe kʰ > x ᴹ✶khithme > ᴹQ. hiswe ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰjarja > xjarja kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > ᴹQ. hyarya ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰjarmen > xjarmen kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYAR > ᴹQ. hyarmen ✧ Ety/KHYAR
kʰjelle > xjelle kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYEL(ES) > ᴹQ. hyelle ✧ Ety/KHYEL(ES)
kʰjelma > xjelma kʰ > x ᴹ√KHYEL(ES) > ᴹQ. hyelma ✧ EtyAC/KHYEL(ES)
kʰōgorē > xōgorē kʰ > x ᴹ✶Khō-gorē > ᴹQ. Huore ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
kʰōn > xōn kʰ > x ᴹ√KHŌ-N > ᴹQ. hōn ✧ Ety/KHŌ-N
kʰōpa > xōpa kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOP > ᴹQ. hópa ✧ Ety/KHOP
kʰōre > xōre kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. hóre ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorja- > xorja- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horya- ✧ EtyAC/KHOR
kʰorme > xorme kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horme ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰorta- > xorta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOR > ᴹQ. horta- ✧ Ety/KHOR
kʰosta > xosta kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > ᴹQ. hosta ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰosta- > xosta- kʰ > x ᴹ√KHOTH > ᴹQ. hosta- ✧ Ety/KHOTH
kʰugan > xugan kʰ > x ᴹ√KHUGAN > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰugan > xugan kʰ > x ᴹ✶khugan > ᴹQ. huan ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
kʰugo > xugo kʰ > x ᴹ√KHUG > ᴹQ. huo ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
epʰ- > eɸ- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√EPH- > ᴹQ. EPH- ✧ PE22/127
ilpʰirin > ilɸirin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶ilpirin > ᴹQ. ilfirin ✧ Ety/PHIR
rapʰe > raɸe pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√RAPH > raphe > ᴹQ. rafe ✧ PE22/102
pʰaina- > ɸaina- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faina- ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰaire > ɸaire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAY > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰaire > ɸaire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. faire ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰajanāro > ɸajanāro pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶Phay-anāro > ᴹQ. Feanáro ✧ Ety/PHAY
pʰalasse > ɸalasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falasse ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalle > ɸalle pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falle ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalma > ɸalma pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falma ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰalmarin > ɸalmarin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAL/PHÁLAS > ᴹQ. falmarin ✧ Ety/PHAL
pʰarea > ɸarea pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farea ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarea > ɸarea pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fā̆rea ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰaren > ɸaren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. faren ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarja- > ɸarja- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarja- > ɸarja- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farya- ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarme > ɸarme pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. fáre ✧ Ety/PHAR
pʰarme > ɸarme pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAR > ᴹQ. farme ✧ EtyAC/PHAR
pʰarne > ɸarne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHARAN > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
pʰasne > ɸasne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHARAN
pʰasne > ɸasne pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > fazne > ᴹQ. farne ✧ EtyAC/PHAS
pʰasse > ɸasse pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasse ✧ Ety/PHAS
pʰasta- > ɸasta- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAS > ᴹQ. fasta- ✧ Ety/PHAS
pʰauka > ɸauka pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHAU̯ > ᴹQ. fauka ✧ Ety/PHAU
pʰelgā > ɸelgā pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉLEG > ᴹQ. felya ✧ Ety/PHÉLEG
pʰenda > ɸenda pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEN > ᴹQ. fenda ✧ Ety/PHEN
pʰeren > ɸeren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phéren > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/BERÉTH
pʰeren > ɸeren pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. feren ✧ Ety/PHER
pʰerna > ɸerna pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHÉREN > ᴹQ. ferna ✧ Ety/PHER
pʰeuya- > ɸeuya- pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHEW > ᴹQ. feuya- ✧ Ety/PHEW
pʰilik > ɸilik pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHILIK > ᴹQ. filit ✧ Ety/PHILIK
pʰiliŋke > ɸiliŋke pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶philínkē > ᴹQ. filinke ✧ PE21/56
pʰiond > ɸiond pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHI > ᴹQ. fion ✧ Ety/PHI
pʰire > ɸire pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fire ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰīrima > ɸīrima pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. fírima ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirin > ɸirin pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firin ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰirja > ɸirja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHIR > ᴹQ. firya ✧ Ety/PHIR
pʰorja > ɸorja pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHOR > ᴹQ. forya ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰorte > ɸorte pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phoroti > ᴹQ. forte ✧ Ety/PHOR
pʰui > ɸui pʰ > ɸ ᴹ√PHUY > Fui > ᴹQ. Hui ✧ Ety/PHUY
pʰuine > ɸuine pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phuine > ᴹQ. huine ✧ Ety/PHUY
pʰuine > ɸuine pʰ > ɸ ᴹ✶phuine > Lin. huine ✧ PE19/31
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ITHIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/I²
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/SIL
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ Ety/THIL
itʰil > iθil tʰ > θ ᴹ✶Ithīl > ᴹQ. Isil ✧ SD/306
kʰitʰe > kʰiθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khīt(h)i > ᴹQ. híse ✧ Ety/KHIS
kʰitʰe > kʰiθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶χīsi > ᴹQ. híse ✧ PE21/32
kʰitʰwa > kʰiθwa tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithwa > ᴹQ. hiswa ✧ Ety/KHIS
ṃbatʰ > ṃbaθ tʰ > θ ᴹ√MBAT(H) > ᴹQ. umbas ✧ EtyAC/MBAT(H)
ndanitʰārō > naniθārō tʰ > θ ᴹ✶ndani-thārō > ᴹQ. Nanisáro ✧ LR/188
nētʰē > nēθē tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nēthē > ᴹQ. nése ✧ Ety/NETH
nortʰo > norθo tʰ > θ ᴹ√NOROTH > ᴹQ. norsa ✧ Ety/NOROTH
noutʰe > nouθe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶nau̯þe > ᴹQ. nause ✧ Ety/NOWO
pitʰe > piθe tʰ > θ ᴹ√PITH > pithe > ᴹQ. pise ✧ PE22/103
tatʰar > taθar tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tathar > ᴹQ. tasar ✧ Ety/TATHAR
tatʰarē > taθarē tʰ > θ ᴹ✶tatharē > ᴹQ. tasare ✧ Ety/TATHAR
titʰilla- > tiθilla- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. tithilla ✧ PE22/100
titʰilla- > tiθilla- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIL > ᴹQ. tithilla ✧ PE22/112
tʰar- > θar- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THAR > ᴹQ. thar- ✧ PE22/126
tʰārō > θārō tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thārō > ᴹQ. #sáro ✧ LR/188
tʰausā > θausā tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thausā > ᴹQ. saura ✧ Ety/THUS
tʰeles > θeles tʰ > θ ᴹ√THELES > ᴹQ. seler ✧ Ety/THEL
θinde > θinde tʰ > θ ᴹ✶thindi > ᴹQ. sinde ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinje > θinje tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ᴹQ. sinye ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰinta- > θinta- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THIN > ᴹQ. sinta- ✧ Ety/THIN
tʰūja- > θūja- tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > ᴹQ. súya- ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰūle > θūle tʰ > θ ᴹ√THŪ > ᴹQ. súle ✧ Ety/THŪ
tʰūro > θūro tʰ > θ ᴹ√THUS > ᴹQ. Súro ✧ Ety/THUS
xitʰwe > xiθwe tʰ > θ ᴹ✶khithme > ᴹQ. hiswe ✧ Ety/KHIS