Middle Quenya Semantic Categories



1. Physical World

1.1 World

Ambar n. “Earth, World”

1.12 Universe

Ea n. “all that is, the World”
ilu n. “universe, world”
ilúve n. “universe, world; Heaven”

1.21 Earth, Land

hún (hun-) n. “earth”
#-ien² suf. “-land”
kemna adj. “of earth, earthen”
palúre n. “surface, bosom, bosom of Earth, (Old English) folde”

1.212 Ground, Soil

kemen n. “soil, earth; Great Lands”

1.213 Dust, Powder

asto n. “dust”
mulo (mulu-) n. “dust”

1.214 Mud, Mire

makso n. “sticky substance, mire”

1.215 Sand, Grit

litse n. “sand”

1.22 Hill, Mountain

aikale n. “peak”
aikasse n. “mountain peak”
aiqa adj. “steep”
am(ba)penda adj. “uphill”
ambo n. “hill”
ambon n. “upward slope, hill-side”
ampende n. “upward slope”
antaro n. “high mountain, peak”
kumbe n. “mound, heap”
luppo n. “clumsy piece or lump”
mintye n. “peak”
nóla¹ n. “round head, knoll, round hilltop; summit”
oron (oront-) n. “mountain”
orto n. “mountain-top”
penda adj. “sloping down, inclined”
pende n. “slope, downslope, declivity”
taras (tarass-) n. “mount, hill”
tumpo n. “hump, lump”
tundo (tundu-) n. “hill, mound; hole”

1.23 Plain, Field

landa² n. “(a) plain”
nanda n. “water-mead, watered plain”
palar n. “flat field, ‘wang’, plain”
peler n. “fenced field”

1.24 Dale, Valley

aksa n. “ravine, narrow path; edge”
imbe² n. “dell, deep vale, ravine, glen”
kilya n. “cleft, pass between hills, gorge”
latimbe n. “glen”
tumbo (tumbu-) n. “deep valley (under or among hills, with high sides)”
yáwe n. “ravine, cleft, gully”

1.25 Isle, Island

lóna¹ n. “island, remote land difficult to reach”
tol (toll-) n. “island”

1.27 Shore, Beach

falasse n. “beach”
fára n. “beach, shore”

1.31 Water

limba n. “drop”
nén (nen-) n. “water”

1.32 Sea

aire n. “sea”
airen n. “sea”
ear n. “(open) sea; water”
vea² n. “sea”

1.33 Lake, Pond

ailin n. “pool, lake”
linde² n. “pool”
linya n. “pool”
nende n. “pool”
ringwe n. “cold pool or lake (in mountains)”

1.35 Wave, Surge

falle n. “foam”
falma n. “(crested) wave”
solor (solos-) n. “surf”
winge n. “foam, crest of wave, crest”

1.36 Brook, Stream, River

etsir n. “mouth of a river”
kelma n. “channel”
kelume n. “stream, flow”
kelut n. “rivulet”
nelle n. “brook”
ráva² n. “bank (especially of a river)”
síre n. “river”
siril n. “rivulet”

1.37 Spring, Well

ehtele n. “spring, issue of water”
ehtelu- v. “to well, bubble up”
kelulinde (kelulindi-) n. “spring”
kelure n. “fountain”

1.38 Whirlpool

hwinde n. “eddy, whirlpool”

1.41 Woods, Forest

taure n. “great wood, forest”

1.42 Tree, Oak

alalme n. “elm-tree”
alda n. “tree”

1.43 Wood, Timber

runda n. “rough piece of wood”
taurina adj. “of wood”
tavar n. “wood (material)”
toina adj. “[unglossed]”

1.44 Rock, Stone

ondo n. “stone (as a material)”
sar (sard-) n. “stone (small)”
sarna adj. “of stone”
sarne n. “stony place”
#tinga n. “*flint”

1.46 Cave

felya n. “cave”
rotto n. “cave, tunnel”

1.51 Sky, Heavens

helle n. “sky”
helyanwe n. “rainbow, (lit.) sky-bridge”
menel n. “the heavens, firmament, sky”

1.52 Sun

Anar n. “Sun”
andúne n. “sunset”

1.53 Moon

Isil [þ] n. “Moon, (lit.) Sheen”
Rana n. “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”

1.54 Star

él n. “star”
elen n. “star”
tingilya n. “twinkling star”
tinwe n. “spark (star)”

1.542 Starlight

silme n. “moonlight, light of Silpion, †silver”

1.56 Noise, Thunder

yalme n. “clamour”

1.61 Light

alka n. “ray of light”
kala n. “light”
kalina adj. “light”

1.62 Darkness

nur- v. “to grow/be dark”
ungwe n. “gloom”

1.622 Dark, Murky

lóna² adj. “dark”
móre (móri-) n. “blackness, dark, night”
morna adj. “gloomy, sombre”

1.63 Shade, Shadow

halda¹ adj. “veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady”
huine n. “deep shadow, nightshade”
laime n. “shadow (cast by an object or form), shade”
laira adj. “shady”
leo n. “shade, shadow cast by any object”
lumbe n. “gloom, shadow”
mordo n. “shadow, obscurity, stain, smear, dimness”

1.71 Air, Ether

vista n. “air as substance”
wilma n. “inner or lower air”

1.72 Wind

vaiwa n. “wind”

1.723 Breeze

hwesta n. “breeze, breath, puff of air”

1.73 Cloud, Mirk

fána adj. and n. “cloud; white”
ungo n. “cloud, dark shadow”

1.74 Mist, Fog, Haze

híse (hísi-) [þ] n. “mist, fog”
hiswe [þ] n. “fog”

1.75 Rain (n)

kelya- v. “to send running down; to rain”
miste n. “fine rain”
rosse n. “fine rain, dew”

1.76 Snow (n)

nieninqe n. “snowdrop, (lit.) white tear”
niqe n. “snow”
olos(se) n. “snow, fallen snow”

1.77 Ice, Frost

helen (helem-) n. “icicle”
helke n. “ice”
helkelimbe n. “*icicle, (lit.) ice-drop”
helle² n. “frost”
helor n. “frost”

1.81 Fire (n)

úr n. “fire, heat”
uruite adj. “fiery”
úruva adj. “fiery”

1.82 Flame (n)

kulo n. “flame”
nár(e) n. “flame”

1.83 Smoke (n)

usqe n. “reek; dusk, twilight”

1.85 to Burn, Scorch

urya- v. “to blaze”
yul- v. “to smoulder”

1.86 to Light, Kindle

narta- v. “to kindle”
tinta- v. “to kindle, make to spark”

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

yúla n. “ember, smouldering wood”
yulma n. “brand”

1.99 Physical World (other)

karakse n. “jagged hedge of spikes”

2. Mankind

2.1 Human Being

Atan n. “Man”
fire n. “mortal man”
firya adj. “human”
onna n. “creature”

2.21 Man

nér (ner-) n. “man, adult male”

2.22 Woman

n. “woman, female”
nis (niss-) n. “woman”

2.23 Male

enno n. “person, *being”
hanu n. “male, man (of Men or Elves), male animal”
hanuvoite adj. “*masculine”
hanwa adj. “male”
vea¹ adj. “adult, manly, vigorous”
veaner¹ n. “(adult) man”
veo n. “man”
vie n. “manhood, vigour”
n. “man, warrior”
-we¹ suf. “masculine suffix”

2.24 Female

ennie n. “person (female), *being (female)”
inimeite adj. “*feminine”
inya adj. “female”

2.25 Boy

seldo n. “child [m.]”

2.26 Girl

véne adj. “virginity”
venesse n. “virginity”
wende n. “maiden”

2.27 Child

aran² (arn-) n. “child”
selda n. “child [n.]”

2.28 Infant

lapse n. “babe”
tet(ta) n. “baby”

2.31 Husband

ender n. “bridegroom”
venno n. “husband”
veru¹ n. “husband”

2.32 Wife

vesse n. “wife”

2.321 Bride

indis (indiss-) n. “bride”

2.33 to Wed, Marry

vesta-¹ v. “to wed”

2.34 Wedding, Marriage

vesta¹ n. “matrimony”
vestale n. “wedding”

2.341 Married Couple

veru² coll. “husband and wife, married pair”

2.35 Father

atar n. “father”
atto n. “father (hypocoristic)”

2.36 Mother

amil n. “mother”
amme n. “mother”
ontare n. “begetter, parent (f.)”

2.37 Parent(s)

ontaro n. “begetter, parent”

2.41 Son

-ion suf. “-son”
yondo n. “son”

2.42 Daughter

-iel¹ suf. “daughter”
-ien¹ suf. “daughter”
selde n. “child (f.)”
yelde n. “daughter”
yen(de) n. “daughter”

2.44 Brother

otornasse n. “brotherhood”
otorno n. “sworn brother, associate [m.]”
toron (torn-) n. “brother”

2.45 Sister

seler (sell-) [þ] n. “sister”

2.48 Grandson

indyo n. “grandchild, descendant, grandson”

2.55 Cousin

onóne n. “kinswoman; sister”
onóro n. “kinsman; brother”

2.57 Descendant(s)

ontale n. “descent”

2.75 Orphan

yenya n. “last year”

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

laman (lamn-) n. “tame beast”
nasto n. “animal, beast”

3.36 Goat

yat² (yak-) n. “goat”

3.41 Horse (generic)

olombo n. “horse”
rokko n. “(swift) horse”

3.56 Goose

ván n. “goose”

3.61 Dog

huan n. “hound”
huo n. “dog”
ronyo n. “‘chaser’, hound of chase”

3.62 Cat

miue (miuy-) n. “cat”
miule n. “whining, mewing”
titse (tits-) n. “kitten”

3.63 Mouse

nyarro n. “rat”

