Q. Tulkas m.
Name of the strongest (physically) of the Valar, spouse of Nessa (S/26). His name was an adaption name of his Valarin name Tulukhastāz “Golden-haired” (WJ/399), but it might have been interpreted as a derivative of the adjective (ᴹQ.) tulka “firm, strong, immovable, steadfast” after the original meaning was lost. This is one of the names Tolkien consistently spelled with a “k” (like Kementári and Melkor) despite normally representing the [k]-sound with “c” in Elvish.
Conceptual Development: This name dates back to the earliest Lost Tales (LT1/66), and ᴱQ. Tulkas appeared in the Qenya Lexicon as a derivative of the root ᴱ√TULUKU alongside words meaning “steady, firm” and “to establish” (QL/95, LT1A/Tulkas). This name had essentially the same meaning in The Etymologies from the 1930s, where ᴹQ. Tulkas appeared as an derivative of the same root ᴹ√TULUK, from primitive ᴹ✶Tulkathŏ (Ety/TULUK). The idea that it was an adaptation of a Valarin name did not emerge until the “Quendi and Eldar” essay from 1959-60 (WJ/399).
In The Etymologies, Tolkien gave the (ᴹQ) genitive form of this name as Tulkassen, implying a stem form Tulkass-. This stem form doesn’t same to fit its later derivation from Val. Tulukhastāz, however.
References ✧ MRI; PMI; SI; WJ/399; WJI
|ᴹQ. tulka||“firm, immovable, steadfast; strong”|
|Val. Tulukhastāz > Tulkas||[tulukʰastāz] ? [tulukʰasta] > [tulukʰast] > [tulkʰast] > [tulxast] > [tulkast] > [tulkas]||✧ WJ/399|
ᴹQ. Tulkas (Tulkass-) m.
References ✧ Ety/TULUK; LRI; RSI; SMI
|tulka||“firm, immovable, steadfast; strong”||✧ Ety/TULUK|
|ᴹ✶Tulkathŏ > Tulkas||[tulkatʰo] > [tulkatʰ] > [tulkaθ] > [tulkas]||✧ Ety/TULUK|