AQ. second short vowel of same quality lost; [V₁CV̆₁CV] > [V₁CCV]

AQ. second short vowel of same quality lost; [V₁CV̆₁CV] > [V₁CCV]

In Ancient Quenya, if two syllables had the same vowel twice and the second syllable was short (aCă, eCĕ, iCĭ, oCŏ, uCŭ), then the second vowel was frequently lost. This process is commonly referred to as the “Quenya syncope” and there are numerous examples of it:

The first example indicates this sound change before voiced stops became spirants and thus occurred very early in Ancient Quenya. It isn’t always easy to tell when the Quenya syncope occurred versus cases where the vowel vanished (or didn’t exist at all) in Primitive Elvish, but the syncope can be confirmed by comparison with Sindarin. The second vowel is present in the Sindarin cognates of all of the above words: S. glawar, S. neledh, S. minib, S. Golodh. Tolkien described the Quenya syncope on numerous occasions:

You are of course right in seeing that the words for “silver” point to an orig. *kyelepē: Q. tyelpe (with regular syncope of the second e), S. celeb and Telerin telepi (Letter #347 to Richard Jeffrey, 1972, Let/426).
ala was an intensified and stressed form with stress on the first a, and consequent ancient shortening of *alā; al- was a reduction of this according to the Q. tendency to syncopate a short vowel after a stressed vowel of the same quality when the contact of consonants so produced was permitted in Q. (from notes on negation from the late 1960s, PE17/153).
In Quenya the second vowel was syncopated as usual with short unstressed vowels following a stressed vowel of the same quality: hence Q. kanta 4 < kanatā (from notes associated with “The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor” from the late 1960s, VT42/24).
Quenya syncope operated in words of this pattern with 2 like vowels in sequence, unless the second was long or stressed or both in Eldarin. So ñgolodō: Q. ñoldo, S. golodh; but Orǭmē > Orome (from a draft of a letter to David Masson, 1955, PE17/153).

Perhaps the most detailed description of this phenomenon appears in the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s (PE19/58):

(1) In trisyllabic (or longer) words, but not in dissyllables; a short vowel of any quality, including ĭ, ŭ, was syncopated and lost before a single consonant, when preceded by a stressed syllable (main or secondary) that contained a vowel of the same quality: in other words there was a tendency to reduce surviving KALAT-forms to KALT(A)-forms. Thus *nélekī̀ "teeth" > nélkī; *ñgòlodṓ "Gnome" > ñgoldṓ; but *Òrōmḗ (name) remained.

This syncope occurred most regularly where the preceding syllable was short, and the intervening consonant one that (after syncope) would form with the next consonant a favoured group, sc. mostly before s, l, r, y, w and nasals. But it could also occur after a long vowel: as *tā̀rakā́ > tārkā́, tarkā́. And before stops and other non-sonant consonants: as *òkotā > oktā́.

Syncope of i, u occasionally occurs after diphthongs in ı̯, u̯ respectively, as áuluta- [>] áulta- > Q olta; Màilikṓ-r > Mailkṓ(r) > Melkor (cf. N Maeleg).

(2) After this syncope, but still before the Q. accent shift: Long vowels that remained in unstressed medial syllables were shortened, but not lost. So Òrōmḗ > Oromḗ (Q. Orome).

This section described in detail when the syncope did (and did not) occur:

  1. The word had at least three syllables.
  2. There were two sequential syllables with vowels of the same quality.
  3. The second vowel was short and unstressed (but see below).
  4. The resulting consonant cluster was a “permitted cluster”.

The quote from OP1 also indicates the syncope sporadically occurred when the initial vowel was long or part of a diphthong. For example, this could happen in the perfects of TALAT-stem verbs: atā̆latie > ataltie, (archaic) perfect of talta- “to slip down” (PE17/186). In the quote from OP1 Tolkien said the second vowel must be followed by a single consonant, so that VCVCV > VCCV. However, there are examples of the syncope occurring before a consonant pair ending in w or y:

Clusters ending in y or w are the only permissible trisyllabic clusters in Quenya (PE19/82, item #iii.). Not every trisyllabic cluster ending in w or y was permissible: see the example atatya in the quote below (VT42/24) where the syncope was still inhibited.