3.64 Bird

aiwe n. “(small) bird”
alqa n. “swan”
ambale n. “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’”
filinke n. “*finch”
filit (filik-) n. “small bird, sparrow”
fion (fiond-) n. “?hawk or haste”
halatir(no) (halatirn-) n. “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher”
haro n. “hawk”
korko n. “crow”
kukua n. “dove”
liri n. “finch”
lómelinde n. “nightingale”
maiwe n. “gull”
morilinde n. “nightingale”
oio (oiw-) n. “bird”
qéne n. “petrel”
soron [þ] n. “eagle”
tambaro n. “woodpecker, knocker”
tuilindo n. “swallow, (lit.) spring-singer”

3.65 Fish (n)

hala n. “(small) fish”
lingwe (lingwi-) n. “fish”
nikse n. “minnow, ‘little fish’”

3.71 Wolf

harma² n. “wolf, hound”
narmo [ñ] n. “wolf”
nauro [ñ] n. “werewolf”
ráka n. “wolf”

3.72 Lion

(ráv-) n. “lion”

3.73 Bear

morko n. “bear”

3.77 Elephant

andamunda n. “elephant”

3.79 to Hunt

fafarra- v. “*to keep on hunting”
fara- v. “to hunt”
farale n. “hunting”
farina adj. “hunted”
farna adj. “quarry, prey”
roime n. “hunt, hunting”

3.81 Insect

filet n. “cobweb”
liante n. “spider”
líne n. “cobweb”
wilwarin (wilwarind-) n. “butterfly”

3.83 Fly (n)

kamparu n. “?flea”
n. “small fly”
pupso n. “blow fly”
tsette n. “fly”

3.85 Snake

ango (angu-) n. “snake, dragon”
lingwilóke n. “fish-dragon, sea-serpent”
lóke n. “dragon”

3.99 Animals (other)

angulóke n. “dragon”
lopo n. “rabbit”
lopotundo (lopotundu-) n. “rabbithole”

4. Body Parts and Functions

4.12 Skin, Hide

halma n. “skin, fell”
helma n. “skin, fell”
psára n. “peel”

4.14 Hair

lokse n. “hair”

4.142 Beard

fanga n. “beard”

4.143 Hair (other)

fasse n. “tangled hair, shaggy lock”
fasta-¹ v. “to tangle”
finde n. “tress, braid of hair”

4.15 Blood

yár (yar-) n. “blood”

4.16 Bone

#as (astu-) n. “bone”
astula adj. “bony”

4.17 Horn

hyalma n. “conch, shell, horn of Ulmo”
rasse n. “horn [of both animals and mountains]”
tarka n. “horn [of animals]”

4.19 Back

ekko n. “spine, point, thorn”
opto n. “back”

4.20 Head

kár (kas-) n. “head”
kas¹ n. “head”

4.204 Face

anta n. “face”

4.207 Jaw

anka n. “jaw, row of teeth”
nangwa n. “jaw”

4.21 Eye

hen (hend-) n. “eye”
yé² n. “eye”

4.22 Ear

lár n. “ear”

4.23 Nose

mundo n. “snout, nose; cape [of land]”
nengwe n. “nose”
nengwea adj. “nasal”
nin n. “nose, beak”

4.24 Mouth

n. “mouth”

4.26 Tongue

lamba¹ n. “tongue”

4.27 Tooth

karka n. “tooth”
karkane n. “row of teeth”
nelet (nelk-) n. “tooth”

4.28 Neck

yat¹ (yaht-) n. “neck”
yatta n. “narrow neck, isthmus”

4.29 Throat

lanko n. “throat”

4.31 Arm

ranko (ranku-) n. “arm”

4.33 Hand

má¹ n. “hand”

4.332 Hand (other)

kambe n. “hollow (of hand)”
qár(e) n. “fist, hand”

4.34 Finger

lepse n. “finger”
#lepta suf. “*fingered”
let (leps-) n. “finger”

4.35 Leg

kiuka n. “thigh”
noa² n. “thigh”
qingatelko adj. “*bow-legged”
telko (telq-) n. “leg, stem”
tiuko n. “thigh”
tyúka n. “thigh”

4.37 Foot

runya n. “slot, footprint”
tál (tal-) n. “foot; bottom”
tallune n. “sole of foot”

4.39 Nail, Claw

atsa¹ n. “claw, catch, hook”
#rakka n. “*claw”
rakkalepta adj. “*claw-fingered”

4.392 Wing

ráma n. “wing”

4.393 Feather

lúpe n. “plume”
pilen n. “feather”
qesse n. “feather”

4.41 Breast of Woman

ambor n. “breast”

4.44 Heart

hón (hom-) n. “heart (physical)”
#hondo adj. “*hearted”
tingahondo adj. “flint-hearted”

4.46 Belly, Stomach

saurikumba [þ] adj. “*foul-bellied”

4.51 to Breathe; Breath

súle (súli-) [þ] n. “breath; spirit”
súya- [þ] v. “to breathe”

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

yanga- v. “to yawn”

4.56 to Spit

pis- [þ] v. “to spit”
piuta- v. “to spit”

4.58 to Bite

nahta¹ n. “bite”
nak-² v. “to bite”

4.59 to Lick

lapsa- v. “to lick (frequentative)”
lapsa n. “licking up (food or drink), gluttonous eating”
lav-¹ v. “to lick”
salpa- v. “to lick up, sup, sip”
sulpa- v. “to lap up, drink greedily”

4.61 to Sleep; Sleep

lóre n. “slumber”
lorna adj. “asleep”

4.62 Dream (n)

olar n. “dream”
olor n. “dream”

4.63 to Wake

kuivea adj. “wakening”
kuivie n. “awakening”

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

onta- v. “to beget, create”

4.74 to Live; Living; Life

(ek)koiru- v. “to come to life”
koita- v. “to live, be alive, have life”
kuile n. “life, being alive”
kuina adj. “alive”
oi- v. “to live, pass one’s days”

4.742 Immortal

#alfírima adj. “immortal”
Alfírimo n. “Immortal”
ilfirin adj. “immortal”

4.75 to Die; Dead; Death

faire² n. “natural death (as act)”
fírima adj. “mortal”
fírimáre n. “mortality (being mortal)”
firin adj. “dead (by natural cause)”
nuru [ñ] n. “death”
qalin adj. “dead”
qalme n. “(death) agony, (process of) death”
#qel- v. “†to fail”
qelesta n. “dying, fading”
#qelie n. “*fading”

4.76 to Kill

nahta- v. “to slay”
nak-¹ v. “to kill, slay; to hate”

4.77 Corpse, Body

qelet (qelets-) n. “corpse”

4.79 Grave, Tomb

lára² n. “grave”

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

polda adj. “strong, burly”
poldore n. “physical strength; might”
poldórea adj. “strong, strong-bodied”
taura adj. “mighty”
tulka adj. “firm, immovable, steadfast; strong”
tuo n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”
turya- v. “to strengthen”
turyande n. “fortification, strengthening”
turyanwa adj. “fortified”
veasse n. “vigour”

4.83 Well; Health

al- v. “to thrive”

4.84 Sick; Sickness

engwa¹ adj. “sickly”
kaila adj. and n. “lying in bed, bedridden; sickness”
kaimasse n. “lying in bed, sickness”
kaimassea adj. “bedridden, sick”
laiwa adj. “sick, sickly, ill”
líve n. “sickness”
qáme n. “sickness”

4.85 to Wound; Wound; Wounded

harna- v. “to wound”
harna¹ adj. “wounded”
harwe² n. “wound”
nirwa² adj. “scarred”
nirwe n. “scar”

4.88 Medicine, Drug

asea [þ] n. “*healing herb”
asea aranaite [þ] n. “*kingsfoil”

4.89 Poison

sangwa n. “poison”

4.91 Tired, Weary

lumba adj. “weary”

4.99 Naked, Bare

halla² adj. “naked”
helda¹ adj. “naked, stripped bare”

4.999 Body Parts and Functions (other)

erka n. “prickle, spine”

5. Food and Drink

5.11 to Eat

mammata- v. “to gobble up, devour, gorge”
mat- v. “to eat”
#matie n. “eating”
mattima adj. “edible”

5.13 to Drink

suhto n. “draught”
suk- v. “to drink”

5.151 Thirsty

fauka adj. “thirsty, parched, (lit.) open-mouthed”

5.17 to Mix, Blend

hwinya- v. “to swirl, eddy, gyrate”

5.24 to Bake

masta- v. “to bake”

5.26 Pot

kalpa n. “water-vessel, bucket”
tambe (tambi-) n. “pot”

5.34 Jug, Pitcher

kapsa n. “case, vessel”

5.35 Cup

súlo (*súlu-) n. “goblet”
sungwa n. “drinking-vessel”

5.38 Knife

sikil n. “dagger, knife”

5.41 a Meal

mat (matt-) n. “food, meal”

5.45 Supper

ahtumat n. “supper”

5.51 Bread

masta n. “bread”

5.53 Dough

makse¹ n. “dough”

5.55 Meal, Flour

pole (poli-) n. “meal, flour”
pore (pori-) n. “flour, meal”

5.61 Meat

apsa¹ n. “meat, cooked food”
makse² n. “meat”

5.71 Fruit

kuluma n. “orange [fruit]”
yáve n. “fruit”

5.79 Oil

laive n. “ointment”

5.84 Honey

lis (liss-) n. “honey”
nehte n. “honeycomb”

5.92 Wine

limpe n. “wine, drink of the Valar”

5.999 Food (Other)

apsa² n. “juice”
lar n. “fat, riches [richness?]”
lárea adj. “fat, rich”
larma n. “(?pig-)fat, flesh”
pirya n. “juice, syrup”
pite n. “juice”
sáva n. “juice”

6. Clothing and Adornment

6.21 Cloth

lanne n. “tissue, cloth”
talat n. “sheet”

6.22 Wool

n. “wool”
toa adj. “of wool, woollen”

6.33 to Weave

lanat n. “weft”
lanya- v. “to weave”

6.34 Loom

lanwa n. “loom”

6.38 Thread

lia n. “fine thread, spider filament”

