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ᴹQ. yat² (yak-) n. “goat” (Category: Goat)

⚠️ᴹQ. yat² (yac-), n. “goat” (Category: Goat)
ᴺQ. !naico “goat”

The word ᴹQ. yat (yak-) “goat” appeared in the Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s (PE21/24).

Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s and Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, ᴱQ. yakko was “ox” (QL/105; PE16/132). In Common Eldarin: Noun Structure of the early 1950s, Tolkien gave the possibly-related primitive form ✶najak- for “goat”, with masculine and feminine variants ✶najakō “he-goat” and ✶naikē “she-goat” (PE21/82).

Neo-Quenya: Helge Fauskanger used ᴺQ. naico for (male?) “goat” in his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT) as a derivative of ✶najakō, and I would recommend this over ᴹQ. yat for this purpose. However, I’d recommend ᴺQ. nyéni for a female goat (adapted from ᴱQ. nyéni) since it (a) is more distinctive than *naice and (b) does not conflict with ᴹQ. naike “sharp pain”; Helge Fauskanger used nyéni in NQNT as well.

References ✧ PE21/19, 24




yakullo ablative   ✧ PE21/24
yatyo ablative; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yakullut ablative dual   ✧ PE21/24
yatyut ablative dual; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yakillon ablative plural   ✧ PE21/24
yatyon ablative plural; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yaka accusative   ✧ PE21/24
yahta allative; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yahtau allative dual; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yahtan allative plural; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yakintan allative plural   ✧ PE21/24
yaken dative   ✧ PE21/24
yako genitive   ✧ PE21/24
yakwen instrumental   ✧ PE21/24
yangwen instrumental   ✧ PE21/24
yaqen instrumental   ✧ PE21/24
yaqet instrumental dual   ✧ PE21/24
yakínen instrumental plural   ✧ PE21/24
yakse locative; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yakset locative dual; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yakissen locative plural   ✧ PE21/24
yaksen locative plural; assimilated   ✧ PE21/24
yat nominative   ✧ PE21/24
yakunt nominative dual   ✧ PE21/24
yakin nominative plural   ✧ PE21/24
yakíta partitive-plural   ✧ PE21/24
yatya possessive   ✧ PE21/24
yakinwa possessive plural   ✧ PE21/24
yakanon similative   ✧ PE21/24
yakson similative   ✧ PE21/24
yakundon similative   ✧ PE21/24
yakindon similative plural   ✧ PE21/24
yak- stem   ✧ PE21/19
yak- stem “goat” ✧ PE21/24

ᴱQ. yak(k)o n. “ox” (Category: Ox, Steer)

A noun for “ox” appearing in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with variants yakko and yako, derived from the early root ᴱ√Ẏak “a head of cattle” (QL/105). In the contemporaneous Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa Tolkien had yakk- “ox” (PME/105). In Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, the word for “ox” was also yakko (PE16/132).

References ✧ PE16/132; PME/105; QL/105





Phonetic Developments

ᴱ√Ẏak > yakko [ðʲakkō] > [ðʲakko] > [jakko] ✧ QL/105