The exacting timing of this sound change is hard to nail down. Some examples seem to indicate this sound change occurred quite others, but others seem to indicate a later syncope:

This example indicates the syncope occurred after voiced stops became spirants, as opposed to the first example given at the beginning of in this entry, which shows a syncope before spirantalization. The relationship and timing between the syncope and stress patterns also isn’t entirely clear. In the OP1 quote above, Tolkien said that the syllable undergoing syncope must be both short and unstressed, and that the syncope took place before stress shifted forward in Quenya. Later, though, he said that the placement of primitive stress did not matter for the Quenya syncope:

Of a primitive atata the normal Quenya development was atta, while atatya remained because the second a was not syncopated, being in a long syllable. ... The placing of the accent would not affect Quenya since in PQ the accent became placed on the first syllable in all cases, except for words formed with still recognized prefixes (from notes associated with “The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor” from the late 1960s, VT42/24).
palátā, Q. palta, T. plata, S. plad, meant “the flat of the hand, the hand held upwards or forwards, at and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread)” ... In Quenya the position of the Common Eldarin stress was not important, since at an early period Quenya had shifted the stress back to the first syllable (from notes associated with “Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals” from the late 1960s, VT47/8-9).

These quotes imply that a stressed short vowel could undergo syncope, because the stress would normally shift forward to the first syllable and then the syncope could take effect. This may represent a conceptual shift on Tolkien’s part, with the syncope occurring after the stress shift. If so, the revised conception is problematic. In particular, this new paradigm would mean that sequential short syllables with like vowels should never occur in Quenya, but that is not the case:

We do not know the primitive form of all the words above, but the ones we do know share an interesting trait, namely a medial long vowel:

This long vowel would later shorten if it was unstressed, as explained in the quote from OP1 above (PE19/58):

(2) After this syncope, but still before the Q. accent shift: Long vowels that remained in unstressed medial syllables were shortened, but not lost. So Òrōmḗ > Oromḗ (Q. Orome).

This is consistent with all of the examples above, with the exception of terḗwā, where Tolkien marked the stress in the middle syllable (EtyAC/TER). Conversely, there are a number of examples where Tolkien explicitly marked a short vowel as stressed but the syncope nevertheless took place:

The simplest explanation is that a primitive stressed short vowel was not by itself enough to prevent the syncope; only a long vowel did so (stressed or unstressed). We cannot, however, simply assume that the syncope occurred after the stress shift, because if that were true the long vowels in words like Òrōmḗ would never shorten. Perhaps the Quenya stress shift took place in two phases: (1) where a medial short syllable was stressed (before the syncope) and (2) more generally (after the Quenya syncope and after unstressed long vowels shortened).

As a final note, there were some similar but earlier sound changes whereby short vowels ă, ĕ, ŏ were reduced in long compounds which superficially resemble the Quenya syncope:

As far as Quenya is concerned these very ancient effects of accent are the following: 1) obscuration of ă|ĕ|ŏ to murmured [ǝ] in entirely atonic syllables after the main stress. This occurred anciently in stressless final syllables of all kinds. Also often interiorly in long words with a far-retracted accent - for the most part in old compounds - where stressless ă|ĕ|ŏ were several syllables removed from the main stress - e.g. kwènedḗ “elf”, but móri-kwenedḕ “dark-elf” > móri-kwen(ǝ)dḕ > móri-kwèn(ǝ)dĕ. NB. This reduction did not occur medially before 2 consonants (including y, ı̯ | w, u̯) - except that the end of first element of old compounds were often treated as final syllables (PE19/57).

Although these results resemble the Quenya syncope, they are strictly speaking a distinct (and earlier) sound change, though perhaps this earlier phonetic development began the trend that lead to the general Quenya syncope. The mechanism of the Quenya syncope was probably the same: the vowel first reducting to [ǝ], then vanishing.

Conceptual Development: There are examples of the Quenya syncope dating all the way back to the Early Quenya of the 1910s and 1920s:

The basic rules for the syncope seems to have been established quite early, but as noted above the exact interaction was between the Quenya stress shift and the Quenya syncope is unclear. There may have been some conceptual vacillations on Tolkien’s part for the timing of these two sound changes. The system I proposed above (a two-phase stress shift straddling the Quenya syncope) is the one fits all the available evidence, but it is unclear whether this is the system Tolkien imagined.