6.51 Shoe

hyapat n. “shoe”

6.55 Hat, Cap

ríe n. “crown”
rína adj. “crowned”

6.63 Pin, Brooch

tangwa n. “hasp, clasp”
tankil n. “brooch, clasp, pin; fastener”

6.72 Gem, Jewel

míre n. “jewel, precious thing, treasure”
miril (mirill-) n. “shining jewel”

6.73 Finger Ring

kolma n. “ring (?on finger)”

6.91 Comb

hat (haht-) n. “comb, ridge”

6.95 Soap

lipsa n. “soap”

6.999 Adornment (other)

atsa² n. “tassel, fryse, fringe”

7. Dwelling and Furniture

7.11 to Live, Dwell

har- v. “to dwell, abide, reside; to sit”
mar- v. “to abide”

7.12 House

kar¹ (kard-) n. “building, house”

7.122 Home

mar (mar(d)-) n. “home, dwelling, house, habitation; earth”
mar(dar) adv. “homewards”
marre adv. “at home”
marta² n. “home”

7.21 Room

kaimasan (kaimasamb-) [þ] n. “bedchamber”
sambe [þ] n. “room, chamber”

7.22 Door, Gate

ando n. “gate, door”
andon (andond-) n. “great gate”
fenda n. “threshold”

7.26 Floor

talan (talam-) n. “floor, ground”

7.27 Wall

ramba¹ n. “wall”

7.28 Roof

koromindo n. “cupola, dome”
rondo n. “roof; cave, cavern”
telume n. “vault, dome (of heaven)”
telumet (telumett-) n. “canopy”
tópa n. “roof”
tópa- v. “to roof”
tupse n. “thatch”

7.29 House (other)

ampano n. “building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice”
ataqe n. “construction, building”

7.412 Furniture (other)

farma n. “?carpet”

7.42 Bed

kaima n. “bed”
nirwa n. “bolster, cushion”
qesset (*qessek-) n. “pillow”

7.43 Chair

hamma n. “chair”
handa² n. “chair”

7.45 Lamp

kalma n. “light, lamp”
kalumet (kalumett-) n. “lamp”

8. Agriculture and Vegetation

8.12 Field for Cultivation

resta n. “‘sown’, sown field, acre”

8.31 to Sow; Seed

erde¹ n. “seed, germ”
#rer- v. “to sow”

8.33 Scythe, Sickle

kirka n. “sickle”

8.51 Grass

liske n. “reed”
n. “reed, grass-stem”
salqe n. “grass”
sara [þ] n. “stiff dry grass, bent”

8.54 Root

sulka n. “root (especially as edible)”
turut n. “tree-stem”

8.55 Branch

olwa n. “branch”

8.56 Leaf

lasse n. “leaf”
lassekanta adj. “leaf-shaped”

8.57 Flower

#lavar n. “*(golden) blossom”
losse n. “(white) blossom, flower”
lóte n. “(large single) flower”
malo¹ (malu-) n. “pollen, yellow powder”
nil (nild-) n. “blue-bell, harebell”

8.60 Tree (generic)

aldarwa adj. “having trees, tree-grown”
fine n. “larch”
lavaralda n. “tree with long green leaves with golden undersides and pale flowers with a yellow flush”
lintyulussea adj. “having many poplars”
orne n. “(high isolated) tree”
tyulusse n. “poplar-tree”

8.61 Oak

lindornea adj. “having many oak-trees”
#nornea adj. “*of oak”
norno n. “oak”

8.62 Beech

ferinya adj. “beechen”
ferne n. “beech-tree”

8.67 Vine

uile n. “long trailing plant”

8.99 Vegetation (other)

arat n. “weed”
earuile n. “seaweed”
erkasse n. “holly”
erke n. “holly”
farne n. “foliage”
hwan (hwand-) n. “sponge, fungus”
tussa n. “bush”

9. Physical Acts and Materials

9.11 to Do, Make

alkárima adj. “impossible to make”
kakarra- v. “to keep on doing”
kar- v. “to do, make, build”
kar² (kard-) n. “deed”
karaste n. “making, manufacture, construction”
karie n. “making”
kárima adj. “able to be made, feasible”

9.112 Doer, Agent

-ando suf. “agent (male)”
káro n. “doer, actor, agent”
#-mo suf. “agental suffix”
#-ndo suf. “*agent (male)”
#-ro suf. “agental suffix”
tyaro n. “doer, actor, agent”

9.12 Work, Labor

mólome n. “hard work, burden”

9.13 to Work, Toil

móta- v. “to labour, toil”

9.16 to Bind

#nut- v. “to tie”

9.17 Bond (n)

aman n. “bond”

9.19 Rope, Cord

Hísime [þ] n. “November, *Misty-one”
latta² n. “strap”

9.192 Knot (n)

narda n. “knot”
núte n. “bond, knot”

9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat

lah- v. “to kick”
palka- v. “to beat flat”
palpa- v. “to beat, batter”
tam- v. “to tap”
tamba- v. “to knock, keep on knocking”
ton- v. “to tap, knock”

9.22 to Cut

hyar- v. “to cleave”
hyatse n. “cleft, gash”
kirisse n. “slash, gash”
rista n. “cut”
rista- v. “to cut”

9.26 to Break

#askat- v. “to rend, break asunder”
hat-¹ v. “to break asunder”
terhat- v. “to break apart”

9.27 to Split

sanka [þ] adj. “cleft, split”

9.28 to Tear

narka- v. “to rend”

9.31 to Rub

psar- v. “to rub”
sapsarra- v. “to keep on rubbing, fray away”

9.32 to Stretch

taile n. “lengthening, extension”
#taima n. “extension”
taina adj. “lengthened, extended, prolonged”
taita- v. “to prolong”

9.33 to Draw, Pull

rihta- v. “to jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch”
rinka n. “twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move”
tuk- v. “to draw, *pull (behind)”

9.34 to Strew, Spread Out

kapta- v. “to make spring, scatter”

9.342 to Press

him- v. “to adhere”
himba adj. “adhering, sticking”
himíte (himíti-) adj. “clinging, able to stick on”
himya- v. “to stick to, adhere, cleave to, abide by”
mál n. “grit”
sanga- v. “*to press”
sanguma n. “press, *thing that presses”

9.35 to Pour

kalpa- v. “to draw water, scoop out, bale out”
ululla- v. “to keep on pouring”
ulya- v. “to pour, flow”

9.41 Craft, Trade

karaite (karaiti-) adj. “able to make, handy, crafty, craftsmanlike, skilled”
kurwe n. “craft”

9.413 Horn

hyóla n. “trump”
róma n. “loud sound, trumpet-sound”
romba n. “horn, trumpet”

9.42 Artisan, Craftsman

ahto n. “wright, maker”

9.422 Tool

sorasta n. “equipment”

9.423 to Use

alwara adj. “useless”
mahta- v. “to handle, wield; to deal with, treat; to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight”

9.43 Carpenter

samno [þ] n. “carpenter, wright, builder”

9.44 to Build

#ampan- v. “to build”
ampanóta- v. “to build, erect a (large) building”
ampanotalea adj. “architectural”
ampanotalye n. “architecture”
tanwe n. “craft, thing made, device, construction”

9.46 to Bore

erka- v. “to prick”

9.49 Hammer (n)

namba n. “hammer”
namba- v. “to hammer”

9.50 Nail, Peg

takse n. “nail”
tasar(e) [þ] n. “willow-tree”

9.51 Beam

andul n. “long pole”
hana n. “post”
ran (ramb-) n. “beam of wood”
samna¹ [þ] n. “wooden post”

9.52 Board

pano n. “piece of shaped wood”

9.54 Brick

ambal n. “shaped stone, flag”

9.60 Smith

tano n. “craftsman, smith”

9.64 Gold

kulu n. “gold (metal)”
laure n. “gold”
laurea adj. “*golden”
malta n. “gold (as metal)”

9.65 Silver

telemna adj. “*silver”
telepsa adj. “of silver”
telpe n. “silver”
telpina adj. “of silver”

9.67 Iron

anga n. “iron”
angaina adj. “of iron”
malo² (malu-) n. “rust”
rauta n. “metal”
tinko n. “metal”

9.71 Potter

kemnaro n. “potter”
kentano n. “potter”

9.74 Glass

hyelle n. “glass”
maril n. “glass, crystal”

9.76 Basket

9.90 Thing

nat n. “thing”

9.91 Be

ea- v. “to be; to exist, have being, be found extant in the real world”
easte n. “being, essence”
ére n. “existing”
ná- v. “to be”
ye- v. “to be”
yeste n. “being, existence”

9.92 Become

ol- v. “to become”

9.93 Need, Necessity

maure n. “need”

9.943 Fitting, Suitable

mára adj. “good (of things), useful, fit”

9.95 Can, May

-ima suf. “able to be done, -able, -ible”
-ite suf. “(verbal) adjective ending”
#kav- v. “to be able”
ula adj. “apt to, likely to do so”

9.993 to Happen

lár- v. “to happen”
tulma n. “event”

10. Motion and Transportation

10.13 to Turn Around

nuqerna adj. “inverted”
peltas (peltaks-) n. “pivot”

10.14 to Wind, Wrap

hahta n. “heap, pile, (piled) mound”
natse n. “web, net”
vaita- v. “to enfold”
vai(y)a n. “envelope”

10.21 to Rise

ef- v. “to emerge (especially from water)”
khus- v. “to come up, emerge”
óre n. “rising”
ororia- v. “to keep on rising (and falling)”
orro- v. “to rise (from ground)”
orta-² v. “to rise”
orya- v. “to rise”

10.22 to Lift, Raise

orta-¹ v. “to raise, lift”
ortalima adj. “able to be raised”
ortare n. “lifting up”

10.23 to Fall

atalta- v. “to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”
ataltare n. “collapse”
lanta n. “fall”
lanta- v. “to fall”
talta- v. “to slip (down), fall, slide down, slope”

10.25 to Throw

hat-² v. “?to throw down”
#rip- v. “to hurl”
tumba- v. “to cast down (into a pit[?])”

