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Q. laman (lamn-) n. “animal” (Category: Animal)

Q. laman (lamn-), n. “animal, [ᴹQ.] tame beast” (Category: Animal)

A word for an “animal” in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60, where Tolkien said it “usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles or birds” (WJ/416). It was derived from the root √LAM in the sense “inarticulate voiced sound”. It had plural forms lamni and lamani based on distinct primitive forms ✶laman(a) and ✶lamān, the first form being subject to the Quenya syncope and the second immune to it.

Conceptual Development: The earliest precursor to this word was ᴱQ. {lāma >>} lăma in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√LAMA, with the glosses “a head of cattle or sheep; an animal, beast” (QL/50). In this document it had an ancient form lamṇ, and accusative forms lamna or laman. The origin of this final -a is made clear in the Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s, where Tolkien said “-a < ”, citing lama as an example with plural form lamni (PE14/44, 74). This singular and plural form also appeared in Early Qenya Word-lists (PE16/132) and the English-Qenya Dictionary of the 1920s (PE15/69), and in the latter Tolkien specified that the word “can be used generally, but popularly as in English excludes birds & insects, and men”.

The form ᴹQ. laman emerged in the Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s, where Tolkien gave it the gloss “tame beast” (PE21/19). Inflected forms indicate the stem was still lamn-, and the plural remained lamni (PE21/28). Thus it seems that by this stage the word’s stem form was the result of the Quenya syncope. The word laman “animal” appeared in the Quenya Verbal System of the 1940s, but there it was rejected and replaced by ᴹQ. nasto (PE22/116). Laman “animal” appeared again in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60, as noted above.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would assume this word mostly applies to either tame or tameable four-legged mammals, as opposed to hravan for “wild beasts” and celva for animals in general.

References ✧ WJ/416

Glosses

Variations

Inflections

lamni/lamani plural ✧ WJ/416

Element In

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

laman(a)/lamān > laman [laman] ✧ WJ/416
laman(a)/lamān > lamni/lamani [lamani] > [lamni] ✧ WJ/416

ᴹQ. laman (lamn-) n. “tame beast” (Category: Animal)

See Q. laman for discussion.

References ✧ PE21/19, 28; PE22/116

Glosses

Variations

Changes

Inflections

[lamn]ullo ablative ✧ PE21/28
lamnulo ablative ✧ PE21/28
lamullo ablative ✧ PE21/28; PE21/28
lamnullut ablative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamullut ablative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnillon ablative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamullon ablative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamna accusative ✧ PE21/28
lamo accusative ✧ PE21/28
lamnut accusative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamni accusative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnata allative ✧ PE21/28
lamnunta allative ✧ PE21/28
lamunta allative ✧ PE21/28; PE21/28
lamnuntau allative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamuntau allative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnintan allative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamuntan allative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnar dative ✧ PE21/28
lamnen dative ✧ PE21/28
lamor dative ✧ PE21/28
lamnu dative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnir dative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamno genitive ✧ PE21/28
lamuo genitive ✧ PE21/28
lamnuhta genitive dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnion genitive plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnamen instrumental ✧ PE21/28
lamnen instrumental ✧ PE21/28
lamunden instrumental ✧ PE21/28
lamunen instrumental ✧ PE21/28
lamunwen instrumental ✧ PE21/28
lamnumet instrumental dual ✧ PE21/28
lamunwet instrumental dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnínen instrumental plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnesse locative ✧ PE21/28
lamunte locative; assimilated ✧ PE21/28
lamusse locative; assimilated ✧ PE21/28
lamusse locative ✧ PE21/28
[lamn]esset locative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnusset locative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamusset locative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnissen locative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamussen locative plural ✧ PE21/28
laman nominative ✧ PE21/28
lamon nominative ✧ PE21/28
lamnunt nominative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamunt nominative dual ✧ PE21/28
lamnin nominative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnulin nominative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamníka partitive-plural; prosodic-lengthening ✧ PE21/28
lamni plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnuli plural ✧ PE21/28
lam(n)uva possessive ✧ PE21/28
lamnuva possessive ✧ PE21/28
lamninwa possessive plural ✧ PE21/28
lamnanon similative ✧ PE21/28
lamnaron similative ✧ PE21/28
lamundon similative ✧ PE21/28; PE21/28
lamnindon similative plural ✧ PE21/28
lamn- stem ✧ PE21/19

Derivations


ᴱQ. lama n. “animal, beast; head of cattle or sheep” (Category: Animal)

See Q. laman for discussion.

References ✧ PE14/42, 44, 70-71, 74; PE15/69; PE16/132; QL/50

Glosses

Variations

Changes

Inflections

laman accusative; n-accusative ✧ PE14/44
laman accusative; n-accusative ✧ QL/50
lamat accusative ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamna accusative ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamna accusative ✧ QL/50
lamnin accusative plural ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamar dative ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamne dative ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamnir dative plural ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
laman genitive ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamno genitive ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamnion genitive plural ✧ PE14/44; PE14/74
lamni plural ✧ PE14/42; PE14/44; PE14/70; PE14/71; PE14/74; PE15/69; PE16/132

Element In

Cognates

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ✶labna > lamna > lamn > lama [labna] > [lamna] > [lamnǝ] > [lamn] > [lama] ✧ PE14/70
ᴱ✶labnai > lamnī > lamni [labnai] > [lamnai] > [lamnī] > [lamni] ✧ PE14/70
ᴱ√LAMA > lăma [lamā] > [lama] ✧ QL/50