References ✧ Let/426; PE17/153; PE22/153; VT42/24, 27; VT47/9; VT48/25

Order (00300)

Before 00400 later [j], [w] became [i], [u] before consonants glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē PE19/79
Before 00500 stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids lepene > lepne > Q. lempe
netere > Q. nerte
VT42/24
VT42/26
Before 02800 voiced stops became spirants except after nasals glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē PE19/79
Before 03300 unstressed medial long vowels shortened Orǭmē > Q. Orome PE17/153
Before 03800 [ln] became [ld] elenā > Q. elda PE17/152
Before 04400 medial [s] often became [z]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aCaCV] > [aCCV]
[eCeCV] > [eCCV]
[iCiCV] > [iCCV]
[oCoCV] > [oCCV]
[uCuCV] > [uCCV]

Phonetic Rule Examples

ájana- > ajna- aCaCV > aCCV ayanā > Q. aina ✧ PE17/149
ájanū > ajnū aCaCV > aCCV Val. ayanūz > Q. Ainu ✧ WJ/399
akalar > aklar aCaCV > aCCV ak(a)la-r > Q. alkar ✧ PE17/124
akasān > aksān aCaCV > aCCV Val. akašān > Q. axan ✧ WJ/399
alakwā > alkwā aCaCV > aCCV alak- > Q. alqua ✧ SA/alqua
aratā > artā aCaCV > aCCV áratā > Q. arta ✧ PE17/118
arata > arta aCaCV > aCCV ARAT > Q. arta ✧ PE17/147
arata- > arta- aCaCV > aCCV arăta > Q. arta- ✧ PE17/186
atālatie > ataltie aCaCV > aCCV atā̆latie > Q. ataltie ✧ PE17/186
atata > atta aCaCV > aCCV atata > Q. atta ✧ VT42/27
baradā > bardā aCaCV > aCCV baradā > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/22
baradā > bardā aCaCV > aCCV BARAD > Q. Varda ✧ PE17/23
barane > barne aCaCV > aCCV barani > Q. *varnë ✧ PE21/81
baratʰī > bartʰī aCaCV > aCCV barathī(e) > Q. Varsi ✧ PE17/23
gajakā > gajkā aCaCV > aCCV gayakā > Q. aika ✧ PM/363
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > Q. alda ✧ Let/426
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/25
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/50
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/63
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > ʒalaðā > ʒalðā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/135
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā́ > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV galadā > Q. alda ✧ PE17/153
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV GAL > Q. alda ✧ PE22/160
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV AQ. ʒalda > Q. alda ✧ VT39/7
galadanil > galdanil aCaCV > aCCV Gala(da)ndil > Q. Aldanil ✧ PE21/83
galadarembinā > galdarembinā aCaCV > aCCV galad(a)rembinā > Q. aldarembina ✧ PE17/127
galatā > galtā aCaCV > aCCV galatā > Q. alta ✧ PE17/50
ɣalatārīgell > galtārīgell aCaCV > aCCV galatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
galatarīgelle > galtarīgelle aCaCV > aCCV galata-rīg-elle > Q. Altariellë ✧ MR/182