10.32 to Flow

kelu- v. “to (begin to) flow, spring forth (of water)”
keluste n. “outflow”
sir- v. “to flow”
sirya- v. “to flow [smoothly]”
úlea adj. “pouring, flooding, flowing”
ulunde n. “flood”

10.33 to Sink

núta- v. “to set, sink (of Sun or Moon)”
sumba- v. “to submerge”
#suv- v. “to sink (esp. in water)”
unta- v. “to come down, descend”

10.36 to Sail

kiryasta n. “sail, *sailing”

10.37 to Fly

wil- v. “to fly”

10.38 to Blow

hwesta- v. “to puff”

10.41 to Creep, Crawl

hlik- v. “to creep”

10.43 to Jump, Leap

kap- v. “to leap”

10.44 to Dance

lilta- v. “to dance”

10.45 to Walk

vanta n. “walk”
vanta- v. “to walk”

10.46 to Run

rohta- v. “?to run on foot”

10.47 to Go

lenna- v. “to go, depart; to come”
lesto (lestu-) n. “journey”
mena- v. “to be making for, be on way to”
#nan-² v. “to go back”

10.48 to Come

attul- v. “to come back, return”
#ettul- v. “*to come forth, come out, issue”
tul- v. “to come”
tutulla- v. “to keep on coming (and going)”

10.49 to Depart, Go Away

apsa- v. “to away, go away”
auta-¹ v. “to away, go away”
*fir- v. “*to fade”
lesta- v. “to leave”
vanwa adj. “gone (for good), departed, vanished, lost, past, over, dead”
vanya- v. “to go, depart, disappear”
vinda- v. “to fade”

10.52 to Follow

hilya- v. “to follow”
neuro n. “follower, successor”

10.53 to Pursue

alfárima adj. “impossible to pursue”
roita- v. “to pursue”

10.54 to Overtake

neuma n. “snare”

10.55 to Reach, Arrive

tuluste n. “arrival”

10.57 to Enter

mitta- v. “to insert; to come in”

10.62 to Bring

túlima adj. “*able to be brought”

10.63 to Send

tulta- v. “to send for, fetch, summon, send hither, (lit.) cause to come”

10.65 to Drive

#lhit- v. “to speed”

10.71 Road

tea n. “straight line, road”

10.72 Path

ranta n. “course”
tie n. “path, course, line, direction, way”

10.73 Street

malle n. “street, (made or stone) road”

10.74 Bridge

yanta¹ n. “bridge”
yanwe n. “bridge, joining, isthmus”

10.78 Yoke

yanta² n. “yoke”

10.81 Ship

kirya n. “ship, boat”
kiryahto n. “shipwright”

10.82 Sailor

vainar n. “sailor”
veaner² (veanér-) n. “sailor”

10.83 Boat

lunte n. “boat”

10.87 Mast

ferna n. “mast, beechnuts”
tyulma n. “mast”

10.90 Port, Harbor

hópa n. “haven, harbour, small landlocked bay”
hopasse n. “harbourage”
londe n. “road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”

10.99 Motion (other)

ráne n. “straying, wandering”
ránen adj. “errant”
ranya- v. “to stray, *wander”

11. Possession and Trade

11.12 to Own, Possess

arwa adj. and suf. “possessing, having, in control of”
harya- v. “to possess”

11.13 to Take

ruk- v. “to pluck”

11.14 to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

mapa- v. “to grasp, seize”
raf- v. “to snatch, seize”

11.21 to Give

anna n. “gift”
anta- v. “to give”
ante n. “giver (f.)”
anto n. “giver (m.)”

11.24 to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe

varile n. “protection”
varna adj. “safe, protected, secure”
varnasse n. “security”
varya- v. “to protect”

11.25 to Save, Rescue

#sáro [þ] n. “saviour”

11.27 to Destroy

nwara- v. “to gnaw, erode, wear away”

11.28 to Harm, Injure, Damage

sak- v. “to be hurt”

11.32 to Find

kim- v. “to find”
#tuv- v. “to find”

11.34 to Release

lehta- v. “to loose, slacken”

11.41 Property

armar coll. “goods”

11.42 Wealth, Riches

heren n. “fortune, (lit.) governance”
herenya adj. “fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich”

11.46 Treasure

harma¹ n. “treasure, treasured thing”
harwe¹ n. “treasure, treasury”

11.48 Heir

aryon n. “heir”
#hilde n. “heir”

11.51 Rich

alya adj. “rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed”

11.57 Thief

farino n. “hunted man, outlaw, fugitive”

11.64 Debt

nauta adj. “bound, obliged”

11.66 Account, Reckoning

onot- v. “to count up”

11.67 Surety, Security

vesta² n. “contract”

11.83 to Trade

manka- v. “to trade”
mankale n. “commerce”

11.84 Merchant, Tradesman

makar n. “tradesman”

12. Spatial Relations

12.11 Place

esse³ n. “place”
essea² adj. “in place, local”
men n. “place, spot”

12.12 to Put, Place, Set, Lay

esta-² v. “to place, set, plant”
panya- v. “to fix, set”

12.13 to Sit

ham- v. “to sit (down), be situated in ”
hamu- v. “to sit down, take a seat”

12.14 to Lie, Recline

erde² n. “repose”
kaita- v. “to lie”
lat- v. “to be extended, stretch; to be situated (of an area), lie (of lands or regions)”
talta¹ adj. “sloping, tilted, leaning, inclined”
talta² n. “incline”

12.15 to Stand

#thar-² v. “to stand”
tolu- v. “to stand up, get up, leave one’s seat”

12.16 to Stay, Wait, Remain

hora- v. “to wait for”
lemya- v. “to remain, tarry”
lenda- v. “to linger”
seru- v. “to settle on, sit or lit down, come to rest on”

12.17 to Remain, be Left Over

lemba adj. “left behind”

12.19 Quiet (adj)

lussa- v. “to whisper”
lusse n. “whispering sound”
qilir n. “quiet”

12.21 to Gather, Collect

hosta- v. “to collect”
#kumba adj. and n. “*bellied”

12.22 to Join, Unite

#sampane n. “combination”
tak- v. “to fasten”

12.221 Together

le² prep. “with, by”
o- pref. “together”

12.222 And

ar conj. “and; but”
yo conj. “and”

12.223 Also

adv. “too”

12.232 to Divide

perya- v. “to divide in middle, halve”

12.24 to Open

latina adj. “open, free, cleared (of land)”
palya- v. “to open wide, spread, expand, extend”
panta adj. “open”
panta- v. “to unfurl, spread out, open”

12.26 to Cover

telme n. “hood, covering”
telta- v. “to canopy, overshadow, screen”
top- v. “to cover”

12.27 to Hide, Conceal

halya- v. “to veil, conceal, screen from light”
*lihlikka- v. “to sneak about”

12.31 High

orro² adv. “up in the air, on high”
tar- affix. “high; king or queen (in compounds)”
tára adj. “lofty, high”

12.34 Bottom

numbe n. “root, foundation”
sundo n. “base, root, root-word”
talma n. “base, foundation, root”
tulko (*tulku-) n. “support, prop”

12.35 End

tyel (tyeld-) n. “end”
tyelma n. “ending”

12.352 Point

mente n. “point, end”
nasse n. “thorn, spike”
nasta- v. “to prick, sting”
tilde n. “spike, horn”

12.37 Middle

enya adj. “middle”
holmo adv. “from the middle”
humpe adv. “in the middle”

12.38 Center

ende n. “centre, middle, core”

12.391 In, Inside

hont adv. “inwards”
imbe¹ adv. “in(wards)”
mi prep. “in, within”
minna prep. and adv. “into, to the inside”
mir prep. and adv. “to the inside, into”
mitta prep. and adv. “inwards, (?into)”
mitya adj. “interior”
to prep. “in”

12.392 Out, Outside

ar- pref. “outside, beside”
ara prep. and adv. “outside, beside”
ava adv. and adj. “outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
et prep. “out of”
et- pref. “forth, out”
etse n. “outside, exterior”
ette¹ adj. “outside”

12.394 Up, Above, Over

am- pref. “up”
amba adv. “up(wards)”
kas² adv. “upwards, towards the top”

12.395 Down, Below, Beneath

nu prep. “under”
nún adv. “down below, underneath”
tal adv. “downwards”
talte adv. “down, at the bottom”
undo adv. “down, low down”
undu prep. and adv. “down, under, beneath”

12.396 Behind, At the Rear

telle n. “rear”

12.397 Beyond

enta pron. and adv. “that yonder, then (fut.)”

12.398 To, Towards

an(a) prep. “to, towards”
[ᴱQ.] #†-r² suf. “*archaic allative”

12.399 From, Away

en adv. “there, yonder, far away; look yon(der); that; in that (future) case”
ho prep. “from”
*-llo suf. “ablative element”
ló¹ prep. “ablative element”
tar adv. “thither, beyond”
#va prep. “away”
vahai(y)a adv. “far away”

12.41 Right (vs. Left)

formaite adj. “righthanded, dexterous”
forte (forti-) adj. “right or north”
forya adj. “right (hand), dexter”

12.42 Left (vs. Right)

hyarmaite adj. “left-handed”
hyarya adj. “left (hand)”

12.43 Near (adj)

an(ner) adv. “at hand”
sinome n. “here”

12.44 Far (adj)

avahaira adj. “*far beyond, very remote”
ekkaira adj. “?out-far”
haira adj. “remote, far”
haiya adv. “far off, far away”
palan adj. and adv. “far, distant, wide, to a great extent, over a wide space, to a distance”
palantir n. “far-seer”
tasse adv. “there”

12.45 East

rómen n. “east”
rómenya adj. “eastern”
róna adj. “east”

12.46 West

númen n. “west”
númenya adj. “western”

12.47 North

formen n. “north, right hand”
formenya adj. “northern”

12.48 South

hyarmen n. “south, left hand”
hyarmenya adj. “southern”

12.51 Form, Shape (n)

kanta- v. “to shape”
kanta² n. and adj. “shape, frame; shaped”
kantea adj. “shapely”

12.53 to Grow

ala- v. “to grow”
alta- v. “to (make) grow”
alwa adj. “well-grown”
ola- v. “to grow, grow up, reach its prime, become”
olaste n. “growth”
olinwa adj. “fully grown, adult”
ololla- v. “*to keep on growing”
tiuya- v. “to swell, grow fat”
tuilu- v. “to bud, open (of flowers and leaves)”
tuima n. “sprout, bud”

12.54 to Measure

#lesta n. “measure”
rangwe n. “fathom”

12.55 Big, Large, Great

alta (alat-) adj. “large, great in size”
úra adj. “large”

12.56 Small, Little

mitsa adj. “small”
míwa adj. “small, tiny, frail”
titta adj. “little, tiny”

12.57 Long

anda adj. “long”
andave adv. “*long”

12.58 Tall

halla adj. “tall”
tunda adj. “tall”

12.61 Wide, Broad

landa¹ adj. “wide”
palla adj. “wide, expansive”

12.62 Narrow

arka adj. “narrow”

12.64 Thick (in Density)

hyarna adj. “compact, compressed”
tiuka adj. “thick, fat”

12.65 Thin (in Dimension)

ninde adj. “slender”
teren adj. “slender”
tereva adj. “fine, acute”

12.67 Deep

núra adj. “deep”
tumba adj. “deep, lowlying”
tumna adj. “lowlying, deep, low”

12.71 Flat

lára¹ adj. “flat”
palme n. “surface”

12.72 Hollow, Concave

unka- v. “to hollow out”
unqa adj. “hollow”
unqe n. “hollow, cavity, hole”

12.73 Straight

téra adj. “straight, right”

12.74 Crooked

hwarin adj. “crooked”
raika adj. “crooked, bent, wrong”
rempa adj. “crooked, hooked”

12.75 Hook, Crook

ampa n. “hook, crook”

12.76 Angle, Corner

neltil (neltild-) n. “triangle”

12.77 Cross (n)

hwarma n. “crossbar”

12.81 Round (adj)

korna adj. “round, globed”

12.82 Circle

korin n. “circular enclosure”
panda n. “enclosure”
pel- v. “to go round, revolve, return”
rinda adj. “circular”
rinde n. “circle”

12.83 Sphere

kóma n. “ball”
koron (corn-) n. “globe, ball”
pamba n. “ball”

12.84 Line

téma n. “row, series, line”

12.85 Hole

assa n. “hole, perforation, opening, mouth”
latta¹ n. “hole, pit”
sat (sap-) n. “pit”
terra n. “fine pierced hole”
uphto n. “pit”

12.94 Sign (n)

narwë n. “sign, token”

12.99 Spatial Relations (other)

linga-¹ v. “to hang, dangle”

13. Quantity and Number

13.11 Amount, Quantity

not- v. “to reckon”

13.12 Number

nóte n. “number”

13.14 All, Every

ilqa n. “everything, all”
ilya adj. “all, the whole”
qáqi adv. “all”

13.15 Much, Many

avanóte adj. “without number, numberless”
hosta n. “large number”
lauta- v. “to abound”
lin-¹ pref. “many”
rimba adj. “frequent, numerous”

13.18 Enough

fárea adj. “enough, sufficient”
faren adv. “enough”
ufárea adj. “not enough”
úvea adj. “abundant, in very great number, very large”

13.181 Sufficiency

farme n. “sufficiency, plenitude, all that is wanted”
farya- v. “to suffice”
úve n. “abundance, great quantity”

13.19 Crowd, Multitude

hosto n. “crowd, assembly”
hyanda n. “a throng, crowd”
rimbe n. “crowd, host”
sanga [þ] n. and adj. “crowd, throng, press, pack; crowded, packed”

13.192 Other Collective Words

masse² n. “handful, share, just portion (in distribution), measure or capacity (of a person)”
-sta¹ suf. “close grouping”

13.21 Full

#-inqa suf. “*-ful, complete”
qanta adj. “full”

13.22 Empty

kúma n. “void”
kumna adj. “empty”
lusta adj. “void, empty”

13.24 Half

#per- pref. “half, semi”

13.32 One

min num. card. “one”

13.33 Alone, Only

er adj. and adv. “one, alone”
eresse n. “solitude”
eressea adj. “lonely”
erya adj. “single, sole, only”

13.34 First

enna² adj. “first”
essea¹ adj. “?primary”
esta adj. “first”
héra adj. “chief, principal”
inga adj. “first”
minda adj. “prominent, conspicuous”
minya num. ord. “first”

13.35 Last

tella adj. “hindmost, last”
tyelima adj. “final”

13.36 Two

atta num. card. “two”
yú- pref. “both”
yúyo adj. “both”

13.37 Second (ordinal)

neuna adj. “second”

13.38 Double, Twice

atwa adj. “double”
tanta adj. “double”
tatya- v. “to double, repeat”

13.41 Three

nelde num. card. “three”

13.45 Threefold, Triple

nel- pref. “tri-”

13.54 Cardinal Number

enqe num. card. “six”
kainen num. card. “ten”
kanta¹ num. card. “four”
lempe num. card. “five”
minqe num. card. “eleven”
nahta² num. card. “eighteen”
nerte num. card. “nine”
otso num. card. “seven”
#-rasta suf. “twelve”
tolto num. card. “eight”
yurasta num. card. “twenty four”

14. Time

14.11 Time (period)

n. “a time, occasion”
lúme n. “time, hour”

14.12 Age

randa n. “cycle, age (100 Valian Years)”

14.13 New

sinya adj. “new”
virya adj. “fresh”

14.14 Young

nessa adj. “young”
nesse n. “youth”
nessima adj. “youthful”
vinya¹ adj. “young, new”
vírie n. “youth”

14.15 Old

alanwa adj. “fully grown, adult, mature”
linyenwa adj. “old, having many years”
yalúmea adj. “olden”
yára adj. “old, ancient, belonging to or descending from former times”
yáre n. “former days”
yárea adj. “olden”
yerna adj. “old, worn”
yerya- v. “to wear (out), get old”

14.18 Now

adv. “now”
sinan adv. “at present”

14.19 Soon, Immediately

horme n. “urgency”

14.21 Fast, Swift, Quick

alako n. “rush, rushing flight, wild wind”
(a)larka adj. “swift, rapid”
rimpa adj. “rushing, flying”
tyelka adj. “swift, agile”

14.23 to Hurry, Hasten

horta- v. “to send flying, speed, urge”
orme n. “haste, violence, wrath, rushing”
orna adj. “hasty”

14.24 to Delay

ser- v. “to rest, repose; to stay, tarry, stop, be for a while, at the moment”

14.25 to Begin; Beginning

esse² n. “beginning”

14.252 to Last

vóre n. “lasting”
vórea adj. and n. “continuous, enduring, lasting; continuant”
vórima adj. “continuous, enduring, repeated”
vorongandele n. “continual repetition, (lit.) harping on one tune”
voronwa adj. “enduring, long-lasting”
voronwie n. “endurance, lasting quality”

14.26 End (n, temporal)

metta n. “ending”

14.27 to Finish

karino- v. “to get finished/made”
metya- v. “to put an end to”

14.28 to Cease

hauta- v. “to cease, take a rest, stop”
pusta n. “stop, in punctuation full stop”
pusta- v. “to stop, put a stop to, cease”
tyel- v. “to end, cease”

14.30 Eternity

iale n. “everlasting age”
oiale n. “everlasting age”

14.302 Eternal

íra adj. “eternal”
íre³ n. “eternal, eternity?”
oia adj. and adv. “everlasting”
oira adj. “eternal”
oire n. “everlasting (?age)”
ullume adv. “forever”
vor(o)- pref. “continual repetition”

14.31 Always

ia adv. “ever”
oi adv. “ever”
voro adv. “ever, continually”

14.35 Again

at(a)- pref. “back, again, re-”
ata adv. “again, *(lit.) a second time”
nan-¹ pref. “backwards”

14.36 Before (temporal)

enge adv. “ago, once (in past), †it was”
enyáre adv. “in that day”
esta-³ v. “to precede”
adv. “ago”
#nó¹ prep. “yester-, *after”
táre adv. “*that day”
uman adv. “at one time”
vanwie n. “the past, past time”
adv. “formerly, ago”
yalúme n. “former times”
yasse adv. “once upon a time; there”

14.37 After

évea adj. “future”
kata prep. “after”
kato adv. “afterwards”
tulurya adj. “future, coming”

14.41 Day

ala n. “day”
alan n. “daytime”
are n. “day”
arie n. “daytime”
arya n. “day (twelve hours)”

14.42 Night

ló² n. “night, a night”
lóme n. “night, night-time, shades of night, gloom”
#núre n. “night”

14.43 Dawn

ambaróne n. “uprising, sunrise, Orient”
anaróre n. “sunrise”
ára n. “dawn, day”
artuile n. “dayspring, early morn”
tindóme n. “(starry) twilight, starlit dusk”

14.44 Morning

arin n. “morning”
arinya adj. “morning, early”

14.46 Evening

sinye [þ] n. “evening”
vinye n. “evening”

14.462 Dusk

yúkale n. “twilight”

14.47 Today

sinar n. “today, this morning”

14.48 Tomorrow

elloa n. “next year”
enar n. “tomorrow”

14.49 Yesterday

nóloa n. “yesteryear”

14.61 Week

lemnar n. “(Valarin five-day) week”

14.62 Sunday

Anarya n. “Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day”

14.63 Monday

Isilya [þ] n. “*Monday, Moon-day”

14.64 Tuesday

Aldarya n. “*Tuesday”

14.65 Wednesday

Menelya n. “*Wednesday, Heavens-day”