galatārīgelle > galtārīgelle aCaCV > aCCV alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. Altariel(le) ✧ PE17/50
glawarē > glawrē aCaCV > aCCV glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > AQ. alaurē ✧ PE19/79
glawarē > glawrē aCaCV > aCCV glawarē > glaurē > ʒlaurē > Q. laurē ✧ PE19/79
glaware > glawre aCaCV > aCCV glawarĭ > Q. laure ✧ PE21/81
glaware > glawre aCaCV > aCCV glaware > Q. laure ✧ VT41/10
galatārīgelle > ɣaltārīɣelle aCaCV > aCCV alatā-rigellē̆ > Q. altáriel ✧ PE17/50
kalatārīgell > kaltārīgell aCaCV > aCCV kalatā-rigellē̆ > Q. kaltáriel ✧ PE17/50
kalatārīgelle > kaltārīgelle aCaCV > aCCV Kalatā-rigelle > Q. Kaltáriel(le) ✧ PE17/50
kanatā > kantā aCaCV > aCCV kanatā > Q. kanta ✧ VT42/24
karane > karne aCaCV > aCCV karani > Q. carne ✧ PE22/152
lamani > lamni aCaCV > aCCV laman(a)/lamān > Q. lamni/lamani ✧ WJ/416
mānawen > mānwen aCaCV > aCCV Val. Mānawenūz > Mánwen > Q. Manwe ✧ WJ/399
ŋgalatā > ŋgaltā aCaCV > aCCV ñalatā > Q. ñalta ✧ PM/347
ŋgalatārīgel > ŋgaltārīgel aCaCV > aCCV ñgal(a)tā-rig-el- > Q. Ñaltariel ✧ PE17/60
palatā > paltā aCaCV > aCCV palátā > Q. palta ✧ VT47/8
pʰarane > pʰarne aCaCV > aCCV pharan- > Q. ‽fărnĭ ✧ PE17/83
takala > takla aCaCV > aCCV *✶takala > Q. #talka ✧ VT42/28
talama > talma aCaCV > aCCV talam- > Q. talma ✧ PE17/52
talama > talma aCaCV > aCCV talam > Q. talma ✧ PE17/52
talatā > taltā aCaCV > aCCV talatā > Q. talta ✧ PE17/186
talati > talti aCaCV > aCCV tal’ti- > Q. talt- ✧ PE17/186
talatuva > taltuva aCaCV > aCCV talta > Q. taltuva- ✧ PE22/134
edelā > edlā eCeCV > eCCV edelā > Q. Elda ✧ PE17/139
edelā > edlā eCeCV > eCCV edelā > Q. elda ✧ PE17/151
eledā > eldā eCeCV > eCCV eledā > Q. Elda ✧ Let/281
eledā > eldā eCeCV > eCCV edelā > eledā > Q. elda ✧ PE17/152
eledō > eldō eCeCV > eCCV edelō > eledo > Q. †Eldo ✧ WJ/363
elenā > elnā eCeCV > eCCV elenā > Q. Elda ✧ PE17/139
elenā > elnā eCeCV > eCCV elenā > Q. elda ✧ PE17/152
eneda > enda eCeCV > eCCV HENED > Q. enda ✧ VT41/16
enede > ende eCeCV > eCCV ened/l > Q. ende ✧ VT48/25
eneke > eŋke eCeCV > eCCV eneke/enke > Q. enque ✧ VT48/7
eneke > eŋke eCeCV > eCCV eneke > enke > Q. enque ✧ VT48/8
eneke > eŋke eCeCV > eCCV enek > enekw > Q. enque ✧ VT48/9
enekwe > eŋkwe eCeCV > eCCV enekwe > Q. enque ✧ VT48/10
eneta > enta eCeCV > eCCV en-et > Q. enta ✧ VT47/15
enete > ente eCeCV > eCCV en-et > Q. ente ✧ VT47/15
enete > ente eCeCV > eCCV enete > Q. ente ✧ VT47/16
enetja > entja eCeCV > eCCV HENET > enetya > Q. entya ✧ VT41/16
kjelekā > kjelkā eCeCV > eCCV kelekā > Q. tyelka ✧ VT41/10
kjelepe > kjelpe eCeCV > eCCV kelep/kyelep > Q. telep- ✧ PE17/36
kjelepe > kjelpe eCeCV > eCCV t/kjelepi > Q. telpe ✧ PE21/81
kjelepē > kjelpē eCeCV > eCCV kyelepē > Q. tyelpe ✧ Let/426