14.66 Thursday

Earenya n. “Thursday*, Sea-day”

14.67 Friday

Tárinar n. “*alternate name of Valanya”
Valarya n. “*Friday, Vala-day”

14.68 Saturday

Elenya n. “Saturday, Star-day*”

14.72 Names of the Months

Erkoire n. “February, *First-stirring”
Erlaire n. “June, *First-summer”
Erqelle n. “September, *First-autumn”
Erríve n. “November, *First-winter”
Ertuilë n. “April, *First-spring”
Kermie n. “July”
Lótesse n. “May, (lit.) *Flower-ness”
Metelaire n. “August, (lit.) *End-summer”
Nárie n. “June, *Fire-ness”
Narqelie n. “October”
Narvinye n. “January, *New-fire”
Nendesse n. “February, *Wet-ness”
Nókoire n. “March, *After-stirring”
Nólairë n. “July, *After-summer”
Nóqelle n. “October, *After-autumn”
Norríve n. “December, *After-winter”
Nótuile n. “May, *After-spring”
Ringare n. “December, *Cold-day”
Súlime [þ] n. “March”
Úrime n. “August, *Hot-one”
Víresse n. “April, *Freshness”
Yavannie n. “September, *Yavanna-ness”

14.73 Year

#loa n. “year”
qantien n. “century, (lit.) full year”
yén n. “year”
yénie n. “annals”

14.74 Winter

Fírien n. “Winter”
hríve n. “winter”

14.75 Spring

koire n. “Stirring”
tuia- v. “to sprout, spring”
tuile n. “spring, spring-time”
Tuilear n. “Springdays”

14.76 Summer

laire¹ n. “summer”

14.77 Autumn

lasselanta n. “leaf-fall, autumn; October”
Narqelion n. “Fire-fading, Autumn”
qelle n. “Autumn”

14.99 Time (other)

hinna adv. “still”
íqallume adv. “when, whenever”
lumenyáre n. “*history”
lúmeqenta n. “history, chronological account”
lúmeqentale n. “history”
lúmeqentalea adj. “historical”
#lúmie n. “annals”
meren(de) (merend-) n. “feast, festival”
meryale n. “holiday”
qentasse n. “history”
yallume adv. “at last”

15. Sense Perception

15.11 to Sense, Perceive; Sense

laika adj. “keen, sharp, acute”
laike n. “acuteness, keenness of perception”

15.21 to Smell (subj)

nusta- v. “to smell [something]”

15.24 Smell (n, obj)

ksenna n. “odour”
olme n. “odour”

15.26 Stinking, Bad Smelling

saura [þ] adj. “foul, evil-smelling, putrid”

15.31 to Taste (subj)

tyatyamba- v. “*to keep on tasting”
tyav- v. “to taste”

15.37 Bitter

sára adj. “bitter”

15.41 to Hear

15.42 to Listen, Harken

lasta- v. “to listen; to hear”

15.43 Hearing (n)

lasta n. “listening, hearing”

15.44 Sound (n)

eske n. “rustle, noise of leaves”
láma n. “ringing sound, echo; sound”
lámina adj. “echoing”
lamma n. “sound”
lamya- v. “to sound”
nalláma n. “echo”

15.442 Phonetic

kalmatéma n. “k-series”
#na-súrima n. “aspirate”
nengwetanwa adj. “nasal-infixed”
nengwetehta n. “nasal sign”
okamna n. “diphthong”
#ólama n. “consonant”
#ólamaite adj. “consonantal”
#ómaise n. “voiced [stop]”
óman (omand-) n. “vowel”
#ómanda adj. “vocalic”
ómataile n. “vowel-lengthening”
ómataima n. “vocalic extension”
#ómea adj. “voiced”
parmatéma n. “p-series”
#perómanda adj. and n. “semivocalic, *semi-vowel”
punta n. “stopped consonant”
qessetéma n. “q-series”
#samna² n. “diphthong”
sundóma [þ] n. “determinant vowel, vocalic determinant”
surya n. “spirant consonant”
tinkotéma n. “t-series”

15.51 to See

#ken- v. “to see”
kénima adj. “visible, able to be seen”
kenya- v. “to see”

15.52 to Look

#tir- v. “to watch”
#tiriste n. “*watch, guard”

15.54 Sight (obj), Look (obj), Appearance

nemeste n. “appearance”
nemestea adj. “apparent”

15.56 to Shine, Glisten

éle n. “star-ray, beam, flashing of [?starry] light”
faina- v. “to emit light”
faire¹ n. “radiance”
kalta- v. “to (cause to) shine, light up, kindle (lamp etc.)”
mirilya- v. “to glitter”
rilma n. “glittering light”
rilya adj. “glittering”
sil- v. “to shine”
silma adj. “silver, shining white”
sinta [þ] adj. “short”
sisilla- v. “to glitter (white)”
#tin- v. “to glint”
tinda adj. “glinting (silver)”
tinde n. “glint”

15.562 Blinking

tintina- v. “to sparkle”
tithilla- v. “to twinkle”

15.57 Bright

alkar(e) n. “radiance, brilliance”
alkarinqa adj. “radiant, glorious”
kalarin(a) adj. “*brilliant”
#kalima adj. “*bright”
kalya- v. “to illuminate”
?rille n. “brilliance”

15.61 Color

laite n. “colour”

15.64 White

alaninqitálima adj. “that cannot be made white (again)”
fanya n. and adj. “sky; white”
luina adj. “pale”
ninqe (ninqi-) adj. “white, pale”
ninqeri n. “*white (female thing or personification)”
ninqeru n. “white man, white male swan, white ship, white (male thing or personification)”
ninqinta- v. “to grow pale”
ninqisse n. “whiteness”
ninqita- v. “to whiten, make white; to shine white”
ninqitáre n. “whitening, whitewashing”

15.65 Black

more (mori-) adj. “black, dark”

15.66 Red

aira adj. “red, copper-coloured, ruddy”
karanya- v. “to make red, redden”
karne (karni-) adj. “red”
kulda adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red”
kulina adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red”
kullo n. “red gold”
kuluina adj. “orange (coloured); of gold, golden”
roina adj. “ruddy”
varne adj. “brown, swart, dark brown”

15.67 Blue

helwa adj. “(pale) blue”
ilin adj. “pale blue”
lúne (lúni-) adj. “blue”
vinde adj. “pale blue”
vinya² adj. “pale blue”

15.68 Green

laiqa adj. “green”
wén n. “greenness, freshness; youth”
wenya adj. “green, yellow-green, fresh”

15.69 Yellow

malina adj. “yellow”
malwa adj. “fallow, pale”
marya adj. “pale, fallow, fawn [light yellowish tan color]”

15.70 Grey

hiswa [þ] adj. “grey”
sinde (sindi-) [þ] adj. “grey, pale”
sinta- [þ] v. “to fade, *(lit.) become grey”

15.74 Hard

tarya adj. “tough, stiff”

15.75 Soft

kúvima adj. “flexible”
kúvula adj. “flexible, pliant”
maksa adj. “soft, pliant”
milya adj. “soft, gentle, weak”

15.77 Smooth

pasta [þ] adj. “smooth”

15.78 Sharp

aika adj. “sharp”

15.81 Heavy, Weighty

lu- v. “to be heavy, be sad”
lumna adj. “lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous”
lumna- v. “to lie heavy, be heavy”
lunga adj. “heavy; fraught”

15.82 Light, Nimble

maite (maisi-) adj. “handy, skilled”

15.83 Wet, Damp

linqe adj. “wet”
miksa adj. “wet”
níte (*níti-) adj. “moist, dewy”

15.84 Dry, Arid

erume n. “desert”
parka adj. “dry; thirsty”

15.85 Hot, Warm

lauka adj. “warm”
yulme n. “red (?heat), smouldering heat”

15.86 Cold, Frigid

helka adj. “ice-cold”
ringe (ringi-) n. “cold”

15.87 Pure, Clean

poika adj. “clean, pure”
poinesse n. “?cleanliness”

15.88 Dirty, Soiled

vahta- v. “to soil, stain”
vakse n. “stain”
vára adj. “soiled, dirty”

16. Emotion

16.11 Soul, Spirit

manu n. “departed spirit”

16.12 Feeling, Emotion

hóre n. “impulse”
hórea adj. “impulsive”

16.15 Wonder, Astonishment

tatalla- v. “to admire, wonder at (the excellence of), marvel”

16.17 Fortune (Good or Bad)

manar n. “doom, final end, fate, fortune; final bliss”
maranwe n. “destiny”
marta¹ adj. and n. “fated, fey; fate”
martya- v. “to destine”
tulumaite adj. “likely to come, probable (of future events)”

16.18 Good Fortune

alma n. “good fortune, weal, wealth, *well-being”
almare n. “blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss”
almárea adj. “blessed”

16.19 Misfortune

umbar (umbart-) n. “fate, doom”

16.21 to Please

fasta adj. “pleased”
fasta-² v. “to please”

16.212 Please in Polite Phrases

lá³ interj. “(?please)”
namárie interj. “farewell”

16.24 Happy; Happiness

alasse n. “joy, merriment”
merya adj. “festive”

16.26 to Play

#tyal- v. “to play”
tyalie n. “play, game, sport”

16.27 to Love; Love

mel- v. “to love (as friend)”
melindo n. “lover (m.)”
melisse n. “lover (f.)”
melme n. “love”
tyaz- v. “to like”
yelme² n. “[unglossed]”

16.272 Friendship

helda² adj. “friendly, having love (for)”
helme n. “friendship”
-iel² suf. “-friend”
-(n)dil suf. “-friend”
nilda adj. “friendly, loving (towards)”
nilme n. “friendship”

16.28 Dear

melda adj. “beloved, dear, sweet”
melima adj. “loveable, fair”
melin adj. “dear”
moina adj. “familiar, dear”
sonda adj. “dear, fond”
yelda adj. “friendly, dear as friend”

16.29 to Kiss

miqilis n. “kiss”