kjelepē > kjelpē eCeCV > eCCV kyelep- > Q. †tyelpe ✧ UT/266
kwenedē > kwendē eCeCV > eCCV kwenedē > Q. qende ✧ PE17/141
kwenedē > kwendē eCeCV > eCCV kwened- > Q. Quendi ✧ PE17/152
kwenede > kwende eCeCV > eCCV kwened > Q. quend- ✧ PE19/93
lepene > lepne eCeCV > eCCV lepene > lepne > Q. lempe ✧ VT42/24
lepene > lepne eCeCV > eCCV lepene > lepne > Q. lempe ✧ VT47/10
lepenē > lepnē eCeCV > eCCV lepenē̆ > lepnē > Q. lempe ✧ VT47/24
lepetā > leptā eCeCV > eCCV lepet(ā) > Q. lepta ✧ VT47/27
mbelekōr > mbelkōr eCeCV > eCCV mbelekōro > Q. Melkor ✧ WJ/402
mbelekōre > mbelkōre eCeCV > eCCV mbelek-óre > Q. Melkóre ✧ PE17/115
melekōre > melkōre eCeCV > eCCV melek-ōre > Q. Melkóre ✧ PE17/115
nelede > nelde eCeCV > eCCV nelede > Q. nelde ✧ VT47/10
nelede > nelde eCeCV > eCCV (e)nel-ed > Q. nelde ✧ VT47/11
nelekwe > nelkwe eCeCV > eCCV nelekwe > Q. nelekwe ✧ VT48/21
neresā > nersā eCeCV > eCCV neresā > Q. Nessa ✧ WJ/416
netere > netre eCeCV > eCCV net-er > Q. nerte ✧ PE17/95
netere > netre eCeCV > eCCV netere > Q. nerte ✧ VT42/26
serekē > serkē eCeCV > eCCV SEREK > Q. serke ✧ PE17/184
inidō > indō iCiCV > iCCV inidō/in’dō > Q. indo ✧ PE22/165
iniðil > inðil iCiCV > iCCV Val. iniðil > Q. indil ✧ WJ/399
minikwē > minkwē iCiCV > iCCV min(i)k(e)we > minikwē̆ > Q. minkwe ✧ VT48/7
minikwē > minkwē iCiCV > iCCV min(i)kewe > minikwē > Q. minque ✧ VT48/8
pʰinika > pʰinka iCiCV > iCCV finik/fink > Q. finca ✧ PE17/17
silimā > silmā iCiCV > iCCV silimā > Q. silma ✧ PE17/23
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ngolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ngolodō > Q. noldo ✧ MR/350
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ngolodõ > Q. Noldo ✧ MR/470
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE17/153
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ñgolodō > Q. ñoldo ✧ PE19/76
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV Ñgolodō > Q. Noldo ✧ PM/360
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ngol- > Q. Noldor ✧ SA/gûl
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/364
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldor ✧ WJ/380
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ñgolodō > Q. Ñoldo ✧ WJ/383
otoko > otko oCoCV > oCCV otok > Q. osko ✧ VT47/42
otoko > otko oCoCV > oCCV otok > otko > osko > Q. oxo ✧ VT47/42
toloto > tolto oCoCV > oCCV TOLOT > Q. tolto ✧ VT47/32
tʰorone > tʰorne oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√THÓRON > ᴹQ. sorne ✧ Ety/THOR
tʰorono > tʰorno oCoCV > oCCV þorono > þorno > Q. sorno ✧ Let/427
tulukʰast > tulkʰast uCuCV > uCCV Val. Tulukhastāz > Q. Tulkas ✧ WJ/399
uruko > urko uCuCV > uCCV urku/uruku > Q. urko ✧ WJ/390
usukwē > uskwē uCuCV > uCCV usukwē > Q. uskwe ✧ PE21/71

ᴹAQ. second short vowel of same quality lost; [V₁CV̆₁CV] > [V₁CCV]

References ✧ PE19/55, 57-58

Order (00300)

Before 00500 stops frequently underwent metathesis with nasals and liquids
Before 02900 voiced stops became spirants except after nasals and liquids
Before 03400 unstressed medial long vowels shortened ᴹ✶Òrōmḗ > Oromḗ > ᴹQ. Orome PE19/58
Before 04500 medial [s] often became [z]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aCaCV] > [aCCV]
[eCeCV] > [eCCV]
[iCiCV] > [iCCV]
[oCoCV] > [oCCV]
[uCuCV] > [uCCV]

Phonetic Rule Examples

baradā > bardā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶barádā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARÁD
baradā > bardā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶baradā > ᴹQ. Varda ✧ Ety/BARATH
barane > barne aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√BARÁN > ᴹQ. varne ✧ Ety/BARÁN
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√GÁLAD > ᴹQ. alda ✧ Ety/GALAD
galadā > galdā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶galadā > ᴹQ. Alda ✧ SD/302
ɣarama > ɣarma aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√ƷARAM > ᴹQ. harma ✧ Ety/ƷARAM
ɣarama > ɣarma aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√ƷÁRAM > ᴹQ. harma ✧ EtyAC/ƷARAM
ɣarani > ɣarni aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√ƷAR > ᴹQ. harni ✧ Ety/ƷAR
kanata > kanta aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√KÁNAT > ᴹQ. kanta ✧ Ety/KÁNAT
karane > karne aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶karani > ᴹQ. karne ✧ Ety/KARÁN
karane > karne aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶karani > ᴹQ. karne ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN
mbarata > mbarta aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√MBARAT > ᴹQ. marta ✧ Ety/MBARAT
ŋgaramo > ŋgarmo aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M > ñarmo > ᴹQ. narmo ✧ Ety/ÑGAR(A)M
salakwē > salkwē aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶SALÁK-(WĒ) > ᴹQ. salqe ✧ Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)
talata > talta aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√TALÁT > ᴹQ. talta ✧ Ety/TALÁT
taraka > tarka aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√TARÁK > ᴹQ. tarka ✧ Ety/TARÁK
tuluka > tulka aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ√TULUK > ᴹQ. tulka ✧ Ety/TULUK
turumā > turmā aCaCV > aCCV ᴹ✶turumā́ > ᴹQ. turma ✧ Ety/TURÚM
berekā > berkā eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶berékā > ᴹQ. verka ✧ Ety/BERÉK
djeleka > djelka eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√DYELEK > ᴹQ. yelka ✧ EtyAC/DYELEK
edenā > ednā eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶edenā > ᴹQ. enna ✧ EtyAC/EDE
eleda > elda eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√ELED > ᴹQ. Elda ✧ Ety/ELED
eleda > elda eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√ÉLED > ᴹQ. Elda ✧ Ety/ELED
enede > ende eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√ÉNED > ᴹQ. ende ✧ Ety/ÉNED
enede > ende eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√NÉD > ᴹQ. ende ✧ Ety/NÉD
enekwe > eŋkwe eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√ÉNEK > ᴹQ. enqe ✧ Ety/ÉNEK
eredē > erdē eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶eredē > ᴹQ. erde ✧ Ety/ERÉD
kjelekā > kjelkā eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√KYELEK > ᴹQ. tyelka ✧ Ety/KYELEK
kjelepe > kjelpe eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√KYELEP/TELEP > ᴹQ. telpe ✧ Ety/KYELEP
kjelepe > kjelpe eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√KYÉLEP > ᴹQ. telpe ✧ Ety/KYELEP
kwenedē > kwendē eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶kwenedē > ᴹQ. qende ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)
kwendemēn > kwendmēn eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶qend(ǝ)mēn > ᴹQ. †qenwen ✧ PE21/25
kʰeleke > kʰelke eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√KHELEK > ᴹQ. helke ✧ Ety/KHEL
lepenar > lepnar eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶lepenar > ᴹQ. lemnar ✧ Ety/LEP
lepene > lepne eCeCV > eCCV ‽ᴹ✶lep(e)ne > ᴹQ. lempe ✧ Ety/LEP
mereka > merka eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√MERÉK > ᴹQ. merka ✧ Ety/MERÉK
merenen > mernen eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√MER > ᴹQ. mernen ✧ EtyAC/MBER
morikwenedē > morikwendē eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶móri-kwenedḕ > ᴹQ. móri-kwèn(ǝ)dĕ ✧ PE19/57
morikwenedē > morikwendē eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶móri-kwènedḗ > móri-kwènǝdĕ > móri-kwèndĕ > móri-kwèn(d) > ᴹQ. Moriquen ✧ PE19/59
morokō > morkō eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶morókō > ᴹQ. morko ✧ Ety/MORÓK
nelede > nelde eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√NÉL-ED > ᴹQ. nelde ✧ Ety/NEL
netere > netre eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√NÉTER > ᴹQ. nerte ✧ Ety/NÉTER
telesā > telsā eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ✶télesā > ᴹQ. tella ✧ Ety/TELES
telese > telse eCeCV > eCCV ᴹ√TELES > ᴹQ. telle ✧ Ety/TELES
minikwē > minkwē iCiCV > iCCV ᴹ√MÍNIK-W > ᴹQ. minqe ✧ Ety/MINI
silimā > silmā iCiCV > iCCV ᴹ✶silimā > ᴹQ. silma ✧ Ety/SIL
silimarill > silmarill iCiCV > iCCV ᴹ✶silima-rille > ᴹQ. Silmarille ✧ Ety/RIL
silimē > silmē iCiCV > iCCV ᴹ✶silimē > ᴹQ. silme ✧ Ety/SIL
dorono > dorno oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√DÓRON > ᴹQ. norno ✧ Ety/DÓRON
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ Ety/ÑGOLOD
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√ŊGÓLODŌ > ŋoldo > ᴹQ. noldo ✧ PE18/40
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ✶ñgolodō > ᴹQ. ñoldo ✧ PE19/36
ŋgolodō > ŋgoldō oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ✶ñgòlodṓ > ᴹQ. ñgoldṓ ✧ PE19/58
norotʰo > nortʰo oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√NOROTH > ᴹQ. norsa ✧ Ety/NOROTH
okotā > oktā oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ✶òkotā́ > okǝtā > oktā́ > ᴹQ. ohta ✧ PE19/55
pʰorote > pʰorte oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ✶phoroti > ᴹQ. forte ✧ Ety/PHOR
toloto > tolto oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√TOL¹-OTH/OT > ᴹQ. tolto ✧ Ety/TOL¹-OTH/OT
toroni > torni oCoCV > oCCV ᴹ√TOR > ᴹQ. torni ✧ Ety/TOR
kjulumā > kjulmā uCuCV > uCCV ᴹ✶kyulumā > ᴹQ. tyulma ✧ SD/419
ulumō > ulmō uCuCV > uCCV ᴹ✶Ulumō > ᴹQ. Ulmo ✧ Ety/ULU