16.31 Pain, Suffering

naike n. “sharp pain”
naikele n. “*anguish”
naikelea adj. “painful”
nwalma [ñ] n. “pain”
nwalme [ñ] n. “torment”
nwalya- [ñ] v. “to pain, torment”
sút n. “pain, (esp.) death-throe”
ungwale n. “torture”
unqale n. “death agony, agony, death”

16.32 Grief, Sorrow

naina- v. “to lament”
naire n. “lament, sorrow”
nairea adj. “sorrowful”

16.38 Tear (n)

nie n. “tear”

16.41 Hate (n)

mun- v. “to dislike, to not like”
yelme¹ n. “loathing”
yelta- v. “to loathe, abhor”
yelwa adj. “loathsome”

16.42 Anger

merka adj. “wild, untamed”
raiqa adj. “angry”
verka adj. “wild”

16.43 Rage, Fury

aha n. “rage”

16.45 Shame (n)

yaiwe n. “mocking, scorn”

16.46 Honor (n)

kuv- v. “to bow”

16.48 Proud

nukumna adj. “humbled”

16.52 Brave, Courageous

káne n. “valour”
kanya adj. “bold; wise”
verie n. “boldness”
verya adj. “bold”
verya- v. “to dare”

16.53 Fear, Fright

aista- v. “to dread”
feuya- v. “to feel disgust at, abhor”
norta [ñ] adj. “horrible”
norto [ñ] n. “horror”
osse n. “terror”

16.54 Peril, Danger

tarki- v. “to trouble”
úmahta(le) n. “nuisance”

16.61 to Will, Wish

men- v. “to wish, mean, intend”

16.62 to Desire

ksara- v. “to yearn, long for”
mer- v. “to wish, desire, want”
milya- v. “to long for”

16.622 Desire

íre¹ n. “desire, longing”
írima adj. “lovely, desirable”
maile n. “lust”
mailea adj. “lustful”
milka adj. “greedy”
milme n. “desire, greed”
yére n. “*sexual desire”
yesta- v. “to desire”

16.65 Faithful

sanda [þ] adj. “firm, true, abiding”

16.66 True

anwa adj. “true, real, actual”
enna¹ n. “fact”
enwa adj. and n. “existent, real, true; fact”

16.74 Wrong (adj)

úmea adj. “evil”
uvana adj. “wicked”

16.77 Error, Mistake

mista- v. “to stray about”
war- v. “to err”

16.79 Praise (n)

laita- v. “to praise”
orhal- v. “to exalt”

16.81 Beautiful

linda adj. “fair, beautiful (of sound)”
vanima adj. “fair”
Vanimo n. “The Beautiful; Fair Folk”
vanya adj. “beautiful, fair”

16.99 Emotion (other)

faika adj. “contemptible, mean”
naikea adj. “cruel”
nwalka [ñ] adj. “cruel”

17. Mind and Thought

17.13 to Think, Reflect

nov- v. “?to think, form idea, imagine”
úvie n. “considering a matter (with a view to decision)”

17.151 Guess, Suppose

au(ve) adv. “might (have), would (have)”
hiuta- v. “to hint”
intya n. “guess, supposition, idea, notion”
intya- v. “to guess, suppose”
qe conj. “if”

17.16 to Understand

hanya- v. “to understand, know about, be skilled in dealing with”

17.17 to Know

ista- v. “to know”

17.171 Knowledge, Science

hande n. “knowledge, understanding”
ingole n. “deep lore, magic”
istalima adj. “knowable, ascertainable”
istare n. “knowledge”
istya n. “knowledge”
nolwe [ñ] n. “wisdom, (secret) lore”

17.18 to Seem

nem- v. “it seems (impersonal)”
nenemma- v. “to keep on (re-)appearing”

17.19 Idea, Notion

indo n. “heart, mood”
inka n. “idea”
nó² (nów-) n. “conception, idea, thought”

17.20 Imagination

aule n. “invention”
auta-² v. “to invent, originate, devise”
intyale n. “imagination”
nause [þ] n. “imagination”

17.21 Wise

handa¹ adj. “understanding, intelligent”
handasse n. “intelligence”
handele n. “intellect”
istima adj. “having knowledge, wise, learned”
nóla² [ñ] adj. “wise, learned”
nóle [ñ] n. “wisdom”
saira adj. “wise”

17.27 Teacher

istyar n. “scholar, learned man, lore-master, wizard”

17.35 Obscure

nulla adj. “dark, dusky, obscure; hidden, secret”

17.36 Secret

alistima adj. “unknowable, secret”
muile n. “secrecy”
muina adj. “hidden, secret”

17.37 Sure, Certain

tanka adj. “firm, fixed, sure”
tankata- v. “to make fixed/firm, confirm”

17.41 Purpose, Intention

enne n. “thought, purpose”
meneste n. “intention”
Meterríve n. “January, (lit.) *End-winter”
tel- v. “to intend”

17.42 Cause, Reason

tyar- v. “to cause”

18. Language and Music

18.11 Voice (n)

alómea adj. “voiceless”
óma n. “voice”
ómalóra adj. “voiceless”

18.12 to Sing

lin-² v. “to sing”
lindo n. “singer, singing bird”
#lir- v. “to sing, chant”
liru- v. “to sing (gaily)”
liruima adj. “able to be sung”
lirule n. “merry song”
liruste n. “singing, chant”
lirustea adj. “fit for singing, to be sung”
nyello n. “singer”

18.13 to Shout, Cry Out

n. “shout”
yello n. “call, shout, cry of triumph”

18.14 Various Cries

á² interj. “Oh!”
é interj. “indeed”
hu n. “howl”
húna- v. “to howl”
nai interj. “alas”
naule [ñ] n. “wolfhowl”
orro¹ interj. “ugh, alas!, ow!”
yé¹ interj. “*lo!”

18.15 Gesture-code

kukumba- v. “to nod repeatedly, (lit.) keep on bowing”

18.21 to Speak, Talk

alqettima adj. “unutterable”
#nyarie n. “talking”
nyárula adj. “apt to talk”
qettima adj. “utterable”

18.22 to Say

nyar(a)- v. “to relate, tell, recite (in sing-voice voice), talk”
qeqetta- v. “to repeat, keep on saying”
qet- v. “to say”

18.24 Language

lambe n. “language, tongue”
#qesta n. “speech, language”
qetil n. “tongue, language, talk”
#-rin suf. “-ian, racial-adjective, language”

18.25 Dialect

18.28 Name

esse¹ n. “name”
estaina adj. “named”

18.31 to Question, Inquire

#ma adv. “interrogative particle”
mallo adv. “whence”
man pron. “what”
mana pron. “who”
manima adj. “of what kind, of what sort”
manna adv. “whither”
masse¹ adv. “where”

18.34 to Deny

laqe[t]- v. “[unglossed]”

18.35 to Ask, Request

kesta- v. “to ask”

18.37 to Refuse

avaqet- v. “to refuse, forbid”
lala- v. “to deny”

18.41 to Call, Summon

naham- v. “to summon”
naháme n. “summons”
nahamna adj. “summoned”

18.42 to Call, Name

esta-¹ v. “to name”

18.51 to Write

amatikse n. “dot or point placed above the line of writing”
áratenkele n. “writing of A, (lit.) daywriting”
tek- v. “to write”
tekko n. “stroke (of pen or brush), accent [´]”
tengwe n. “writing”
tenkele n. “writing (system), spelling”

18.53 Letter of the Alphabet

andatehta n. “long mark”
andatelko n. “long stem, long leg”
andólama n. “long consonant”
#napanna n. “additional letter”
putta n. “stop (in punctuation)”
qanta-tenkele n. “full writing”
rinke (rinki-) n. “flourish, quick stroke, hook”
sa-rinke (sa-rinki-) n. “s-hook, hooked stroke in tengwa”
tehta n. “mark (in writing), sign, diacritic”
tengwa n. “letter; writing, grammar”
tengwanda n. “alphabet”
tikse n. “dot, tiny mark, point”
unutikse n. “dot or point placed below the line of writing”

18.54 Letter, Epistle

tenna² n. “a letter”

18.57 Pen

tekil n. “pen”

18.58 Ink

motto n. “blot”

18.61 Book

parma n. “book”

18.65 Literature

parmaina adj. “of books, literary”

18.66 Author, Writer

qenso n. “minstrel”
qentaro n. “narrator, reciter, minstrel”

18.67 Poet

laire² n. “poem”
#linwe n. “short lay”

18.68 Tale, Story

nyáre n. “tale, saga, history”
nyarna n. “tale, saga”
qenta n. “tale, story, account, history”
qentale n. “account, history”

18.69 Music

kantele n. “music”
#linda- v. “*to make music”
lindale n. “music”
linde¹ n. “air, tune”
tinga- v. “to twang”
tinge n. “twang”
tunga adj. “taut, tight; resonant (of strings)”
tyalangan (*tyalangand-) n. “harp-player”

18.70 Instrument

linga-² v. “to ring”
nanda- [ñ] v. “to harp”
nandaro [ñ] n. “harper”
nande [ñ] n. “harp”
nandele n. “harping, *repetition”
nandelle [ñ] n. “little harp”
nyelle n. “bell”

19. Social Relations

19.11 Country ('European')

faraste n. “hunting, the chase”
farastea adj. “of the chase (that it is proper to hunt), *of prey”

19.13 Country (vs. Town)

ravanda n. “wilderness”

19.14 Region, Territory

arda n. “realm, region”
má² n. “land, region”
ména n. “region”
-ndor suf. “-land”

19.16 Village

opele n. “walled house or village, town”

19.17 Boundary

fas (fass-) n. “fringe, border”
réna n. “edge, border, margin”
ríma n. “edge, hem, border”

19.21 People, Populace

lie n. “people, folk”

19.22 a People, Nation

nóre n. “land, country, region where certain people live; clan, race, folk, kindred”

19.23 Tribe, Clan, Family

nosse n. “clan, family, ‘house’”