ᴱQ. second short vowel of same quality lost; [V₁CV̆₁CV] > [V₁CCV]

Phonetic Rule Elements

[aCaCV] > [aCCV]
[eCeCV] > [eCCV]
[iCiCV] > [iCCV]
[oCoCV] > [oCCV]
[uCuCV] > [uCCV]

Phonetic Rule Examples

akasa > aksa aCaCV > aCCV ᴱ√aksa > ᴱQ. aksa ✧ GL/17
akasa > aksa aCaCV > aCCV ᴱ√AKASA > ᴱQ. aksa ✧ QL/29
lekʷete- > lekʷte- eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ√LEQE > ᴱQ. lekte- ✧ QL/53
pelete- > pelte- eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ√PELE² > ᴱQ. pelte- ✧ QL/73
telekʷe > telkʷe eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ✶kelekwé > ᴱQ. telqe ✧ PE13/140
telepe > telpe eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ✶t’lépe > ᴱQ. telpe ✧ PE13/154
telepe > telpe eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ✶t’lḗpe > ᴱQ. telpe ✧ PE13/154
tetelasse > tetlasse eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ✶tet’l-asse > ᴱQ. teltasse ✧ GL/70
tetele > tetle eCeCV > eCCV ᴱ✶tet’li > ᴱQ. telte ✧ GL/70
minija > minja iCiCV > iCCV ᴱ✶miníya > ᴱQ. minya ✧ PE13/150
minija > minja iCiCV > iCCV ᴱ✶miníı̯ā > ᴱQ. minya ✧ PE13/164
siripe > sirpe iCiCV > iCCV ᴱ√SIRIP > ᴱQ. sirpe ✧ QL/84
noroka > norka oCoCV > oCCV ᴱ✶norokā́ > ᴱQ. norka ✧ GL/31
sokoto- > sokto- oCoCV > oCCV ᴱ√SOKO > ᴱQ. sokto- ✧ QL/85
tuluka- > tulka- uCuCV > uCCV ᴱ√TULUK > ᴱQ. tulka- ✧ QL/95
uluku > ulku uCuCV > uCCV ᴱ√ULUKU > ᴱQ. ulku ✧ QL/97
ulukwi > ulkwi uCuCV > uCCV ᴱ√ULUKU > ᴱQ. ulqi ✧ QL/97
uluto- > ulto- uCuCV > uCCV ᴱ√ULU > ᴱQ. ulto- ✧ LT1A/Ulmo