19.31 to Rule, Govern

tur- v. “to wield, control, govern”

19.32 King

aran¹ n. “king”
aranaite adj. “*kingly, royal”
araníe n. “kingship”
haran n. “king, chieftain, lord or king of a specified region”
tár n. “king”

19.33 Queen

tári n. “queen”

19.35 Prince

haryon n. “prince (heir)”
kundu n. “prince”
kunduina adj. “of princes, princely”

19.352 Other Titles of Nobility

heru n. “lord, master”
káno n. “chief”

19.36 Noble, Nobleman

kallo n. “noble man, hero”

19.41 Master

mandu n. “lord”
-tur suf. “master, victor, lord”
turo n. “master, victor, lord”

19.412 Lady

heri n. “lady”
nissa n. “lady”

19.42 Slave

mól n. “slave, thrall”
#móla adj. “enslaved”

19.43 Servant

-(n)dur suf. “*servant”
núro n. “servant”

19.44 Free (adj)

(a)ranya adj. “free”
mirima adj. “free”
ráva¹ adj. “wild, untamed”

19.47 to Let, Permit

lav-² v. “to yield, allow, grant”
néme n. “leave, *permission”

19.48 to Compel

hortale n. “speeding, urging”
horya- v. “to have an impulse, be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do”
mausta n. “compulsion”
mauya- v. “to compel”
siule n. “incitement”

19.51 Friend

-el suf. “friend”
helde n. “friend”
heldo n. “friend”
helmo n. “friend”
málo n. “friend”
meldo n. “(friend), lover”
nilde n. “friend (f.)”
nildo n. “friend [m.]”
nilmo n. “friend”
-ser suf. “friend”
serme n. “friend (f.)”
sermo n. “friend [m.]”
seron n. “friend”
sondo n. “friend”

19.52 Foe, Enemy

kotumo n. “enemy”
kotya adj. “hostile”
untamo n. “enemy”

19.53 Companion

oselle [þ] n. “[sworn] sister, associate [f.]”

19.55 Stranger

aiano n. “stranger”
ettele n. “outer lands, foreign parts”
ettelea adj. “foreign”

19.59 to Hinder, Prevent

tampa n. “stopper”
tap- v. “to stop, block”

19.61 Custom, Usage

haime n. “habit”

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

kosta- v. “to quarrel”
naraka adj. “harsh, rending, violent of (?sounds)”

19.65 to Meet

omentie n. “meeting”

20. Warfare and Hunting

20.13 War

ohta n. “war”

20.14 Peace

senda adj. “resting, at peace”
sére n. “rest, repose, peace”

20.17 Soldier

mahtar n. “warrior”
ohtakáro n. “warrior”
ohtatyaro n. “warrior”

20.20 Captain

hesto n. “captain”

20.24 Bow

n. “bow”
qinga n. “bow (for shooting)”

20.25 Arrow

pilin (pilind-) n. “arrow”

20.26 Spear

ehte (*ehti-) n. “spear”
ehtyar n. “spearman”
enke n. “spear point”
nasta n. “spear-head, spear-point, gore, triangle”

20.27 Sword

hyando n. “cleaver, hewer (sword)”
lango n. “broad sword; prow of a ship”
makil n. “sword”
russe n. “corruscation, †sword-blade”
yelka n. “sword?”

20.33 Helmet

harna² n. “helmet”
kassa n. “helmet”

20.34 Shield

turma n. “shield”
umbas [þ] n. “shield”

20.35 Fortress

arta n. “fort, fortress”
ostirion n. “fort”
osto n. “city, town with wall round, fort”

20.36 Tower

#mindon n. “(isolated) tower”
tirion n. “watch-tower, tower”

20.41 Victory

túre n. “mastery, victory”

20.43 Attack (n)

ehta- v. “to stab”

21. Law and Judgment

21.11 Special Law

ovesta n. “contract, compact, treaty”

21.12 General Law

sanya [þ] adj. “regular, law-abiding, normal”
sanye [þ] n. “rule, law”
vorosanya [þ] adj. “*ever-law-abiding”

21.18 Judge (n)

mandos n. “doomsman, judge”

21.24 to Swear

vesta-² v. “to swear (to do something), contract, make a compact”

21.25 Oath

vére n. “bond, troth, compact, oath”
vestale² n. “oath”

21.39 Jail, Prison

#manda n. “prison, *duress”

21.999 Law (other)

#etya adj. “exiled”

22. Religion and Beliefs

22.12 God

Ainu n. “holy one, angelic spirit”
Eru n. “The One God”
Vala n. “Power, God”
valaina adj. “of or belonging to the Valar, divine”
valasse n. “divinity”
valya adj. “having (divine) authority or power”

22.13 Temple

yána n. “holy place, fane, sanctuary”

22.19 Holy, Sacred

aina adj. “holy”

22.23 to Bless

mána adj. “blessed”

22.31 Heaven

ilduma n. “heaven”

22.33 Angel

Aini n. “holy one, angelic spirit (f.)”
mai(y)a n. “[unglossed]”

22.35 Demon, Evil Spirit

rauko n. “demon”

22.42 Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery

luhta- v. “to enchant”
lúke n. “enchantment”
ngolfine n. “magical skill”

22.431 Sorcerer, Wizard

sairon n. “wizard”

22.44 Elf, Nymph, Fairy

Elda n. “Elf”
Eldalie n. “People of the Elves, Elf-folk”
Eldarin adj. and n. “of the Elves, Elvish”
falmar(in) (falmarind-) n. “sea-spirit, nymph”
nauko n. “dwarf”
nindari n. “river-maid, nymph”
Qen (Qend-) n. “Elf”
Qende n. “Elf”
Qenderin adj. and n. “Quendian”
Qenya n. “Elvish (Tongue), Elfspeech, Elf-latin; belonging to the Qendi, Quendian”
tavaril n. “dryad, spirit of woods (f.)”
tavaron n. “dryad, spirit of woods (m.)”
wingil (wingild-) n. “nymph, mermaid, foam-maid”

22.441 Goblin, Monster

fealóke n. “spark-dragon”
hanako n. “giant”
lungu n. “dragon”
norsa [þ] n. “giant”
orko (orcu-) n. “goblin”
rámalóke n. “winged dragon”
ulundo n. “monster, deformed and hideous creature”
urulóke n. “fire-dragon”
úvanimo n. “monster”

23. Grammar

23.1 Article

article. “the”

23.2 Negation

al(a)- pref. “not, negative prefix”
ava- pref. “without”
il- pref. “no, not”
lá- v. “to not be”
lá¹ adv. “no, not”
lau(me) adv. “no, no indeed not, on the contrary”
-lóra suf. “without, less”
ú- pref. “not, un-, in-”
um- v. “to not be, to not do”

23.3 Preposition

enga prep. “save, *except”
pa prep. “about”
ten prep. “for”
tenna¹ prep. “until”
ter prep. “through”
ve prep. “with”
ye prep. “at”

23.4 Pronoun

a pron. “it, one, indefinite subject”
e pron. “he, she, it”
ella pron. “of you, for you”
etta pron. “his”
ette² pron. “he (emphatic)”
ha pron. “it, subjective abstract particle”
he pron. “they”
pron. “that”
intin pron. “they”
inye pron. “I (emphatic)”
ke pron. “you (sg)”
le¹ pron. “you (plural)”
me pron. “we, us”
ni pron. “I”
ninya pron. “my”
#ñwe pron. “*we (inclusive)”
-nye suf. “I”
nye pron. “me, I”
sa pron. “that”
sana adj. “that”
ta pron. “that, it”
tana pron. “that (anaphoric)”
te pron. “him, it”
the pron. “it”
toi pron. “they”
tye pron. “thee”
yana pron. “that (the former)”

23.5 Noun Inflection

-ie¹ suf. “abstract noun”
-le suf. “abstract noun”
-li suf. “plural (suffix)”
#-me suf. “abstract noun”
[ᴱQ.] -n suf. “genitive suffix”
-ndon suf. “like, as”
-o suf. “*genitive ending”
[ᴱQ.] -r¹ suf. “plural suffix”
-re suf. “gerund”
[ᴱQ.] -sse¹ suf. “locative ending”
#-sse² suf. “abstract noun”
-va suf. “adjectival”

23.6 Verb Inflection

á¹ particle. “imperative particle”
-(á)re suf. “general action verbal suffix”
-ie² suf. “gerund suffix”
-ie³ suf. “perfect suffix”
-ie⁴ suf. “stative suffix”
-ina suf. “adjective suffix; passive participle”
-lya suf. “imperfect participle”
-nde suf. “general action verbal suffix”
-nwa suf. “perfective participle”
#-sta² suf. “*noun suffix”
-ste n. “general action verbal suffix”
-ula suf. “verbal adjective (likelihood, aptitude)”
-umne suf. “past-future”
-(u)va suf. “future suffix”
-ya² suf. “aorist active participle, general verbal adjective”

23.7 Comparative, Intensive

an- pref. “intensive prefix”
lai adv. “very”
malka adj. “how great”
#-on suf. “great”
un-/um- pref. “intensive prefix with evil sense”

23.8 Conjunction

ananta conj. “but yet, and yet”
íqa conj. “when, whenever”
íre² conj. “when”
nan conj. and adv. “but, on the contrary, on the other hand; again”
san conj. and adv. “*then”

23.9 Affix

#-a suf. “adjectival suffix”
ana- pref. “to, towards”
-ma suf. “instrumental”
-nta suf. “to become or be made”
[ᴱQ.] -ta suf. “causative”
#-voite suf. “adjective suffix”
-we² suf. “abstract suffix”
[ᴱQ.] #-ya¹ suf. “adjective suffix”

23.99 Grammar (other)

ai adv. “supposing, suppose, maybe”
alla interj. “hail!”
mestanyatse n. “suffixion”
minqetyarme n. “accentuation”
mittande n. “infixion, insertion”
tengwesta n. “grammar; collection of writing”